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learning disability in the adolescent

Fabrizio Leo, Elena Cocchi, Luca Brayda
Vision loss has severe impacts on physical, social and emotional well-being. The education of blind children poses issues as many scholar disciplines (e.g. geometry, mathematics) are normally taught by heavily relying on vision. Touch-based assistive technologies are potential tools to provide graphical contents to blind users, improving learning possibilities and social inclusion. Raised-lines drawings are still the golden standard, but stimuli cannot be reconfigured or adapted and the blind person constantly requires assistance...
October 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
So Young Kim, Yung Jin Jeon, Jun-Young Lee, Young Ho Kim
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The characteristics and underlying mechanisms of tinnitus remain more elusive in the pediatric population than in adults. We investigated the prevalence of tinnitus, its characteristics, and associated factors, with a focus on psychoemotional problems in adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study METHODS: In total, 962 adolescents were surveyed for tinnitus and possibly related otologic and socioeconomic factors. The participants completed a visual analog scale (VAS) pertaining to various aspects of tinnitus, as well as the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), State Anxiety Inventory for Children, Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (TAIC), Internet Addiction Test, Conners' Abbreviated Parent Rating Scale, and a learning disability score...
October 24, 2016: Laryngoscope
Abdullah Turhan, Simone Onrust, Peter Ten Klooster, Marcel Pieterse
AIMS: To test effectiveness of the Healthy School and Drugs (HSD) program on tobacco and alcohol use in Dutch secondary special education (SE) schools, and whether this depends on subtypes of SE-schools and the level of implementation. DESIGN: In a quasi-experimental design with baseline and post-treatment follow-up 35 classes (N = 363) were allocated arbitrarily or depending on teacher motivation to either intervention condition (N = 205) or usual curriculum (N = 158)...
October 21, 2016: Addiction
Lindsey Edwards, Lynne Aitkenhead, Dawn Langdon
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to establish the relationship between short-term memory capacity and reading skills in adolescents with cochlear implants. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A between-groups design compared a group of young people with cochlear implants with a group of hearing peers on measures of reading, and auditory and visual short-term memory capacity. The groups were matched for non-verbal IQ and age. The adolescents with cochlear implants were recruited from the Cochlear Implant Programme at a specialist children's hospital...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
I Fernández-Prieto, C Caprile, D Tinoco-González, B Ristol-Orriols, A López-Sala, P Póo-Argüelles, F Pons, J Navarra
The nonverbal learning disability (NLD) is a neurological dysfunction that affects cognitive functions predominantly related to the right hemisphere such as spatial and abstract reasoning. Previous evidence in healthy adults suggests that acoustic pitch (i.e., the relative difference in frequency between sounds) is, under certain conditions, encoded in specific areas of the right hemisphere that also encode the spatial elevation of external objects (e.g., high vs. low position). Taking this evidence into account, we explored the perception of pitch in preadolescents and adolescents with NLD and in a group of healthy participants matched by age, gender, musical knowledge and handedness...
October 3, 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Ester Camprodon-Rosanas, Santiago Batlle, Xavier Estrada-Prat, Marta Aceña-Díaz, Araitz Petrizan-Aleman, Elena Pujals, Luis M Martin-López, Víctor Pérez-Solá, Núria Ribas-Fitó
Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms have largely emerged from investigations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Recent research has demonstrated the relevance of SCT symptoms in the field of clinical child and adolescent psychiatry. The goal of this research was to study the symptoms of SCT in a clinical child and adolescent sample and to define its features and comorbid conditions. We reviewed 834 clinical records of patients referred to Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services and examined SCT symptoms and their relation with sociodemographic data, clinical diagnosis, comorbid conditions, Child Behavior Checklist dimensions, and intelligence quotient...
