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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635541/association-between-abnormal-brain-functional-connectivity-in-children-and-psychopathology-a-study-based-on-graph-theory-and-machine-learning
#1
João Ricardo Sato, Claudinei Eduardo Biazoli, Giovanni Abrahão Salum, Ary Gadelha, Nicolas Crossley, Gilson Vieira, André Zugman, Felipe Almeida Picon, Pedro Mario Pan, Marcelo Queiroz Hoexter, Edson Amaro, Mauricio Anés, Luciana Monteiro Moura, Marco Antonio Gomes Del'Aquilla, Philip Mcguire, Luis Augusto Rohde, Euripedes Constantino Miguel, Andrea Parolin Jackowski, Rodrigo Affonseca Bressan
OBJECTIVES: One of the major challenges facing psychiatry is how to incorporate biological measures in the classification of mental health disorders. Many of these disorders affect brain development and its connectivity. In this study, we propose a novel method for assessing brain networks based on the combination of a graph theory measure (eigenvector centrality) and a one-class support vector machine (OC-SVM). METHODS: We applied this approach to resting-state fMRI data from 622 children and adolescents...
February 8, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614051/cardiac-anomalies-and-associated-comorbidities-in-a-large-adolescent-population
#2
Daniel Lyon Fink, Yossy Machluf, Rivka Farkash, Giora Weisz, Avinoam Pirogovsky, Orna Tal, David Dagan, Yoram Chaiter
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, secular trends and associations of heart disease in a large unscreened, otherwise basically healthy, adolescent population. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study of the cardiac status of 113,694 adolescents from the northern district of Israel, who completed the profiling process between the ages of 16 and 19, including all essential measures over a 22-year period. Results of imaging were categorized as either isolated valvar or structural abnormalities, and their clinically significant subgroups defined prospectively...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576548/defining-the-impact-of-childhood-adversities-on-cognitive-deficits-in-psychosis-an-exploratory-analysis
#3
Inga Schalinski, Martin H Teicher, Almut M Carolus, Brigitte Rockstroh
BACKGROUND: Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and cognitive deficits are both prevalent in psychosis. While it has been repeatedly demonstrated that ACE contribute to cognitive dysfunctions, the specific nature of this contribution remains elusive. Recent evidence suggests that types of adversities during critical periods have deleterious effects on brain structures that are important for cognitive functioning. The present study sought to clarify which types of adversities experienced at which time during development aggravate cognitive deficits in psychosis...
May 30, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575505/like-mother-like-daughter-putamen-activation-as-a-mechanism-underlying-intergenerational-risk-for-depression
#4
Natalie L Colich, Tiffany C Ho, Monica Ellwood-Lowe, Lara C Foland-Ross, Matthew D Sacchet, Joelle L LeMoult, Ian H Gotlib
Having a depressed mother is one of the strongest predictors for developing depression in adolescence. Given the role of aberrant reward processing in the onset and maintenance of depression, we examined the association between mothers' and their daughters' neural response to the anticipation of reward and loss. Fifteen non-depressed mothers with a history of recurrent depression and their never-disordered daughters, and 23 mothers without past or current depression and their never-disordered daughters, underwent fMRI while performing the monetary incentive delay (MID) task...
May 29, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560650/effects-of-learning-strategy-training-on-the-writing-performance-of-college-students-with-asperger-s-syndrome
#5
Lynn G Jackson, Mary Lou Duffy, Michael P Brady, Jazarae McCormick
Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are increasingly entering institutions of higher education. However, many are not prepared for the academic and social demands of postsecondary environments. Although studies have evaluated academic and social interventions for children and adolescents with ASD, little research exists on the college population. The current study utilized a multiple baseline across participants design to evaluate the effectiveness of a writing learning strategy on the writing performance of three college students with ASD...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554067/merging-contemporary-learning-theory-with-mental-health-promotion-to-produce-an-effective-schools-based-program
#6
Margaret McAllister, Bruce Allen Knight, Cathie Withyman
Approximately three quarters of all major mental disorders begin in adolescence. Finding ways to buffer against stress, access social support and connection and flexibly draw upon a range of coping mechanisms are vital strategies that young people can use to promote mental health and wellbeing and to navigate this turbulent life transition successfully. Within Australia, like other parts of the world such as the UK and the USA, it is a sad reality that when young people do become distressed they are not self-caring or supporting others effectively, and not seeking or receiving appropriate help...
May 22, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527907/behavioral-and-cognitive-impact-of-early-life-stress-insights-from-an-animal-model
#7
Hesong Liu, Fatin Atrooz, Ankita Salvi, Samina Salim
BACKGROUND: Children subjected to traumatic events during childhood are reported to exhibit behavioral and cognitive deficits later in life, often leading to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. Interestingly, some children continue to remain normal despite being exposed to the same risk factors. These trauma-related behavioral and cognitive profiles across different stages of life are not well understood. Animal studies can offer useful insights. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to determine the impact of early life exposure to traumatic events on behavioral and cognitive profile in rats by tracking the behavior of each rat at different ages...
