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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765401/mixed-effects-modeling-of-neurofeedback-self-regulation-performance-moderators-for-learning-in-children-with-adhd
#1
Agnieszka Zuberer, Franziska Minder, Daniel Brandeis, Renate Drechsler
Introduction: Neurofeedback (NF) has gained increasing popularity as a training method for children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, it is unclear to what extent children learn to regulate their brain activity and in what way NF learning may be affected by subject- and treatment-related factors. Methods: In total, 48 subjects with ADHD (age 8.5-16.5 years; 16 subjects on methylphenidate (MPH)) underwent 15 double training sessions of NF in either a clinical or a school setting...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761583/handwriting-assessment-to-distinguish-comorbid-learning-difficulties-from-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-chinese-adolescents-a-case-control-study
#2
Cecilia W P Li-Tsang, Tim M H Li, Mandy S W Lau, Choco H Y Ho, Howard W H Leung
OBJECTIVES: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning difficulties (LDs) are proposed as 2 overlapping disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate the handwriting performance in ADHD and comorbid ADHD-LD adolescents. METHODS: The study examined the Chinese and English handwriting performance and sensorimotor skills of 32 ADHD, 12 ADHD-LD, and their matched controls. RESULTS: Participants with ADHD had comparable writing time and speed, but the readability was lower than their controls...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748952/disentangling-tourette-syndrome-heterogeneity-through-hierarchical-ascendant-clustering
#3
Elena Cravedi, Emmanuelle Deniau, Marianna Giannitelli, Hugues Pellerin, Virginie Czernecki, Tiphanie Priou, Jean Xavier, Angèle Consoli, Andreas Hartmann, David Cohen
AIM: To explore the heterogeneity of Tourette syndrome as part of a neurodevelopmental spectrum. METHOD: Using hierarchical ascendant clustering based on tic symptoms, developmental milestones, and neurodevelopmental comorbidities, we analyzed the heterogeneity of Tourette syndrome phenotypes in a sample of 174 children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome referred to a tertiary university clinic. RESULTS: The model yielded three distinct clusters characterized as follows...
May 10, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740296/distinguishing-adolescents-with-conduct-disorder-from-typically-developing-youngsters-based-on-pattern-classification-of-brain-structural-mri
#4
Jianing Zhang, Weixiang Liu, Jing Zhang, Qiong Wu, Yidian Gao, Yali Jiang, Junling Gao, Shuqiao Yao, Bingsheng Huang
Background: Conduct disorder (CD) is a mental disorder diagnosed in childhood or adolescence that presents antisocial behaviors, and is associated with structural alterations in brain. However, whether these structural alterations can distinguish CD from healthy controls (HCs) remains unknown. Here, we quantified these structural differences and explored the classification ability of these quantitative features based on machine learning (ML). Materials and Methods: High-resolution 3D structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) was acquired from 60 CD subjects and 60 age-matched HCs...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723669/cerebellar-contribution-to-locomotor-behavior-a-neurodevelopmental-perspective
#5
REVIEW
Aaron Sathyanesan, Vittorio Gallo
The developmental trajectory of the formation of cerebellar circuitry has significant implications for locomotor plasticity and adaptive learning at later stages. While there is a wealth of knowledge on the development of locomotor behavior in human infants, children, and adolescents, pre-clinical animal models have fallen behind on the study of the emergence of behavioral motifs in locomotor function across postnatal development. Since cerebellar development is protracted, it is subject to higher risk of genetic or environmental disruption, potentially leading to abnormal behavioral development...
April 30, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709573/roles-for-neuronal-and-microglial-autophagy-in-synaptic-pruning-during-development
#6
REVIEW
Ori J Lieberman, Avery F McGuirt, Guomei Tang, David Sulzer
The dendritic protrusions known as spines represent the primary postsynaptic location for excitatory synapses. Dendritic spines are critical for synaptic function, and their formation, modification, and turnover are thought to be important for mechanisms of learning and memory. At many synapses, dendritic spines form during the early postnatal period, and while many spines are likely being formed and removed throughout life, the net number are often gradually "pruned" during adolescence to reach a stable level in the adult...
April 27, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706587/frontostriatal-dysfunction-during-decision-making-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#7
Luke J Norman, Christina O Carlisi, Anastasia Christakou, Clodagh M Murphy, Kaylita Chantiluke, Vincent Giampietro, Andrew Simmons, Michael Brammer, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
BACKGROUND: The aim of the current paper is to provide the first comparison of computational mechanisms and neurofunctional substrates in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) during decision making under ambiguity. METHODS: Sixteen boys with ADHD, 20 boys with OCD, and 20 matched control subjects (12-18 years of age) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging version of the Iowa Gambling Task...
