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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135933/adolescent-alcohol-drinking-renders-adult-drinking-bla-dependent-bla-hyper-activity-as-contributor-to-comorbid-alcohol-use-disorder-and-anxiety-disorders
#1
Mahsa Moaddab, Elizabeth Mangone, Madelyn H Ray, Michael A McDannald
Adolescent alcohol drinking increases the risk for alcohol-use disorder in adulthood. Yet, the changes in adult neural function resulting from adolescent alcohol drinking remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that adolescent alcohol drinking alters basolateral amygdala (BLA) function, making alcohol drinking BLA-dependent in adulthood. Male, Long Evans rats were given voluntary, intermittent access to alcohol (20% ethanol) or a bitter, isocaloric control solution, across adolescence. Half of the rats in each group received neurotoxic BLA lesions...
November 14, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124959/speech-therapy-in-adolescents-with-down-syndrome-in-pursuit-of-communication-as-a-fundamental-human-right
#2
Susan Rvachew, Marla Folden
PURPOSE: The achievement of speech intelligibility by persons with Down syndrome facilitates their participation in society. Denial of speech therapy services by virtue of low cognitive skills is a violation of their fundamental human rights as proclaimed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in general and in Article 19 in particular. Here, we describe the differential response of an adolescent with Down syndrome to three speech therapy interventions and demonstrate the use of a single subject randomisation design to identify effective treatments for children with complex communication disorders...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119716/episodic-memory-retrieval-in-adolescents-with-and-without-developmental-language-disorder-dld
#3
Joanna C Lee
BACKGROUND: Two reasons may explain the discrepant findings regarding declarative memory in developmental language disorder (DLD) in the literature. First, standardized tests are one of the primary tools used to assess declarative memory in previous studies. It is possible they are not sensitive enough to subtle memory impairment. Second, the system underlying declarative memory is complex, and thus results may vary depending on the types of encoding and retrieval processes measured (e...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117424/for-the-love-of-the-game-game-versus-lecture-based-learning-with-generation-z-patients
#4
Mary A Adamson, Hengyi Chen, Russell Kackley, Alicia Micheal
The current study evaluated adolescent patients' enjoyment of and knowledge gained from game-based learning compared with an interactive lecture format on the topic of mood disorders. It was hypothesized that game-based learning would be statistically more effective than a lecture in knowledge acquisition and satisfaction scores. A pre-post design was implemented in which a convenience sample of 160 adolescent patients were randomized to either a lecture (n = 80) or game-based (n = 80) group. Both groups completed a pretest/posttest and satisfaction survey...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101600/normal-diet-vs-high-fat-diet-a-comparative-study-behavioral-and-neuroimmunological-changes-in-adolescent-male-mice
#5
Huali Wu, Qiongzhen Liu, Praveen Kumar Kalavagunta, Qiaoling Huang, Wenting Lv, Xiaohong An, Haijuan Chen, Tao Wang, Rakotomalala Manda Heriniaina, Tong Qiao, Jing Shang
Recent evidence has established that consumption of High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity is associated with deficits in hippocampus-dependent memory/learning and mood states. Nevertheless the link between obesity and emotional disorders still remains to be elucidated. This issue is of particular interest during adolescence, which is important period for shaping learning/memory and mood regulation that can be sensitive to the detrimental effects of HFD. Our present study is focused to investigate behavioral and metabolic influences of short-term HFD intake in adolescent C57BL/6 mice...
November 3, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067872/selective-neural-sensitivity-to-familial-threat-in-adolescents-with-weak-family-bonds
#6
Paul B Sharp, Wendy Heller, Eva H Telzer
Familial stressors, such as weak familial connectedness, are associated with the development of maladaptive threat processing, yet little is known regarding how weak familial bonds impinge on biological mechanisms of threat processing. The present study leveraged multivoxel pattern analysis of fMRI data to compare the neural encoding of familial and nonfamilial threatening and non-threatening stimuli in adolescents who endorsed varying levels of connectedness to their families. Adolescents (N=22, Mage= 14.38 years) reporting lower family connectedness one year earlier showed elevated sensitivity to familial threat, but not to nonfamilial threat in a neural network associated with threat processing, comprising left and right amygdala, and right inferior and middle temporal gyri...
