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learning disability in the adolescent

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989948/morbidity-in-%C3%A2-1500-gram-births-in-spain-1993-2011-study-of-a-sample-of-1200-cases
#1
Concepción Gómez Esteban, Juan J Sánchez Carrión, Fernando J García Selgas, José M Segovia Guisado
Background and Objective. Preterm birth has a major impact on growth, and very preterm birth is associated with disabilities in numerous developmental domains. This article describes and quantifies morbidities in a sample of 1200 ≤1500-g births in Spain between 1993 and 2011 based on parent information, and it highlights several variables that influence these morbidities. Methods. Multiple method surveys using computer-assisted telephones interviewing and computer-assisted web interviewing methods. Sample design was intentional...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935587/glutamatergic-synapses-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Edoardo Moretto, Luca Murru, Giuseppe Martano, Jenny Sassone, Maria Passafaro
Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are a group of diseases whose symptoms arise during childhood or adolescence and that impact several higher cognitive functions such as learning, sociability and mood. Accruing evidence suggests that a shared pathogenic mechanism underlying these diseases is the dysfunction of glutamatergic synapses. We summarize present knowledge on autism spectrum disorders (ASD), intellectual disability (ID), Down syndrome (DS), Rett syndrome (RS) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), highlighting the involvement of glutamatergic synapses and receptors in these disorders...
September 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914327/repeated-2-sevoflurane-administration-in-7%C3%A2-and-60-day-old-rats-neurotoxicity-and-neurocognitive-dysfunction
#3
He Huang, Cun-Ming Liu, Jie Sun, Wen-Jie Jin, Yu-Qing Wu, Jing Chen
BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane is one of the most widely used inhalation anesthetics in pediatric anesthesia. A large number of studies have demonstrated that repeated treatment with high concentrations or long durations of sevoflurane anesthesia during the neonatal period can induce neuroapoptosis and long-term learning disability. In clinical practice, we observed that a subset of patients underwent minor surgery under sevoflurane anesthesia more than once from birth to adolescence. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate whether a 2% concentration of sevoflurane (clinically relevant usage of sevoflurane) for 1 h (a short duration) can induce neuroapoptosis and neurocognitive dysfunction in adolescent rats that received sevoflurane (2% for 1 h) during the neonatal period...
September 15, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882412/a-flavonoid-agonist-of-the-trkb-receptor-for-bdnf-improves-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-hippocampus-dependent-memory-in-the-ts65dn-mouse-model-of-ds
#4
Fiorenza Stagni, Andrea Giacomini, Sandra Guidi, Marco Emili, Beatrice Uguagliati, Maria Elisa Salvalai, Valeria Bortolotto, Mariagrazia Grilli, Roberto Rimondini, Renata Bartesaghi
Intellectual disability is the unavoidable hallmark of Down syndrome (DS), with a heavy impact on public health. Reduced neurogenesis and impaired neuron maturation are considered major determinants of altered brain function in DS. Since the DS brain starts at a disadvantage, attempts to rescue neurogenesis and neuron maturation should take place as soon as possible. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that plays a key role in brain development by specifically binding to tropomyosin-related kinase receptor B (TrkB)...
September 4, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838327/the-relationship-between-exclusion-from-school-and-mental-health-a-secondary-analysis-of-the-british-child-and-adolescent-mental-health-surveys-2004-and-2007
#5
T Ford, C Parker, J Salim, R Goodman, S Logan, W Henley
BACKGROUND: Children with poor mental health often struggle at school. The relationship between childhood psychiatric disorder and exclusion from school has not been frequently studied, but both are associated with poor adult outcomes. We undertook a secondary analysis of the British Child and Adolescent Mental Health Surveys from 2004 and its follow-up in 2007 to explore the relationship between exclusion from school and psychopathology. We predicted poorer mental health among those excluded...
August 25, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836452/using-peer-mediated-literacy-based-behavioral-interventions-to-increase-first-aid-safety-skills-in-students-with-developmental-disabilities
#6
Kelly B Kearney, Michael P Brady, Kalynn Hall, Toby Honsberger
Many adolescents with developmental disabilities do not learn the safety skills needed to maintain physical well-being in domestic and community environments. Literacy-based behavioral interventions (LBBIs) that combine print, pictures, and behavioral rehearsal are effective for promoting acquisition and maintenance of self-care skills, but have not been investigated as safety skill intervention. Also, LBBIs have primarily been implemented by teachers and other professionals. In this study, a peer partner was taught to deliver an LBBI story to students so they would learn to perform a basic first aid routine: cleaning and dressing a wound...
