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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198067/verbal-spatial-iq-discrepancies-impact-brain-activation-associated-with-the-resolution-of-cognitive-conflict-in-children-and-adolescents
#1
Amy E Margolis, Katie S Davis, Lisa S Pao, Amy Lewis, Xiao Yang, Gregory Tau, Guihu Zhao, Zhishun Wang, Rachel Marsh
Verbal-spatial discrepancies are common in healthy individuals and in those with neurodevelopmental disorders associated with cognitive control deficits including: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Non-Verbal Learning Disability, Fragile X, 22q11 deletion, and Turner Syndrome. Previous data from healthy individuals suggest that the magnitude of the difference between verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) scores (the VIQ>PIQ discrepancy) is associated with reduced thickness in frontal and parietal cortices (inferior frontal, anterior cingulate, inferior parietal lobule, and supramarginal gyrus) that support cognitive control...
February 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180930/life-course-persistent-and-adolescence-limited-conduct-disorder-in-a-nationally-representative-us-sample-prevalence-predictors-and-outcomes
#2
Ashlee A Moore, Judy L Silberg, Roxann Roberson-Nay, Briana Mezuk
PURPOSE: The course of conduct disorder (CD) is heterogeneous. Moffitt proposed the heuristic of life course persistent (LCP) and adolescence limited (AL) to differentiate etiologically distinct forms of antisocial behavior (AB), each with distinct predictors and consequences, although a few studies have assessed this demarcation within the context of CD. The objective of this study was to apply Moffitt's taxonomy in a nationally representative US sample to investigate the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of LCP and AL CD...
February 8, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161297/signaling-of-noncomprehension-in-communication-breakdowns-in-fragile-x-syndrome-down-syndrome-and-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Gary E Martin, Jamie Barstein, Jane Hornickel, Sara Matherly, Genna Durante, Molly Losh
: The ability to indicate a failure to understand a message is a critical pragmatic (social) language skill for managing communication breakdowns and supporting successful communicative exchanges. The current study examined the ability to signal noncomprehension across different types of confusing message conditions in children and adolescents with fragile X syndrome (FXS), Down syndrome (DS), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and typical development (TD). Controlling for nonverbal mental age and receptive vocabulary skills, youth with comorbid FXS and ASD and those with DS were less likely than TD controls to signal noncomprehension of confusing messages...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152062/binge-drinking-during-adolescence-and-young-adulthood-is-associated-with-deficits-in-verbal-episodic-memory
#4
Carina Carbia, Fernando Cadaveira, Francisco Caamaño-Isorna, Socorro Rodríguez-Holguín, Montse Corral
Binge drinking (BD), a harmful pattern of alcohol consumption, is common during adolescence. Young adults with alcohol use disorders exhibit hippocampal alterations and episodic memory deficits. However, it is not known how these difficulties progress in community BD adolescents. Our objective was to analyze the relationship between BD trajectory and verbal episodic memory during the developmental period spanning from adolescence and to early adulthood. An initial sample of 155 male and female first-year university students with no other risk factors were followed over six years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143960/targeted-reactivation-during-sleep-differentially-affects-negative-memories-in-socially-anxious-and-healthy-children-and-adolescents
#5
S Groch, A Preiss, D McMakin, B Rasch, S Walitza, R Huber, I Wilhelm
: Cognitive models propose a negative memory bias as one key factor contributing to the emergence and maintenance of social anxiety disorder (SAD). The long-term consolidation of memories relies on memory reactivations during sleep. We investigated in SAD patients and healthy controls the role of memory reactivations during sleep in the long-term consolidation of positive and negative information. Socially anxious and healthy children and adolescents learnt associations between pictures showing ambiguous situations and positive or negative words defining the situations' outcome...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122770/factor-structure-of-impact%C3%A2-in-adolescent-student-athletes
#6
Paul B Gerrard, Grant L Iverson, Joseph E Atkins, Bruce A Maxwell, Ross Zafonte, Philip Schatz, Paul D Berkner
OBJECTIVE: ImPACT(®) (Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing) is a computerized neuropsychological screening battery, which is widely used to measure the acute effects of sport-related concussion and to monitor recovery from injury. This study examined the factor structure of ImPACT(®) in several samples of high school student athletes. We hypothesized that a 2-factor structure would be present in all samples. METHOD: A sample of 4,809 adolescent student athletes was included, and subgroups with a history of treatment for headaches or a self-reported history of learning problems or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were analyzed separately...
February 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119872/comparison-of-the-behavioral-effects-of-exercise-and-high-fat-diet-on-cognitive-function-in-adolescent-rats
#7
Jae-Min Lee, Jong-Min Park, Min Kyung Song, Yoon Ju Kim, Youn-Jung Kim
Adolescence is a critical period for neurodevelopment, neuronal plasticity, and cognitive function. Experiences of adolescence can be exerted positive and negative effects on brain development. Physical exercise has a positive effect on brain function, which is characterized by improving memory function and increased neural plasticity. High fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity has a negative effect on brain function, which is characterized by insulin resistance and neuroinflammation and reduced microvessel constructure...
