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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431163/an-evaluation-of-the-human-relevance-of-the-lung-tumors-observed-in-female-mice-treated-with-permethrin-based-on-mode-of-action
#1
Tomoya Yamada, Miwa Kondo, Kaori Miyata, Keiko Ogata, Masahiko Kushida, Kayo Sumida, Satoshi Kawamura, Thomas G Osimitz, Brian G Lake, Samuel M Cohen
Permethrin increased the incidence of bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas in female mice but not male mice or female or male rats. Studies were conducted to determine whether permethrin has mitogenic activity in Club cells in mouse lung as the basis for the mode of action (MOA) for the lung adenoma induction. Several short term experiments focusing on time-course, dose-response, reversibility, sex difference, strain difference, and species difference were evaluated for Club cell proliferation and morphology. The findings demonstrated that permethrin slightly and continuously enhanced Club cell proliferation at tumor-associated dose levels in female mice, but did not increase proliferation in male mice or in female rats...
April 18, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430807/diagnosis-of-smear-negative-tuberculosis-is-greatly-improved-by-xpert-mtb-rif
#2
Giulia Lombardi, Valentina Di Gregori, Nicolò Girometti, Marina Tadolini, Francesco Bisognin, Paola Dal Monte
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of pulmonary (PTB) and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) in smear-negative patients can be difficult. We assessed retrospectively the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF system (Xpert, Cepheid) in diagnosing smear-negative tuberculosis (TB), which represents the most common form of TB in a low incidence setting. METHODS: Performance of Xpert was compared to acid-fast microscopic examination using Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stain in patients with culture-confirmed TB...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428990/nanoscale-adhesion-and-sliding-on-biased-semiconductors
#3
A Mukherjee, A D Craciun, J L Gallani, M V Rastei
We present experimental and theoretical results on controlling nanoscale sliding friction and adhesion by electric fields on model contacts realized by bringing a conductive atomic force microscope tip into contact with the surface of a silicon-oxide/silicon wafer. We find that applying a bias voltage on silicon (or on the conductive tip) enables a noticeable control of the sliding forces. Two electrostatic interactions are identified as being relevant for the friction variation as a function of applied voltage...
April 21, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428105/microcarcinoid-arising-in-patients-with-long-standing-ulcerative-colitis-histological-analysis
#4
Sachie Kanada, Akira Sugita, Tetuo Mikami, Kenichi Ohashi, Hiroyuki Hayashi
Some case reports of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) associated with ulcerative colitis (UC) have been published. Most NET cases are small lesions corresponding to microcarcinoids (MCs). However, published case reports have presented findings of MCs as single-case reports. Thus, the frequency of MCs is still unclear. In this study, we described the clinical and morphological features of 14 cases of UC-associated MC and estimated the frequency of MC. Consecutive patients with UC who underwent complete removal of the large intestine were assessed, and 135 patients were selected...
April 17, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427981/ultrastructure-of-pericystic-or-intracystic-blood-vessels-in-epidermoid-cysts-a-transmission-electron-microscopy-study-laboratory-investigation
#5
Xiao-Hui Ren, Jun Ma, Chun Zeng, Yi-Lin Sun, Song Lin
OBJECTIVES: Recently, we reported the tendency towards the spontaneous hemorrhage in both pre- and post-operative periods of patients with intracranial epidermoid cyst (EC). According to our experience this tendency of spontaneous hemorrhage was partly due to the pathologic blood vessels adjacent to the EC. This article was designed to testify this hypothesis. MATERIALS & METHODS: 23 removable pericystic or intracystic blood vessels from 17 EC patients were collected during surgery, and then were examined by transmission electron microscope...
April 17, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427949/parasitism-finds-many-solutions-to-the-same-problems-in-red-algae-florideophyceae-rhodophyta
#6
Jillian M Freese, Christopher E Lane
Parasitic red algae evolve from a common ancestor with their hosts, parasitizing cousins using familiar cellular mechanisms. They have independently evolved over one hundred times within the exclusively multicellular red algal class Florideophyceae. Reduced morphology, a lack of pigmentation, and direct cell-cell connections with their hosts are markers of red algal parasitism. With so many potential evolutionary pathways, red algal parasite diversity offers a unique test case to understand the earliest stages of this lifestyle transition...