August 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808084/glycopyrronium-for-severe-drooling-in-children
#7
(no author information available yet)
Drooling of saliva is common in children with physical, intellectual and learning disability, and with poor neuromuscular coordination and oral control.(1) It can cause skin breakdown, damage to clothes and equipment and psychosocial problems for the child and family. For many years, glycopyrronium has been prescribed off-label using the injection solution given orally or tablets crushed and suspended in water, or as unlicensed products that were imported or manufactured as pharmaceutical specials.(2,3) In January 2017, a glycopyrronium oral solution (Sialanar-Proveca Limited) became available in the UK as the first licensed product for the treatment of severe drooling (sialorrhoea) in children and adolescents aged 3 years and older with chronic neurological disorders...
August 2017: Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750547/addressing-medical-needs-of-adolescents-and-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-a-primary-care-setting
#8
Youssra Saqr, Erika Braun, Kyle Porter, Debra Barnette, Christopher Hanks
Little has been reported about how to improve health care access and delivery for adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder. To understand the contributions to the health disparities in the autism spectrum disorder population, we conducted two independent research approaches to learn about current medical needs. A retrospective chart review was performed to evaluate medical comorbidities and medication use. A focus group was also created to address barriers faced in providing medical care. Of 126 charts reviewed, 49% (n = 62) had intellectual disability, 49% (n = 62) had attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, 52% (n = 65) had anxiety, 41% (n = 52) had obesity, 31% (n = 39) with a history of aggressive behavior, 31% (n = 31) had depression, 22% (n = 28) had seizures, and 9% (n = 11) had hypertension...
July 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648893/assessment-of-self-determination-in-adolescents-with-neonatal-brachial-plexus-palsy
#9
Donna Bergman, Lynnette Rasmussen, Kate Wan-Chu Chang, Lynda J-S Yang, Virginia S Nelson
BACKGROUND: The term self-determination refers to decision-making, goal setting, and perseverance to achieve those goals. Numerous studies have established the importance of self-determination to enhance learning and improve postschool outcomes. However, most studies evaluate students with learning disabilities, cognitive impairment, or behavioral disabilities. There is an absence of research on self-determination for adolescents with physical disabilities. OBJECTIVE: To assess self-determination of adolescents with neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP) compared with their typically developing peers via self-reported measures of function...
June 23, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573885/linking-youths-mental-psychosocial-and-emotional-functioning-to-icf-cy-lessons-learned
#10
Lilly Augustine, Frida Lygnegård, Mats Granlund, Margareta Adolfsson
PURPOSE: Linking ready-made questionnaires to codes within the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Children and Youth Version with the intention of using the information statistically for studying mental health problems can pose several challenges. Many of the constructs measured are latent, and therefore, difficult to describe in single codes. The aim of this study was to describe and discuss challenges encountered in this coding process. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire from a Swedish research programme was linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Children and Youth Version and the agreement was assessed...
June 2, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551735/primary-headaches-and-school-performance-is-there-a-connection
#11
REVIEW
J Genizi, V Guidetti, M A Arruda
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Headache is a common complaint among children and adolescents. School functioning is one of the most important life domains impacted by chronic pain in children. This review discusses the epidemiological and pathophysiological connections between headaches and school functioning including a suggested clinical approach. RECENT FINDINGS: The connection between recurrent and chronic headache and learning disabilities might be psychosocial (fear of failure) or anatomical (malfunctioning of the frontal and prefrontal areas)...
July 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471611/clinical-profile-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-impact-of-ethnic-and-social-diversities-in-israel
#12
Muhammad Mahajnah, Rajech Sharkia, Nadeem Shorbaji, Nathanel Zelnik
BACKGROUND: Despite the increased worldwide recognition of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there is a variability in the diagnostic rate of both ADHD and its co-morbidities. These diversities are probably related to the methodology and instruments used for the diagnosis of ADHD and to awareness and cultural interpretation of its existence. OBJECTIVES: To identify consistent differences in the clinical profile of Arab and Jewish children with ADHD in Israel who differ in their cultural, ethnic and socioeconomic background...
June 2016: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459120/do-adolescents-with-long-term-illnesses-and-disabilities-have-increased-risks-of-sports-related-injuries
#13
Kwok W Ng, Jorma Tynjälä, Pauli Rintala, Sami Kokko, Lasse Kannas
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to examine the rates of sports related injuries in adolescents based on the severity of their long-term illnesses or disabilities (LTID). Few injury prevention strategies in sports and health promotion have explored disaggregation by disability. METHODS: Data obtained from the 2014 Finnish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey (n = 3716, mean age = 14.8, SD = 1.03) were grouped into adolescents with and without LTID...