September 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Joseph M Lambert, Bailey A Copeland, Erica L Karp, Crystal I Finley, Nealetta J Houchins-Juarez, Jennifer R Ledford
Individuals with developmental disabilities successfully participate in fewer recreation activities, including sports activities, than their typically developing peers. Although a functional basketball-playing repertoire might increase social opportunities and physical health for these individuals, no research has outlined a behavior-analytic strategy for teaching this sport. In our study, we taught a 13-year-old male diagnosed with autism to play basketball. During phase 1, we employed discrete-trial training to establish proficiency with nine fundamental basketball skills (i...
September 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
L Albers, E-L Koch, M Lingen, R von Kries, K Brockmann
BACKGROUND: Transition of care from pediatric to adult services is a complex process. Factors influencing the success of health care transition of adolescents with chronic neurological disorders are poorly understood. METHODS: Young adults with chronic neurological disorders who had been cared for in an Interdisciplinary Pediatric Center participated in this study. Using the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire Short-form (PSQ-18) we investigated whether satisfaction of these patients with their medical care in adult services was depending on the severity and complexity of their condition...
September 2016: Klinische Pädiatrie
Fang Huang, Li Sun, Ying Qian, Lu Liu, Quan-Gang Ma, Li Yang, Jia Cheng, Qing-Jiu Cao, Yi Su, Qian Gao, Zhao-Min Wu, Hai-Mei Li, Qiu-Jin Qian, Yu-Feng Wang
BACKGROUND: The cognitive function of children with either attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or learning disabilities (LDs) is known to be impaired. However, little is known about the cognitive function of children with comorbid ADHD and LD. The present study aimed to explore the cognitive function of children and adolescents with ADHD and learning difficulties in comparison with children with ADHD and healthy controls in different age groups in a large Chinese sample. METHODS: Totally, 1043 participants with ADHD and learning difficulties (the ADHD + learning difficulties group), 870 with pure ADHD (the pure ADHD group), and 496 healthy controls were recruited...
August 20, 2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Muhammad Mahaj, Rajech Sharkia, Nadeem Shorbaji, Nathanel Zelnik
BACKGROUND: Despite the increased worldwide recognition of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there is a variability in the diagnostic rate of both ADHD and its co-morbidities. These diversities are probably related to the methodology and instruments used for the diagnosis of ADHD and to awareness and cultural interpretation of its existence. OBJECTIVES: To identify consistent differences in the clinical profile of Arab and Jewish children with ADHD in Israel who differ in cultural, ethnic and socioeconomic background...
June 2016: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Robert Thompson, Steven Tanimoto, Robert Abbott, Kathleen Nielsen, Ruby Dawn Lyman, Kira Geselowitz, Katrien Habermann, Terry Mickail, Marshall Raskind, Stephen Peverly, William Nagy, Virginia Berninger
This study in programmatic research on technology-supported instruction first identified, through pretesting using evidence-based criteria, students with persisting specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in written language during middle childhood (grades 4-6) and early adolescence (grades 7-9). Participants then completed computerized writing instruction and posttesting. The 12 computer lessons varied output modes (letter production by stylus alternating with hunt and peck keyboarding versus by pencil with grooves alternating with touch typing on keyboard), input (read or heard source material), and task (notes or summaries)...
July 19, 2016: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
Wann-Yun Shieh, Yan-Ying Ju, Yu-Chun Yu, Che-Kuan Lin, Yen-Tzu Lin, Hsin-Yi Kathy Cheng
Most individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) demonstrate problems in learning and movement coordination. Consequently, they usually have difficulties in activities such as standing, walking, and stair climbing. To monitor the physical impairments of these children, regular gross motor evaluation is crucial. Straight-line level walking is the most frequently used test of their mobility. However, numerous studies have found that unless the children have multiple disabilities, no significant differences can be found between the children with ID and typically-developed children in this test...
2016: Sensors
Amanda L Stone, Lynn S Walker
OBJECTIVE:  Evaluate psychometric properties of a measure of adolescents' observations of parental pain behaviors and use this measure to test hypotheses regarding pain-specific social learning. METHODS:  We created a proxy-report of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Pain Behavior-Short Form (PPB) for adolescents to report on parental pain behaviors, which we labeled the PPB-Proxy. Adolescents (n = 138, mean age = 14...