April 17, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426977/blue-violet-laser-inactivates-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-by-altering-its-transmembrane-potential
#7
Gabriel Biener, Daniela S Masson-Meyers, Violet V Bumah, Grant Hussey, Michael R Stoneman, Chukuka S Enwemeka, Valerica Raicu
The resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to antibiotics presents serious clinical problems that prompted the need for finding alternative or combination therapies. One such therapy is irradiation with blue light. To determine the alterations in metabolic processes implicated in the observed antimicrobial effects of blue light, we investigated the changes in membrane potential and the presence of free-radical-producing photo-acceptor molecules. Bacterial cultures irradiated with one or two doses of 405nm laser light (each consisting of 121J/cm(2)) were imaged with spectrally resolved laser-scanning microscopes to detect endogenous fluorescent species as well as the voltage sensitive dye 3,3'-Diethyloxacarbocyanine iodide...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426441/diagnosis-of-corneal-limbal-stem-cell-deficiency
#8
Kyeong Hwan Kim, Shahzad I Mian
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A state of limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) can be secondary to a number of etiologies, resulting in either a reduction in the total number of limbal stem cells or an abnormality in stem cell function. Initially, the epithelium becomes irregular and hazy; however, this condition may progress to persistent corneal epithelial defects, stromal scarring, ulceration, and even perforation. Since LSCD secondary to a variety of etiologies may be reversible, and various factors are prognostic of disease progression, timely diagnosis is important...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422957/towards-a-theory-of-cortical-columns-from-spiking-neurons-to-interacting-neural-populations-of-finite-size
#9
Tilo Schwalger, Moritz Deger, Wulfram Gerstner
Neural population equations such as neural mass or field models are widely used to study brain activity on a large scale. However, the relation of these models to the properties of single neurons is unclear. Here we derive an equation for several interacting populations at the mesoscopic scale starting from a microscopic model of randomly connected generalized integrate-and-fire neuron models. Each population consists of 50-2000 neurons of the same type but different populations account for different neuron types...
April 19, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420724/a-zebrafish-model-discovers-a-novel-mechanism-of-stromal-fibroblast-mediated-cancer-metastasis
#10
Cai Feng Liu, Yunjian Zhang, Sharon Lim, Kayoko Hosaka, Yunlong Yang, Tatiana Pavlova, Twana Alkasalias, Johan Hartman, Lasse Jensen, Xiao-Ming Xing, Xingsheng Wang, Yong-Tian Lu, Guo Hui Nie, Yihai Cao
Purpose: Cancer metastasis can occur at the early stage of tumor development when a primary tumor at the microscopic size. In particular, the interaction of malignant cells with other cell types including cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in promoting metastasis at the early stage of tumor development remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of CAFs in facilitating the initial events of cancer metastasis when primary tumors were at microscopic sizes.  <p>Experimental design: Multi-color-coded cancer cells and CAFs were co-implanted into the transparent zebrafish body and metastasis at a single cell level was monitored in living animals...
April 18, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418451/cost-effectiveness-of-common-diagnostic-approaches-for-evaluation-of-asymptomatic-microscopic-hematuria
#11
Joshua A Halpern, Bilal Chughtai, Hassan Ghomrawi
Importance: Asymptomatic microscopic hematuria (AMH) is highly prevalent and may signal occult genitourinary (GU) malignant abnormality. Common diagnostic approaches differ in their costs and effectiveness in detecting cancer. Given the low prevalence of GU malignant abnormality among patients with AMH, it is important to quantify the cost implications of detecting cancer for each approach. Objective: To estimate the effectiveness, costs, and incremental cost per cancer detected (ICCD) for 4 common diagnostic approaches evaluating AMH...
April 17, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417322/are-midge-swarms-bound-together-by-an-effective-velocity-dependent-gravity
#12
Andrew M Reynolds, Michael Sinhuber, Nicholas T Ouellette
Midge swarms are a canonical example of collective animal behaviour where local interactions do not clearly play a major role and yet the animals display group-level cohesion. The midges appear somewhat paradoxically to be tightly bound to the swarm whilst at the same time weakly coupled inside it. The microscopic origins of this behaviour have remained elusive. Models based on Newtonian gravity do, however, agree well with experimental observations of laboratory swarms. They are biologically plausible since gravitational interactions have similitude with long-range acoustic and visual interactions, and they correctly predict that individual attraction to the swarm centre increases linearly with distance from the swarm centre...
April 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416648/isoflurane-modulates-activation-and-inactivation-gating-of-the-prokaryotic-na-channel-nachbac
#13
Rheanna M Sand, Kevin J Gingrich, Tamar Macharadze, Karl F Herold, Hugh C Hemmings
Voltage-gated Na(+) channels (Nav) have emerged as important presynaptic targets for volatile anesthetic (VA) effects on synaptic transmission. However, the detailed biophysical mechanisms by which VAs modulate Nav function remain unclear. VAs alter macroscopic activation and inactivation of the prokaryotic Na(+) channel, NaChBac, which provides a useful structural and functional model of mammalian Nav Here, we study the effects of the common general anesthetic isoflurane on NaChBac function by analyzing macroscopic Na(+) currents (INa) in wild-type (WT) channels and mutants with impaired (G229A) or enhanced (G219A) inactivation...