December 2016: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109735/implementation-and-evaluation-of-two-educational-strategies-to-improve-screening-for-eating-disorders-in-pediatric-primary-care
#8
Holly C Gooding, Elizabeth Cheever, Sara F Forman, Jonathan Hatoun, Farah Jooma, Currie Touloumtzis, Louis Vernacchio
PURPOSE: Routine screening for disordered eating or body image concerns is recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics. We evaluated the ability of two educational interventions to increase screening for eating disorders in pediatric primary care practice, predicting that the "active-learning" group would have an increase in documented screening after intervention. METHODS: We studied 303 practitioners in a large independent practice association located in the northeastern United States...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076596/prevalence-of-inter-hemispheric-asymetry-in-children-and-adolescents-with-interdisciplinary-diagnosis-of-non-verbal-learning-disorder
#9
Alessandra Bernardes Caturani Wajnsztejn, Bianca Bianco, Caio Parente Barbosa
Objective: To describe clinical and epidemiological features of children and adolescents with interdisciplinary diagnosis of non-verbal learning disorder and to investigate the prevalence of inter-hemispheric asymmetry in this population group. Methods: Cross-sectional study including children and adolescents referred for interdisciplinary assessment with learning difficulty complaints, who were given an interdisciplinary diagnosis of non-verbal learning disorder...
October 2016: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053283/co-morbidity-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-clinical-study-from-india
#10
P Jacob, S Srinath, S Girimaji, S Seshadri, J V Sagar
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric co-morbidities in children and adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder at a tertiary care child and adolescent psychiatry centre. METHODS: A total of 63 children and adolescents who were diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and fulfilled the inclusion criteria were comprehensively assessed for neurodevelopmental and psychiatric co-morbidities...
December 2016: East Asian Archives of Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983596/estrogenic-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-influencing-nrf1-regulated-gene-networks-in-the-development-of-complex-human-brain-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Mark Preciados, Changwon Yoo, Deodutta Roy
During the development of an individual from a single cell to prenatal stages to adolescence to adulthood and through the complete life span, humans are exposed to countless environmental and stochastic factors, including estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals. Brain cells and neural circuits are likely to be influenced by estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EEDs) because they strongly dependent on estrogens. In this review, we discuss both environmental, epidemiological, and experimental evidence on brain health with exposure to oral contraceptives, hormonal therapy, and EEDs such as bisphenol-A (BPA), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), phthalates, and metalloestrogens, such as, arsenic, cadmium, and manganese...
December 13, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921139/reduced-inattention-and-hyperactivity-and-improved-cognition-after-marine-oil-extract-pcso-524%C3%A2-supplementation-in-children-and-adolescents-with-clinical-and-subclinical-symptoms-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo
#12
James D Kean, Jerome Sarris, Andrew Scholey, Richard Silberstein, Luke A Downey, Con Stough
INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the effects of a marine oil extract (PCSO-524®) on inattention, hyperactivity, mood and cognition in children and adolescents. PCSO-524® is a standardised lipid extract of the New Zealand green-lipped mussel and is an inflammatory modulator that inhibits the 5'-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways and decreases concentrations of the pro-inflammatory arachidonic acid (AA). METHODS: PCSO-524® or a matched placebo was administered for 14 weeks to 144 participants (123 males/21 females; mean age 8...
February 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919700/exposure-to-sevoflurane-anesthesia-during-development-does-not-impair-aspects-of-attention-during-adulthood-in-rats
#13
Kathy L Murphy, Jill McGaughy, Paula L Croxson, Mark G Baxter
Exposure to general anesthetic agents during development has been associated with neurotoxicity and long-term behavioral impairments in rodents and non-human primates. The phenotype of anesthetic-induced cognitive impairment has a robust learning and memory component, however less is known about other psychological domains. Data from retrospective human patient studies suggest that children undergoing multiple procedures requiring general anesthesia are at increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder...
December 2, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890827/adolescent-gbr12909-exposure-induces-oxidative-stress-disrupts-parvalbumin-positive-interneurons-and-leads-to-hyperactivity-and-impulsivity-in-adult-mice
#14
Asma Khan, Loek A W de Jong, Mary E Kamenski, Kerin K Higa, Jacinta D Lucero, Jared W Young, M Margarita Behrens, Susan B Powell
The adolescent period in mammals is a critical period of brain maturation and thus represents a time of susceptibility to environmental insult, e.g. psychosocial stress and/or drugs of abuse, which may cause lasting impairments in brain function and behavior and even precipitate symptoms in at-risk individuals. One likely effect of these environmental insults is to increase oxidative stress in the developing adolescent brain. Indeed, there is increasing evidence that redox dysregulation plays an important role in the development of schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders and that GABA interneurons are particularly susceptible to alterations in oxidative stress...
