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adolescent learning disorder

Deborah Moncrieff, Elizabeth Miller, Earl Hill
Purpose: The study investigated the prevalence of risk factors for auditory processing and language disorders among adolescents residing at a local juvenile detention center. Method: A total of 782 adjudicated adolescents with normal hearing were screened with the Randomized Dichotic Digits Test (Strouse & Wilson, 1999) and the Dichotic Words Test (Moncrieff, 2015). A subset of 420 of those adolescents was also screened with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF; Semel, Wiig, & Secord, 2003)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
P S Huguelet, G ChelvaKumar, L Conner, T Dumont, N Fleming, M Abraham, N W Karjane, J Sheeder, H J Talib, K Teelin, C Wheeler, P Kaul
BACKGROUND: Resident education in Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology (PAG) is challenging. It encompasses patients from neonates to young adults with different disorders involving multiple subspecialties. Residents have inadequate exposure to PAG topics and report lack of knowledge in this area. OBJECTIVE: To determine if the North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology (NASPAG) Short Curriculum improves self-reported knowledge in PAG among Obstetrics and Gynecology (ObGyn), Family Medicine and Pediatric residents...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Libor Uttl, Tomas Petrasek, Hilal Sengul, Marketa Svojanovska, Veronika Lobellova, Karel Vales, Dominika Radostova, Grygoriy Tsenov, Hana Kubova, Anna Mikulecka, Jan Svoboda, Ales Stuchlik
The role of NMDA receptors in learning, memory and hippocampal function has long been recognized. Post-mortem studies have indicated that the expression or subunit composition of the NMDA glutamate receptor subtype might be related to the impaired cognitive functions found in schizophrenia patients. NMDA receptor antagonists have been used to develop animal models of this disorder. There is accumulating evidence showing that not only the acute but also the chronic application of NMDA receptor antagonists may induce schizophrenia-like alterations in behavior and brain functions...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Sara R Westbrook, Emily R Hankosky, Megan R Dwyer, Joshua M Gulley
Compared with adults, adolescent behavior is often characterized by reduced behavioral flexibility, increased sensitivity to reward, and increased likelihood to take risks. These traits, which have been hypothesized to confer heightened vulnerability to psychopathologies such as substance use disorders (SUDs), have been the focus of studies in laboratory animal models that seek to understand their neural underpinnings. However, rodent studies to date have typically used only males and have adopted standard methodological practices (e...
February 26, 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
Albert Castellheim, Sebastian Lundström, Mattias Molin, Ralf Kuja-Halkola, Carina Gillberg, Christopher Gillberg
BACKGROUND: The role of general anesthetics as a risk factor for possible neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) in humans is unresolved. The investigation of the role of anesthetics in the development of postgeneral anesthesia (anesthesia onward) NDDs has proven to be complicated, partly because of the inherent confounding in clinical cohort studies, and partly by the fact that anesthetics are only one part in the complex process of anesthesia-surgery. METHODS: Utilizing the Swedish databases Child and Adolescent Twins Study in Sweden (CATSS) and National Patient Register (NPR), we investigated twins discordant for anesthesia, born between 1997 and 2004 for traits of NDDs...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Maarten De Meulenaere, Jan De Meulenaere, Neera Ghaziuddin, Pascal Sienaert
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to ascertain the experience, knowledge, and attitudes of child and adolescent psychiatrists toward the use of ECT (electroconvulsive therapy) in children and adolescents in Belgium. METHODS: A questionnaire was mailed to all the members of the Flemish and Walloon Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists. RESULTS: Thirty-five percent (n = 151) of the psychiatrists responded to the questionnaire...
February 20, 2018: Journal of ECT
Cheng Guo, Göran Tomson, Christina Keller, Fredrik Söderqvist
BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the prevalence of positive mental health and its correlates are still scarce compared to the studies on mental disorders, although there is growing interest of assessing positive mental health in adolescents. So far, no other study examining the prevalence and determinants of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents has been found. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents...