April 17, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415542/bladder-smooth-muscle-cells-on-electrospun-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-poly-l-lactic-acid-scaffold-promote-bladder-regeneration-in-a-canine-model
#14
Nasser Shakhssalim, Masoud Soleimani, Mohammad M Dehghan, Javad Rasouli, Masoud Taghizadeh-Jahed, Peyman M Torbati, Mohammad Naji
Engineering of urinary bladder has been the focus of numerous studies in recent decade. Novel biomaterials, innovative fabrication methods and various modification processes of scaffolds are the critical issues to find supportive matrices. Supportive characteristics of electrospun PCL/PLLA nano-scaffold for bladder augmentation in canine model and the role of bladder cells in regeneration process were appraised. Electrospun PCL/PLLA was fabricated by co-electrospinning of PCL and PLLA. Bladder cells were isolated and transduced with lentiviral particles encoding eGFP and JRed proteins...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415295/emergence-of-l%C3%A3-vy-walks-in-systems-of-interacting-individuals
#15
Sergei Fedotov, Nickolay Korabel
We propose a model of superdiffusive Lévy walk as an emergent nonlinear phenomenon in systems of interacting individuals. The aim is to provide a qualitative explanation of recent experiments [G. Ariel et al., Nat. Commun. 6, 8396 (2015)2041-172310.1038/ncomms9396] revealing an intriguing behavior: swarming bacteria fundamentally change their collective motion from simple diffusion into a superdiffusive Lévy walk dynamics. We introduce microscopic mean-field kinetic equations in which we combine two key ingredients: (1) alignment interactions between individuals and (2) non-Markovian effects...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415287/effect-of-interstitial-fluid-on-the-fraction-of-flow-microstates-that-precede-clogging-in-granular-hoppers
#16
Juha Koivisto, Douglas J Durian
We report on the nature of flow events for the gravity-driven discharge of glass beads through a hole that is small enough that the hopper is susceptible to clogging. In particular, we measure the average and standard deviation of the distribution of discharged masses as a function of both hole and grain sizes. We do so in air, which is usual, but also with the system entirely submerged under water. This damps the grain dynamics and could be expected to dramatically affect the distribution of the flow events, which are described in prior work as avalanche-like...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415271/mean-cluster-approach-indicates-cell-sorting-time-scales-are-determined-by-collective-dynamics
#17
Carine P Beatrici, Rita M C de Almeida, Leonardo G Brunnet
Cell migration is essential to cell segregation, playing a central role in tissue formation, wound healing, and tumor evolution. Considering random mixtures of two cell types, it is still not clear which cell characteristics define clustering time scales. The mass of diffusing clusters merging with one another is expected to grow as t^{d/d+2} when the diffusion constant scales with the inverse of the cluster mass. Cell segregation experiments deviate from that behavior. Explanations for that could arise from specific microscopic mechanisms or from collective effects, typical of active matter...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415228/development-and-regression-of-a-large-fluctuation
#18
Federico Corberi
We study the evolution leading to (or regressing from) a large fluctuation in a statistical mechanical system. We introduce and study analytically a simple model of many identically and independently distributed microscopic variables n_{m} (m=1,M) evolving by means of a master equation. We show that the process producing a nontypical fluctuation with a value of N=∑_{m=1}^{M}n_{m} well above the average 〈N〉 is slow. Such process is characterized by the power-law growth of the largest possible observable value of N at a given time t...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414959/the-visualization-of-the-surgical-field-in-tubular-assisted-spine-surgery-is-there-a-difference-between-hd-endoscopy-and-microscopy
#19
Benedikt W Burkhardt, M Wilmes, Salman Sharif, Joachim M Oertel
OBJECTIVE: Expert spinal surgeons criticized endoscopic procedures for poor image quality, in comparison to microscopic visualization. The recent introduction of high definition (HD) digital cameras has shown good results in spinal endoscopy. The aim of this study was to assess endoscopic HD image quality in comparison with microscopic visualization. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All posterior lumbar and cervical spinal surgeries of this study were performed with the EasyGO-system in HD resolution...
April 11, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413390/a-serous-cystic-neoplasm-of-the-pancreas-coexisting-with-high-grade-pancreatic-intraepithelial-neoplasia-mimicking-an-intraepithelial-papillary-mucinous-neoplasm-a-case-report
#20
Aya Kawanishi, Kenichi Hirabayashi, Hirotaka Kono, Yumi Takanashi, Atsuko Hadano, Yohei Kawashima, Masami Ogawa, Yoshiaki Kawaguchi, Misuzu Yamada, Toshio Nakagohri, Naoya Nakamura, Tetsuya Mine
Serous cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are rare exocrine pancreatic neoplasms, most of which are benign and do not communicate with the pancreatic duct. Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasm (PanIN) is considered a precursor of ductal adenocarcinoma that is microscopically recognized in pancreatic ducts. A 67-year-old Japanese woman presented with a 10-mm multilocular cystic lesion at the pancreatic body. Magnetic resonance pancreatography showed stenosis of the main pancreatic duct at the pancreatic body and dilatation of the distal side of the main pancreatic duct...
January 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
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