May 17, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527021/comorbidity-prevalence-and-treatment-outcome-in-children-and-adolescents-with-adhd
#8
Laura Reale, Beatrice Bartoli, Massimo Cartabia, Michele Zanetti, Maria Antonella Costantino, Maria Paola Canevini, Cristiano Termine, Maurizio Bonati
Although ADHD comorbidity has been widely studied, some issues remain unsolved. This multicenter observational study aims to examine comorbid psychiatric disorders in a clinical sample of newly diagnosed, treatment naïve children and adolescents with and without ADHD and, to compare treatment efficacy based on the type of comorbidity. We performed an analysis of the medical records of patients identified from the Regional ADHD Registry database, enrolled in 18 ADHD centers in the 2011-2016 period. 1919 of 2861 subjects evaluated (67%) met the diagnostic criteria for ADHD: 650 (34%) had only ADHD, while 1269 (66%) had at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder (learning disorders, 56%; sleep disorders, 23%; oppositional defiant disorder, 20%; anxiety disorders, 12%)...
May 19, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506925/social-connectedness-mental-health-and-the-adolescent-brain
#9
REVIEW
M Lamblin, C Murawski, S Whittle, A Fornito
Social relationships promote health and wellbeing. Brain regions regulating social behavior continue to develop throughout adolescence, as teens learn to navigate their social environment with increasing sophistication. Adolescence is also a time of increased risk for the development of psychiatric disorders, many of which are characteristically associated with social dysfunction. In this review, we consider the links between adolescent brain development and the broader social environment. We examine evidence that individual differences in social ability, partly determined by genetic influences on brain structure and function, impact the quality and quantity of social ties during adolescence and that, conversely, the structure of one's social network exerts complex yet profound influences on individual behavior and mental health...
May 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471611/clinical-profile-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-impact-of-ethnic-and-social-diversities-in-israel
#10
Muhammad Mahajnah, Rajech Sharkia, Nadeem Shorbaji, Nathanel Zelnik
BACKGROUND: Despite the increased worldwide recognition of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there is a variability in the diagnostic rate of both ADHD and its co-morbidities. These diversities are probably related to the methodology and instruments used for the diagnosis of ADHD and to awareness and cultural interpretation of its existence. OBJECTIVES: To identify consistent differences in the clinical profile of Arab and Jewish children with ADHD in Israel who differ in their cultural, ethnic and socioeconomic background...
June 2016: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460831/association-of-japanese-cedar-pollinosis-and-sensitization-with-hla-dpb1-in-the-japanese-adolescent
#11
Wataru Morii, Aiko Sakai, Takahiro Ninomiya, Masanori Kidoguchi, Ryo Sumazaki, Shigeharu Fujieda, Emiko Noguchi
BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a heterogeneous disorder that significantly affects daily activity, work productivity, sleep, learning, and quality of life in all generations. Japanese cedar (JC) pollen is the most common allergen responsible for the development of AR in Japan. AR caused by JC pollen is considered to be a multifactorial inheritance disease that is caused by both environmental and genetic factors. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Human Leukocyte Antigen-DPB1 (HLA-DPB1) is associated with JC sensitization/pollinosis...
April 28, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443027/personalized-medication-response-prediction-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-learning-in-the-model-space-vs-learning-in-the-data-space
#12
Hin K Wong, Paul A Tiffin, Michael J Chappell, Thomas E Nichols, Patrick R Welsh, Orla M Doyle, Boryana C Lopez-Kolkovska, Sarah K Inglis, David Coghill, Yuan Shen, Peter Tiño
Attention-Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common mental health disorders amongst school-aged children with an estimated prevalence of 5% in the global population (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Stimulants, particularly methylphenidate (MPH), are the first-line option in the treatment of ADHD (Reeves and Schweitzer, 2004; Dopheide and Pliszka, 2009) and are prescribed to an increasing number of children and adolescents in the US and the UK every year (Safer et al., 1996; McCarthy et al...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434637/clinical-heterogeneity-in-children-with-gonadal-dysgenesis-associated-with-non-mosaic-46-xy-karyotype
#13
Y S Wong, Y H Tam, K K Y Pang, K F To, S S C Chan, K W Chan, K H Lee
INTRODUCTION: Gonadal dysgenesis is unique in disorders of sex development (DSD), in that it can be associated with 46,XX, 46,XY or mosaic 45,X/46,XY karyotypes. Gonadal dysgenesis can be partial or complete. Gonadal dysgenesis associated with the Y-chromosome has increased risk of gonadal germ cell neoplasms. Most of the literature focus on 45,X/46,XY gonadal dysgenesis, while there are scanty data on the condition when the karyotype is non-mosaic 46,XY. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diversity of clinical pictures of children presenting with 46,XY DSD due to gonadal dysgenesis...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419062/single-center-study-investigating-foreign-language-acquisition-at-school-in-children-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-uni-or-bilateral-cochlear-implants-in-the-swiss-german-population
#14
Renske Beeres-Scheenstra, Claudia Ohnsorg, Claudia Candreia, Sybille Heinzmann, Susana Castellanos, Nicola De Min, Thomas E Linder
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate foreign language acquisition at school in cochlear implant patients. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: CI center. PATIENTS: Forty three cochlear implants (CI) patients (10-18 yr) were evaluated. CI nonusers and patients with CI-explantation, incomplete datasets, mental retardation, or concomitant medical disorders were excluded. INTERVENTION(S): Additional data (type of schooling, foreign language learning, and bilingualism) were obtained with questionnaires...