March 24, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706171/who-attends-recovery-high-schools-after-substance-use-treatment-a-descriptive-analysis-of-school-aged-youth
#8
Emily E Tanner-Smith, Andrew J Finch, Emily A Hennessy, D Paul Moberg
Recovery high schools (RHSs) are an alternative high school option for adolescents with substance use disorders (SUDs), designed to provide a recovery-focused learning environment. The aims of this study were to examine the characteristics of youth who choose to attend RHSs, and to compare them with local and national comparison samples of youth in recovery from SUDs who were not enrolled in RHSs. We conducted secondary analysis of existing data to compare characteristics of youth in three samples: (1) adolescents with SUDs who enrolled in RHSs in Minnesota, Texas, and Wisconsin after discharge from treatment (RHSs; n = 171, 51% male, 86% White, 4% African American, 5% Hispanic); (2) a contemporaneously recruited local comparison sample of students with SUDs who did not enroll in RHSs (n = 123, 60% male, 77% White, 5% African American, 12% Hispanic); and (3) a national comparison sample of U...
June 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683076/lifetime-victimization-in-children-and-adolescents-with-adhd
#9
Jorge Aguado-Gracia, Pilar Mundo-Cid, Fernando Lopez-Seco, Silvia Acosta-García, María José Cortes-Ruiz, Elisabet Vilella, Adela Masana-Marín
The objective of this study is to describe the frequency and type of victimization in a Spanish child and adolescent clinical ADHD sample and to analyze the association between the types of victimization and the severity of the symptoms. The sample is composed of 106 outpatients in treatment for ADHD, according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) criteria. Symptom severity was measured by the Conners-3 scales. ADHD and comorbid diagnostics were evaluated with the Mini-Kid interview...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671779/exercise-caution-questions-to-ask-adolescents-who-may-exercise-too-hard
#10
Emma Forsén Mantilla, Johanna Levallius, Elin Monell, Andreas Birgegård
When the primary goal of exercise is to compensate for food intake and to alter body shape and weight, it is considered compulsive and may be harmful. Compulsive exercise (CE) is important in the pathogenesis of eating disorders (EDs). Many healthy adolescents engage in CE too, and this may indicate a risk for EDs. Our aim was to learn more about ED risk factors tied to CE and to try to isolate questions to ask in order to probe for high ED risk in adolescents engaging in CE. Using two well-established instruments (the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior and the Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire), we studied associations between ED variables and CE in healthy adolescent boys and girls...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660967/a-call-for-implementing-preferred-practices-for-brain-injury-screening-in-youth-to-improve-transition
#11
Drew A Nagele, Melissa McCart, Stephen R Hooper
BACKGROUND: It is vital to engage in systematic screening to identify and serve children who may have sustained an acquired brain injury (ABI) - either traumatic or non-traumatic, so they can be successfully transitioned between environments and life stages. This is particularly important for children and adolescents given the impact an ABI can have on learning and social functioning over the course of the neurodevelopmental process. A pattern of repeated, undiagnosed mild brain injuries may lead to mood or behavior disorders, learning problems...
2018: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649712/sexual-abuse-but-not-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-is-associated-with-neurocognitive-deficits-in-south-african-traumatized-adolescents
#12
Sarah V Biedermann, Stefanie Meliss, Candice Simmons, Jani Nöthling, Sharain Suliman, Soraya Seedat
OBJECTIVES: Neurocognitive impairments are commonly observed in adults suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The picture is less clear in adolescents. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may have an independent influence on neuropsychological test performance and provide partial explanatory power of the inconsistent findings. We hypothesized that adolescents with PTSD who have also suffered sexual abuse would have most pronounced deficits on neurocognitive testing. METHODS: In a cross-sectional design, 105 traumatized South African adolescents, of whom 52 fulfilled criteria of PTSD and 34 reported CSA, were studied...
April 9, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625261/acute-and-chronic-effect-of-physical-activity-on-cognition-and-behaviour-in-young-people-with-adhd-a-systematic-review-of-intervention-studies
#13
REVIEW
Sara Suarez-Manzano, Alberto Ruiz-Ariza, Manuel De La Torre-Cruz, Emilio J Martínez-López
BACKGROUND: Young people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often have learning and behavioral control difficulties. AIM: The aim of this review is analyse the acute and chronic effect of physical activity (PA) on the cognition and behaviour of children and adolescents with ADHD. METHODS: Studies were identified in five databases (PubMed, SPORTDiscus, ProQuest, Web of Science, and SCOPUS), from January 2000 through to January 2017...