February 17, 2018: BMC Public Health
Zhe Ji, Lin Yuan, Xiong Lu, Hanqing Ding, Jia Luo, Zun-Ji Ke
Heavy alcohol exposure causes profound damage to the adolescent brain, particularly the hippocampus, which underlie some behavioral deficits. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain inconclusive. The current study sought to determine whether binge alcohol exposure affects the hippocampus-related behaviors and key signaling proteins that may mediate alcohol neurotoxicity in adolescent rats. Alcohol exposure reduced the number of both NeuN-positive and doublecortin-positive cells in the hippocampus...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Saghafi Ellie, Mejersjö Christina
OBJECTIVE: Adolescent girls frequently suffer from temporomandibular disorder (TMD) symptoms and associated headache. A program aimed at informing about risk behavior for TMD symptoms, how to influence harmful habits and about general relaxation was tested. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty girls at two high schools, 16 years of age, with or without symptoms, were invited to the health information on two occasions and 60 girls participated. Firstly, a questionnaire regarding symptoms and oral parafunctional habits was administrated...
February 15, 2018: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
Julio David Vega-Torres, Elizabeth Haddad, Jeong Bin Lee, Priya Kalyan-Masih, Wanda I Maldonado George, Leonardo López Pérez, Darla M Piñero Vázquez, Yaría Arroyo Torres, José M Santiago Santana, Andre Obenaus, Johnny D Figueroa
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and obesity are highly prevalent in adolescents. Emerging findings from our laboratory and others are consistent with the novel hypothesis that obese individuals may be predisposed to developing PTSD. Given that aberrant fear responses are pivotal in the pathogenesis of PTSD, the objective of this study was to determine the impact of an obesogenic Western-like high-fat diet (WD) on neural substrates associated with fear. METHODS: Adolescent Lewis rats (n = 72) were fed with either the experimental WD (41...
February 8, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Nicole Landi, Jeffrey G Malins, Stephen J Frost, James Magnuson, Peter Molfese, Kayleigh Ryherd, Jay G Rueckl, William E Mencl, Kenneth R Pugh
Word learning depends not only on efficient online binding of phonological, orthographic and lexical information, but also on consolidation of new word representations into permanent lexical memory. Work on word learning under a variety of contexts indicates that reading and language skill impact facility of word learning in both print and speech. In addition, recent research finds that individuals with language impairments show deficits in both initial word form learning and in maintaining newly learned representations over time, implicating mechanisms associated with maintenance that may be driven by deficits in overnight consolidation...
January 20, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Dag Alnæs, Tobias Kaufmann, Nhat Trung Doan, Aldo Córdova-Palomera, Yunpeng Wang, Francesco Bettella, Torgeir Moberget, Ole A Andreassen, Lars T Westlye
Importance: Many mental disorders emerge during adolescence, which may reflect a cost of the potential for brain plasticity offered during this period. Brain dysconnectivity has been proposed as a common factor across diagnostic categories. Objective: To investigate the hypothesis that brain dysconnectivity is a transdiagnostic phenotype in adolescence with increased susceptibility and symptoms of psychiatric disease. Design, Setting, and Participants: We investigated clinical symptoms as well as cognitive function in 6487 individuals aged 8 to 21 years from November 1, 2009, to November 30, 2011, in the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort and analyzed diffusion magnetic resonance imaging brain scans for 748 of the participants...
January 24, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Julia Gottwald, Sanne de Wit, Annemieke M Apergis-Schoute, Sharon Morein-Zamir, Muzaffer Kaser, Francesca Cormack, Akeem Sule, Winifred Limmer, Anna Conway Morris, Trevor W Robbins, Barbara J Sahakian
BACKGROUND: Youths with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) experience severe distress and impaired functioning at school and at home. Critical cognitive domains for daily functioning and academic success are learning, memory, cognitive flexibility and goal-directed behavioural control. Performance in these important domains among teenagers with OCD was therefore investigated in this study. METHODS: A total of 36 youths with OCD and 36 healthy comparison subjects completed two memory tasks: Pattern Recognition Memory (PRM) and Paired Associates Learning (PAL); as well as the Intra-Extra Dimensional Set Shift (IED) task to quantitatively gauge learning as well as cognitive flexibility...