October 25, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033857/an-update-overview-on-brain-imaging-studies-of-internet-gaming-disorder
#7
REVIEW
Aviv M Weinstein
There are a growing number of studies on structural and functional brain mechanisms underlying Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies showed that IGD adolescents and adults had reduced gray matter volume in regions associated with attention motor coordination executive function and perception. Adolescents with IGD showed lower white matter (WM) integrity measures in several brain regions that are involved in decision-making, behavioral inhibition, and emotional regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033450/a-retrospective-chart-analysis-with-follow-up-of-cogmed-working-memory-training-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Sander M Weckstein, Ethan J Weckstein, Christopher D Parker, Matthew W Westerman
BACKGROUND This case study was undertaken in an effort to assess whether children/adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience improvement in comorbid ADHD following Cogmed Working Memory Training (CWMT). This treatment intervention has been shown to improve ADHD symptoms in children and adolescents; however, there have been no studies on its use with individuals with ASD. MATERIAL AND METHODS CWMT is a computer-based program that consists of 13 auditory, visual, visual spatial, and combined exercises that are practiced for 45 minutes a day, 5 days a week, for 5 weeks...
October 16, 2017: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018317/jake%C3%A2-multimodal-data-capture-system-insights-from-an-observational-study-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Seth L Ness, Nikolay V Manyakov, Abigail Bangerter, David Lewin, Shyla Jagannatha, Matthew Boice, Andrew Skalkin, Geraldine Dawson, Yvette M Janvier, Matthew S Goodwin, Robert Hendren, Bennett Leventhal, Frederick Shic, Walter Cioccia, Gahan Pandina
Objective: To test usability and optimize the Janssen Autism Knowledge Engine (JAKE®) system's components, biosensors, and procedures used for objective measurement of core and associated symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in clinical trials. Methods: A prospective, observational study of 29 children and adolescents with ASD using the JAKE system was conducted at three sites in the United States. This study was designed to establish the feasibility of the JAKE system and to learn practical aspects of its implementation...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991147/transition-to-college-and-adherence-to-prescribed-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-medication
#10
Wendy N Gray, Jan Kavookjian, Steven K Shapiro, Scott T Wagoner, Megan R Schaefer, Alana Resmini Rawlinson, James B Hinnant
OBJECTIVE: As youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) transition to adulthood, they must learn how to manage their ADHD treatment independently. This may be challenging because many of the skills necessary to adhere to treatment (e.g., organization, planning) are impaired in those with ADHD. Using electronic monitoring, we examine trajectories of adherence to medication in a cohort of college students with ADHD. Further, we examine the effect of transitioning to college and executive functioning on adherence...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989948/morbidity-in-%C3%A2-1500-gram-births-in-spain-1993-2011-study-of-a-sample-of-1200-cases
#11
Concepción Gómez Esteban, Juan J Sánchez Carrión, Fernando J García Selgas, José M Segovia Guisado
Background and Objective. Preterm birth has a major impact on growth, and very preterm birth is associated with disabilities in numerous developmental domains. This article describes and quantifies morbidities in a sample of 1200 ≤1500-g births in Spain between 1993 and 2011 based on parent information, and it highlights several variables that influence these morbidities. Methods. Multiple method surveys using computer-assisted telephones interviewing and computer-assisted web interviewing methods. Sample design was intentional...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983797/clinical-factors-associated-with-decision-to-recommend-methylphenidate-treatment-for-children-with-adhd-in-france
#12
Elodie Courtabessis, Florence Pupier, Laurie Surig, Marie-Christine Picot, Erika Nogué, Valérie Macioce, Elizabeth Stein, Diane Purper-Ouakil
European guidelines advise on best practices for the diagnosis and non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to (1) assess whether clinician's decisions to initiate methylphenidate treatment in children diagnosed with ADHD are in accordance with European guidelines and (2) identify clinical factors associated with the decision to recommend methylphenidate prescription. 5 to 13-year-old patients with an ADHD diagnosis were consecutively evaluated in an outpatient child and adolescent psychiatry clinic in France...
October 5, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970006/an-overview-of-common-psychiatric-problems-among-adolescent-and-young-adult-females-focus-on-mood-and-anxiety
#13
REVIEW
Jessica J Black, Dana L Rofey
Adolescence is a dynamic period of learning and adaptation. It provides unique opportunities in which adolescents strive to become independent, generative young adults. However, with these strides come increased prevalence in psychiatric symptomatology. Among adolescent girls, anxiety disorders are the most common condition followed by mood disorders. Mood disorders, specifically depression, result in the greatest impairment. Factors such as body mass index and early pubertal onset are associated with poorer mental health such as depression...