May 31, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Robert Weis, Celeste P Erickson, Christina H Till
Adolescents with learning disabilities disproportionately come from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds, show normative deficits in academic skills, and attend 2-year, public colleges instead of 4-year institutions. However, students with learning disabilities are well represented at the United States' most expensive and selective postsecondary institutions. We examined the psychoeducational functioning of students receiving accommodations for learning disabilities at a private, selective, liberal arts college...
May 24, 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Mariel Kupfert Heller, Sara Gambino, Paige Church, Sally Lindsay, Miriam Kaufman, Amy C McPherson
PURPOSE: Research focusing on sexuality in those living with disabilities, such as spina bifida (SB), has not specifically addressed adolescents and has been largely quantitative in design. Our study qualitatively explored how young people with SB think about and discuss sexuality with their sexual and romantic partners in the context of their disability. METHODS: Participants aged 16-25 years were recruited using purposive sampling from a large urban pediatric rehabilitation center in Toronto, Canada, as well as through a large Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus Association...
August 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
M Carotenuto, M Esposito, S Cortese, D Laino, A Verrotti
AIM: Although there have been frequent clinical reports about sleep disturbances in children with learning disabilities, no data are available about the prevalence of sleep disturbances in children with developmental dyslexia (DD). This study evaluated sleep disturbances in children with DD referred to a hospital clinic and compared their scores with healthy controls. METHODS: We consecutively enrolled 147 children (66% male) aged 10.26 ± 2.63 years who were referred by clinical paediatricians to the Clinic for Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry at the Second University of Naples with DD and 766 children without DD (60% male) aged 10...
September 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Patricia Ibeziako, Christine Choi, Edin Randall, Simona Bujoreanu
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of bullying victimization among medically admitted patients with somatic symptom and related disorders (SSDs) and to compare demographic, diagnostic, and psychosocial characteristics of bullied versus nonbullied patients. METHODS: Medically admitted patients at a tertiary pediatric facility referred to the Psychiatry Consultation Service with somatic concerns were assessed via a quality improvement (QI) initiative, the SSD Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plan (SSD-SCAMP)...
May 2016: Hospital Pediatrics
Anuja S Panicker, Anujothi Chelliah
OBJECTIVE: Presence of Specific Learning Disorder (SLD) can be extremely frustrating for a child. The present study aimed to assess the levels of resilience, depression, anxiety and stress among children and adolescents having SLD and to compare with those having Borderline Intellectual Functioning (BIF). It also aimed to evaluate the parental awareness about their child's learning disorder. METHODOLOGY: Eighty two children and adolescents, diagnosed as having SLD (N=41) and BIF (N=41) were selected for the present study...
2016: Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
A Farooqi, M Adamsson, F Serenius, B Hägglöf
AIMS: To assess the cognitive and behavioral aspects of executive functioning (EF) and learning skills in extremely preterm (EPT) children compared with term control children aged 10 to 15 years. METHODS: A total of 132 of 134 (98% of all eligible survivors) EPT children born at the 2 Swedish regional tertiary care centers from 1992 to 1998 (mean age = 12 years, mean birth weight = 718 g, and mean gestational age = 24.4 weeks) and 103 matched term controls were assessed...
2016: PloS One
Ishita Khemka, Linda Hickson, Sarah B Mallory
This study was designed to assess the impact of a decision-making curriculum (PEER-DM) on the social peer relationship knowledge and self-protective decision-making skills of adolescents with disabilities in hypothetical situations involving negative peer pressure. A randomized design was used to assign students with disabilities from self-contained special education classes to an intervention group (n = 22) or a wait-list control group (n = 20). ANCOVA analyses, using pretest scores as covariates, indicated that students who were trained on PEER-DM had significantly higher effective decision-making action and correct risk perception scores, relative to participants in the control group...
July 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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