July 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397306/a-review-of-cognitive-impairments-in-children-with-intellectual-disabilities-implications-for-cognitive-behaviour-therapy
#15
Anastasia Hronis, Lynette Roberts, Ian I Kneebone
OBJECTIVE: Nearly half of children with intellectual disability (ID) have comorbid affective disorders. These problems are chronic if left untreated and can significantly impact upon future vocational, educational, and social opportunities. Despite this, there is a paucity of research into effective treatments for this population. Notably, one of the most supported of psychological therapies, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), remains largely uninvestigated in children with ID. The current review considers the neuropsychological profile of children and adolescents with mild to moderate ID, with a view to informing how CBT might best be adapted for children and adolescents with ID...
June 2017: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383759/pubertal-development-and-anxiety-risk-independently-relate-to-startle-habituation-during-fear-conditioning-in-8-14-year-old-females
#16
Felicia Jackson, Brady D Nelson, Alexandria Meyer, Greg Hajcak
Reduced habituation to aversive stimuli has been observed during adolescence and may reflect an underlying mechanism of vulnerability for anxiety disorders. This study examined the startle reflex during a fear-learning task in 54 8-14-year-old girls. We examined the relationship between mean startle, startle habituation, pubertal development, and two measures linked to risk for anxiety: behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and the error-related negativity (ERN). Puberty, BIS, and the ERN were unrelated to mean startle; however, each measure modulated startle habituation...
May 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382120/outcomes-of-late-implantation-in-usher-syndrome-patients
#17
Ana Cristina H Hoshino, Agustina Echegoyen, Maria Valéria Schmidt Goffi-Gomez, Robinson Koji Tsuji, Ricardo Ferreira Bento
Introduction Usher syndrome (US) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hearing loss and progressive visual impairment. Some deaf Usher syndrome patients learn to communicate using sign language. During adolescence, as they start losing vision, they are usually referred to cochlear implantation as a salvage for their new condition. Is a late implantation beneficial to these children? Objective The objective of this study is to describe the outcomes of US patients who received cochlear implants at a later age...
April 2017: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374599/longitudinal-study-of-driver-licensing-rates-among-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Allison E Curry, Benjamin E Yerys, Patty Huang, Kristi B Metzger
Driving may increase mobility and independence for adolescents with autism without intellectual disability (autism spectrum disorder); however, little is known about rates of licensure. To compare the proportion of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder who acquire a learner's permit and driver's license, as well as the rate at which they progress through the licensing system, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of 52,172 New Jersey residents born in the years 1987-1995 who were patients of the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia healthcare network ⩾12 years of age; 609 (1...
April 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367712/the-clinical-characteristics-of-adhd-diagnosed-in-adolescents-in-comparison-with-younger-children
#19
Muhammad Mahajnah, Rajech Sharkia, Nadeem Shorbaji, Nathanel Zelnik
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to identify the clinical characteristics in adolescents newly diagnosed with ADHD. METHOD: Data of patients aged 7 to 17 years diagnosed with ADHD were collected and analyzed. The patients were divided into adolescents aged 13 to 17 years (Group I) and children aged 7 to 12 years (Group II): 592 males and 231 females. Group I consists of 450 participants, and Group II consists of 373 participants. RESULTS: Adolescents were predominantly inattentive (63...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342214/real-time-fmri-neurofeedback-in-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#20
Analucia A Alegria, Melanie Wulff, Helen Brinson, Gareth J Barker, Luke J Norman, Daniel Brandeis, Daniel Stahl, Anthony S David, Eric Taylor, Vincent Giampietro, Katya Rubia
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with poor self-control, underpinned by inferior fronto-striatal deficits. Real-time functional magnetic resonance neurofeedback (rtfMRI-NF) allows participants to gain self-control over dysregulated brain regions. Despite evidence for beneficial effects of electrophysiological-NF on ADHD symptoms, no study has applied the spatially superior rtfMRI-NF neurotherapy to ADHD. A randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of rtfMRI-NF of right inferior prefrontal cortex (rIFG), a key region that is compromised in ADHD and upregulated with psychostimulants, on improvement of ADHD symptoms, cognition, and inhibitory fMRI activation...
June 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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