December 2017: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397306/a-review-of-cognitive-impairments-in-children-with-intellectual-disabilities-implications-for-cognitive-behaviour-therapy
#14
Anastasia Hronis, Lynette Roberts, Ian I Kneebone
OBJECTIVE: Nearly half of children with intellectual disability (ID) have comorbid affective disorders. These problems are chronic if left untreated and can significantly impact upon future vocational, educational, and social opportunities. Despite this, there is a paucity of research into effective treatments for this population. Notably, one of the most supported of psychological therapies, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), remains largely uninvestigated in children with ID. The current review considers the neuropsychological profile of children and adolescents with mild to moderate ID, with a view to informing how CBT might best be adapted for children and adolescents with ID...
June 2017: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393345/-bracing-in-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis
#15
Yi-Fang Lo, Yu-Chu Huang
Scoliosis is a common medical problem, with an incidence of between 0.47% and 5.2% in the general population globally. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) accounts for nearly 80% of all scoliosis. Young people with AIS often experience negative social consequences in association with their condition. Without proper and timely treatment, the potential resulting disabilities range from trunk deformity, pain, and neurological complications to compromised cardiopulmonary function, all of which may cause lifelong suffering...
April 2017: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374599/longitudinal-study-of-driver-licensing-rates-among-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Allison E Curry, Benjamin E Yerys, Patty Huang, Kristi B Metzger
Driving may increase mobility and independence for adolescents with autism without intellectual disability (autism spectrum disorder); however, little is known about rates of licensure. To compare the proportion of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder who acquire a learner's permit and driver's license, as well as the rate at which they progress through the licensing system, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of 52,172 New Jersey residents born in the years 1987-1995 who were patients of the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia healthcare network ⩾12 years of age; 609 (1...
April 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314458/facilitating-transition-from-high-school-and-special-education-to-adult-life-focus-on-youth-with-learning-disorders-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-speech-language-impairments
#17
REVIEW
Lee I Ascherman, Julia Shaftel
Youth with learning disorders, speech/language disorders, and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder may experience significant struggles during the transition from high school to postsecondary education and employment. These disorders often occur in combination or concurrently with behavioral and emotional difficulties. Incomplete evaluation may not fully identify the factors underlying academic and personal challenges. This article reviews these disorders, the role of special education law for transitional age youth in public schools, and the Americans with Disabilities Act in postsecondary educational and employment settings...
April 2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198067/verbal-spatial-iq-discrepancies-impact-brain-activation-associated-with-the-resolution-of-cognitive-conflict-in-children-and-adolescents
#18
Amy E Margolis, Katie S Davis, Lisa S Pao, Amy Lewis, Xiao Yang, Gregory Tau, Guihu Zhao, Zhishun Wang, Rachel Marsh
Verbal-spatial discrepancies are common in healthy individuals and in those with neurodevelopmental disorders associated with cognitive control deficits including: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Non-Verbal Learning Disability, Fragile X, 22q11 deletion, and Turner Syndrome. Previous data from healthy individuals suggest that the magnitude of the difference between verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) scores (the VIQ>PIQ discrepancy) is associated with reduced thickness in frontal and parietal cortices (inferior frontal, anterior cingulate, inferior parietal lobule, and supramarginal gyrus) that support cognitive control...
February 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180930/life-course-persistent-and-adolescence-limited-conduct-disorder-in-a-nationally-representative-us-sample-prevalence-predictors-and-outcomes
#19
Ashlee A Moore, Judy L Silberg, Roxann Roberson-Nay, Briana Mezuk
PURPOSE: The course of conduct disorder (CD) is heterogeneous. Moffitt proposed the heuristic of life course persistent (LCP) and adolescence limited (AL) to differentiate etiologically distinct forms of antisocial behavior (AB), each with distinct predictors and consequences, although a few studies have assessed this demarcation within the context of CD. The objective of this study was to apply Moffitt's taxonomy in a nationally representative US sample to investigate the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of LCP and AL CD...
April 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173735/evaluation-of-the-essences-in-a-neurodevelopmental-inpatient-service-for-adolescents
#20
Ciara Glennon, Marilyn A Sher
Ward climate is a key element within psychiatric settings, associated with positive clinical outcomes. The Essen Climate Evaluation Schema (EssenCES) is a ward climate measure, which is validated for use within UK forensic settings. It has been studied within neurodevelopmental psychiatric inpatient settings with mixed findings on its appropriateness, and there is a dearth of EssenCES research which has been conducted within an adolescent psychiatric inpatient setting. The present study piloted the EssenCES within an inpatient psychiatric neurodevelopmental setting for adolescents in the East of England, in order to explore its usefulness within this setting and to provide preliminary normative data for a child and adolescent mental health services inpatient learning disability population...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities: JOID
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