November 24, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888073/early-life-inflammation-with-lps-delays-fear-extinction-in-adult-rodents
#15
V M Doenni, C M Song, M N Hill, Q J Pittman
A large body of evidence has been brought forward connecting developmental immune activation to abnormal fear and anxiety levels. Anxiety disorders have extremely high lifetime prevalence, yet susceptibility factors that contribute to their emergence are poorly understood. In this research we investigated whether an inflammatory insult early in life can alter the response to fear conditioning in adulthood. Fear learning and extinction are important and adaptive behaviors, mediated largely by the amygdala and its interconnectivity with cortico-limbic circuits...
November 22, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857886/effects-of-outcome-on-the-covariance-between-risk-level-and-brain-activity-in-adolescents-with-internet-gaming-disorder
#16
Xin Qi, Yongxin Yang, Shouping Dai, Peihong Gao, Xin Du, Yang Zhang, Guijin Du, Xiaodong Li, Quan Zhang
Individuals with internet gaming disorder (IGD) often have impaired risky decision-making abilities, and IGD-related functional changes have been observed during neuroimaging studies of decision-making tasks. However, it is still unclear how feedback (outcomes of decision-making) affects the subsequent risky decision-making in individuals with IGD. In this study, twenty-four adolescents with IGD and 24 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing the balloon analog risk task (BART) to evaluate the effects of prior outcomes on brain activity during subsequent risky decision-making in adolescents with IGD...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847227/neuropsychological-characteristics-of-child-and-adolescent-offspring-of-patients-with-schizophrenia-or-bipolar-disorder
#17
Elena de la Serna, Gisela Sugranyes, Vanessa Sanchez-Gistau, Elisa Rodriguez-Toscano, Immaculada Baeza, Montserrat Vila, Soledad Romero, Teresa Sanchez-Gutierrez, Mª José Penzol, Dolores Moreno, Josefina Castro-Fornieles
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) are considered neurobiological disorders which share some clinical, cognitive and neuroimaging characteristics. Studying child and adolescent offspring of patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BDoff) or schizophrenia (SZoff) is regarded as a reliable method for investigating early alterations and vulnerability factors for these disorders. This study compares the neuropsychological characteristics of SZoff, BDoff and a community control offspring group (CC) with the aim of examining shared and differential cognitive characteristics among groups...
November 12, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835751/traffic-related-air-pollution-and-hyperactivity-inattention-dyslexia-and-dyscalculia-in-adolescents-of-the-german-giniplus-and-lisaplus-birth-cohorts
#18
Elaine Fuertes, Marie Standl, Joan Forns, Dietrich Berdel, Judith Garcia-Aymerich, Iana Markevych, Gerd Schulte-Koerne, Dorothea Sugiri, Tamara Schikowski, Carla M T Tiesler, Joachim Heinrich
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the link between air pollution exposure and behavioural problems and learning disorders during late childhood and adolescence. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether traffic-related air pollution exposure is associated with hyperactivity/inattention, dyslexia and dyscalculia up to age 15years using the German GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts (recruitment 1995-1999). METHODS: Hyperactivity/inattention was assessed using the German parent-completed (10years) and self-completed (15years) Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire...
December 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815662/knowledge-and-self-esteem-of-individuals-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1-nf1
#19
Kayla Rosnau, S Shahrukh Hashmi, Hope Northrup, John Slopis, Sarah Noblin, Myla Ashfaq
Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is a progressive genetic disorder characterized by physical findings such as café-au-lait macules, Lisch nodules, and neurofibromas in addition to other medical complications. Learning and social problems are more prevalent among individuals affected with NF1. It has been reported that people with NF1 have lower self-esteem (SE) when compared to the general population. Additionally, a study published over 20 years ago found that overall knowledge of NF1 was lacking in individuals affected with the condition...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806864/reward-based-spatial-learning-in-teens-with-bulimia-nervosa
#20
Marilyn Cyr, Zhishun Wang, Gregory Z Tau, Guihu Zhao, Eve Friedl, Mihaela Stefan, Kate Terranova, Rachel Marsh
OBJECTIVE: To assess the functioning of mesolimbic and fronto-striatal areas involved in reward-based spatial learning in teenaged girls with bulimia nervosa (BN) that might be involved in the development and maintenance of maladaptive behaviors characteristic of the disorder. METHOD: We compared functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygen level-dependent response in 27 adolescent girls with BN to that of 27 healthy, age-matched control participants during a reward-based learning task that required learning to use extra-maze cues to navigate a virtual 8-arm radial maze to find hidden rewards...
November 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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