January 22, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Alexandre A Lussier, Alexander M Morin, Julia L MacIsaac, Jenny Salmon, Joanne Weinberg, James N Reynolds, Paul Pavlidis, Albert E Chudley, Michael S Kobor
Background: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a developmental disorder that manifests through a range of cognitive, adaptive, physiological, and neurobiological deficits resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure. Although the North American prevalence is currently estimated at 2-5%, FASD has proven difficult to identify in the absence of the overt physical features characteristic of fetal alcohol syndrome. As interventions may have the greatest impact at an early age, accurate biomarkers are needed to identify children at risk for FASD...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
Brian L Brooks, Noah Silverberg, Bruce Maxwell, Rebekah Mannix, Ross Zafonte, Paul D Berkner, Grant L Iverson
BACKGROUND: There has been increasing concern regarding the possible effect of multiple concussions on the developing brain, especially for adolescent females. Hypothesis/Purpose: The objectives were to determine if there are differences in cognitive functioning, symptom reporting, and/or sex effects from prior concussions. In a very large sample of youth soccer players, it was hypothesized that (1) there would be no differences in cognitive test performance between those with and without prior concussions, (2) baseline preseason symptoms would be better predicted by noninjury factors than concussion history, and (3) males and females with prior concussions would not have differences in cognition or symptoms...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Marilyn Cyr, Xiao Yang, Guillermo Horga, Rachel Marsh
This study aimed to determine whether functional disturbances in fronto-striatal control circuits characterize adolescents with Bulimia Nervosa (BN) spectrum eating disorders regardless of clinical severity. FMRI was used to assess conflict-related brain activations during performance of a Simon task in two samples of adolescents with BN symptoms compared with healthy adolescents. The BN samples differed in the severity of their clinical presentation, illness duration and age. Multi-voxel pattern analyses (MVPAs) based on machine learning were used to determine whether patterns of fronto-striatal activation characterized adolescents with BN spectrum disorders regardless of clinical severity, and whether accurate classification of less symptomatic adolescents (subthreshold BN; SBN) could be achieved based on patterns of activation in adolescents who met DSM5 criteria for BN...
January 10, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
S Madhavadas, S Subramanian, B M Kutty
Exposure to enriched environment (EE) is known to promote sensory, cognitive, and motor stimulation with intensified levels of novelty and complexity. In this study, we investigated the positive regulatory effect of short-term exposure to EE on establishing functional recovery in monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obese rats. Unless treated, MSG rats exhibited peripheral insulin resistance, cognitive deficits, and a reduction in the total hippocampal volume with decreased neuron count in the DG, CA3, and CA1 subfields...
December 1, 2017: Physiology International
Nora L Nock, Sonia Minnes, Jay L Alberts
Substance use (e.g., alcohol, marijuana, opioids, cocaine., etc,) use often initiates during adolescence, a critical period of physiological and social development marked by an increase in risk-taking due, in part, to heightened motivation to obtain arousal from rewards. Substance use during adolescence has been associated with a greater risk of substance use disorders (SUD) in adulthood. Although use rates for most substances have remained relatively stable, the frequency of marijuana use and the perception that regular marijuana use is not harmful has increased in adolescents...
December 1, 2017: Birth defects research
Caroline Mårland, Paul Lichtenstein, Alessio Degl'Innocenti, Tomas Larson, Maria Råstam, Henrik Anckarsäter, Christopher Gillberg, Thomas Nilsson, Sebastian Lundström
BACKGROUND: Reliable and easy to administer screening instruments focusing on neurodevelopmental disorders and associated conditions are scarce. The Autism-Tics, AD/HD and other Comorbidities inventory (A-TAC) has previously been validated and reporting good- excellent validity for several disorders. This article aims to expand these findings by including more conditions in a substantially larger sample augmented with the Swedish National Patient Register (NPR). METHODS: Since 2004 parents of all 9-year-old Swedish twins have been invited to participate in a telephone interview in the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden, CATSS...
December 16, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
N Z Khan, R Sultana, F Ahmed, A B Shilpi, N Sultana, G L Darmstadt
BACKGROUND: Child Development Centres (CDCs) have been established within government medical college tertiary hospitals across Bangladesh. Services entail a parent-professional partnership in a child and family friendly environment with a focus on assessment, diagnosis, and management of a range of neurodevelopmental disorders in children and adolescents 0-16 years of age. Services are provided by a multidisciplinary team of professionals (child health physician, child psychologist, and developmental therapist) who emphasize quality of services over the numbers of children seen...
January 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
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