September 1, 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966730/cognitive-load-measurement-in-a-virtual-reality-based-driving-system-for-autism-intervention
#14
Lian Zhang, Joshua Wade, Dayi Bian, Jing Fan, Amy Swanson, Amy Weitlauf, Zachary Warren, Nilanjan Sarkar
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a highly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder with enormous individual and social cost. In this paper, a novel virtual reality (VR)-based driving system was introduced to teach driving skills to adolescents with ASD. This driving system is capable of gathering eye gaze, electroencephalography, and peripheral physiology data in addition to driving performance data. The objective of this paper is to fuse multimodal information to measure cognitive load during driving such that driving tasks can be individualized for optimal skill learning...
April 2017: IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961168/choline-and-working-memory-training-improve-cognitive-deficits-caused-by-prenatal-exposure-to-ethanol
#15
Jaylyn Waddell, Sandra M Mooney
Prenatal ethanol exposure is associated with deficits in executive function such as working memory, reversal learning and attentional set shifting in humans and animals. These behaviors are dependent on normal structure and function in cholinergic brain regions. Supplementation with choline can improve many behaviors in rodent models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and also improves working memory function in normal rats. We tested the hypothesis that supplementation with choline in the postnatal period will improve working memory during adolescence in normal and ethanol-exposed animals, and that working memory engagement during adolescence will transfer to other cognitive domains and have lasting effects on executive function in adulthood...
September 29, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959187/mechanisms-of-hierarchical-cortical-maturation
#16
REVIEW
Taylor Chomiak, Bin Hu
Cortical information processing is structurally and functionally organized into hierarchical pathways, with primary sensory cortical regions providing modality specific information and associative cortical regions playing a more integrative role. Historically, there has been debate as to whether primary cortical regions mature earlier than associative cortical regions, or whether both primary and associative cortical regions mature simultaneously. Identifying whether primary and associative cortical regions mature hierarchically or simultaneously will not only deepen our understanding of the mechanisms that regulate brain maturation, but it will also provide fundamental insight into aspects of adolescent behavior, learning, neurodevelopmental disorders and computational models of neural processing...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953767/a-review-of-the-epidemiology-of-major-depressive-disorder-and-of-its-consequences-for-society-and-the-individual
#17
Anna McKeever, Mark Agius, Pavel Mohr
Depression is a common and debilitating disease that affects people from adolescence to old age. The impact of depression extends beyond the individual with depressive symptoms. Depression adversely affects the mental and physical health, and the social and financial welfare of the individual and society. We will address how factors including sex, age, ethnicity and societal changes affect the prevalence of depression, consider common co-morbid conditions and highlight the lessons learned from treating depression...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936882/technology-use-as-a-support-tool-by-secondary-students-with-autism
#18
Susan H Hedges, Samuel L Odom, Kara Hume, Ann Sam
The purpose of this study was to examine how secondary students with autism spectrum disorder use technology in supportive ways. In this self-report survey study, 472 adolescents with autism spectrum disorder enrolled in high school described the forms of technology they use and purposes for which they use it. Students reported the benefits as well as barriers to technology use at school. They reported using technology in school and home settings in a variety of supportive ways such as increasing their independence, reducing their anxiety, and increasing their social opportunities...
September 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935587/glutamatergic-synapses-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Edoardo Moretto, Luca Murru, Giuseppe Martano, Jenny Sassone, Maria Passafaro
Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are a group of diseases whose symptoms arise during childhood or adolescence and that impact several higher cognitive functions such as learning, sociability and mood. Accruing evidence suggests that a shared pathogenic mechanism underlying these diseases is the dysfunction of glutamatergic synapses. We summarize present knowledge on autism spectrum disorders (ASD), intellectual disability (ID), Down syndrome (DS), Rett syndrome (RS) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), highlighting the involvement of glutamatergic synapses and receptors in these disorders...
September 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935341/conduct-problems-in-youth-and-the-rdoc-approach-a-developmental-evolutionary-based-view
#20
REVIEW
Peter Fonagy, Patrick Luyten
Problems related to aggression in young people are traditionally subsumed under the header of conduct problems, which include conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder. Such problems in children and adolescents are an important societal and mental health problem. In this paper we present an evolutionarily informed developmental psychopathology view of conduct problems inspired by the NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative. We assume that while there are many pathways to conduct problems, chronic or temporary impairments in the domain of social cognition or mentalizing are a common denominator...
September 8, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
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