April 3, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625227/anxiety-like-behavior-and-other-consequences-of-early-life-stress-in-mice-with-increased-protein-kinase-a-activity
#14
Maddalena Ugolini, Margaret F Keil, Enrica Paradiso, John Wu, Constantine A Stratakis
Anxiety disorders are associated with abnormalities in fear-learning and bias to threat; early life experiences are influential to the development of an anxiety-like phenotype in adulthood. We recently reported that adult mice (Prkar1a+/-) with haploinsufficiency for the main regulatory subunit of the protein kinase A (PKA) exhibit an anxiety-like phenotype associated with increased PKA activity in the amygdala. PKA is the main effector of cyclic adenosine mono-phosphate signaling, a key pathway involved in the regulation of fear learning...
April 3, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610979/behavioral-modeling-for-mental-health-using-machine-learning-algorithms
#15
M Srividya, S Mohanavalli, N Bhalaji
Mental health is an indicator of emotional, psychological and social well-being of an individual. It determines how an individual thinks, feels and handle situations. Positive mental health helps one to work productively and realize their full potential. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from childhood and adolescence through adulthood. Many factors contribute to mental health problems which lead to mental illness like stress, social anxiety, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, drug addiction, and personality disorders...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589127/launching-anxious-young-adults-a-specialized-cognitive-behavioral-intervention-for-transitional-aged-youth
#16
REVIEW
Lauren J Hoffman, John D Guerry, Anne Marie Albano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There has been growing clinical and research attention to the unique developmental stage of emerging adulthood. This stage is a time of significant change and growth for all individuals, as it includes identity exploration, emotional, behavioral, and financial independence from caregivers, and completion of educational or vocational requirements. RECENT FINDINGS: Anxiety disorders are the most common mental health diagnoses among emerging adults, and individuals suffering from these disorders often experience compounding functional impairments across health, financial, and social domains...
March 27, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549378/screening-tests-reveal-high-risk-among-adjudicated-adolescents-of-auditory-processing-and-language-disorders
#17
Deborah Moncrieff, Elizabeth Miller, Earl Hill
Purpose: The study investigated the prevalence of risk factors for auditory processing and language disorders among adolescents residing at a local juvenile detention center. Method: A total of 782 adjudicated adolescents with normal hearing were screened with the Randomized Dichotic Digits Test (Strouse & Wilson, 1999) and the Dichotic Words Test (Moncrieff, 2015). A subset of 420 of those adolescents was also screened with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF; Semel, Wiig, & Secord, 2003)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499376/improving-resident-knowledge-in-pediatric-and-adolescent-gynecology-an-evaluation-of-the-north-american-society-for-pediatric-and-adolescent-gynecology-short-curriculum
#18
P S Huguelet, G ChelvaKumar, L Conner, T Dumont, N Fleming, M Abraham, N W Karjane, J Sheeder, H J Talib, K Teelin, C Wheeler, P Kaul
BACKGROUND: Resident education in Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology (PAG) is challenging. It encompasses patients from neonates to young adults with different disorders involving multiple subspecialties. Residents have inadequate exposure to PAG topics and report lack of knowledge in this area. OBJECTIVE: To determine if the North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology (NASPAG) Short Curriculum improves self-reported knowledge in PAG among Obstetrics and Gynecology (ObGyn), Family Medicine and Pediatric residents...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487522/chronic-mk-801-application-in-adolescence-and-early-adulthood-a-spatial-working-memory-deficit-in-adult-long-evans-rats-but-no-changes-in-the-hippocampal-nmda-receptor-subunits
#19
Libor Uttl, Tomas Petrasek, Hilal Sengul, Marketa Svojanovska, Veronika Lobellova, Karel Vales, Dominika Radostova, Grygoriy Tsenov, Hana Kubova, Anna Mikulecka, Jan Svoboda, Ales Stuchlik
The role of NMDA receptors in learning, memory and hippocampal function has long been recognized. Post-mortem studies have indicated that the expression or subunit composition of the NMDA glutamate receptor subtype might be related to the impaired cognitive functions found in schizophrenia patients. NMDA receptor antagonists have been used to develop animal models of this disorder. There is accumulating evidence showing that not only the acute but also the chronic application of NMDA receptor antagonists may induce schizophrenia-like alterations in behavior and brain functions...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481101/age-and-sex-differences-in-behavioral-flexibility-sensitivity-to-reward-value-and-risky-decision-making
#20
Sara R Westbrook, Emily R Hankosky, Megan R Dwyer, Joshua M Gulley
Compared with adults, adolescent behavior is often characterized by reduced behavioral flexibility, increased sensitivity to reward, and increased likelihood to take risks. These traits, which have been hypothesized to confer heightened vulnerability to psychopathologies such as substance use disorders (SUDs), have been the focus of studies in laboratory animal models that seek to understand their neural underpinnings. However, rodent studies to date have typically used only males and have adopted standard methodological practices (e...
April 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
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