Read by QxMD icon Read

Glutamate Carboxypeptidase

Debasish Kar, Satya Deo Pandey, Sathi Mallick, Mouparna Dutta, Anindya S Ghosh
Escherichia coli PBP5, a DD-carboxypeptidase (DD-CPase), helps in maintaining cell shape and intrinsic β-lactam resistance. Though PBP5 does not have β-lactamase activity under physiological pH, it has a common but shorter Ω-like loop resembling class A β-lactamases. However, such Ω-like loop lacks the key glutamic acid residue that is present in β-lactamases. It is speculated that β-lactamases and DD-CPases might have undergone divergent evolution leading to distinct enzymes with different substrate specificities and functions indicating the versatility of the Ω-loops...
March 17, 2018: Protein Journal
Francesco Ceci, Paolo Castellucci, Stefano Fanti
As precision medicine evolves, the contribution of molecular imaging to the management of prostate cancer (PCa) patients, especially for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging, is gaining importance. Highly successful approaches to measure the expression of the prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) have been introduced recently. PSMA, the glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCP-II), is a membrane bound metallo-peptidase that is overexpressed in 90-100% of PCa cells. Due to its selective over-expression, PSMA is a reliable tissue marker for prostate cancer and is considered an ideal target for tumor specific imaging and therapy...
March 8, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Ji-Young Choi, Jun-Hyeok Ko, Sangmee Ahn Jo
Our previous study showed that the level of glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) protein is regulated by valproic acid, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, through acetylation of lysine residue in the GCPII protein in human astrocytes, U-87MG. The present study further investigated which HDAC subtype is involved in the acetylation of GCPII. The results revealed that GCPII interacted with HDAC1 but not with HDAC2, HDAC3, HDAC4, HDAC5, and HDAC6. Overexpression of catalytic domain (1-56 aa)-deleted HDAC1, which poorly binds to GCPII, enhanced lysine acetylation in GCPII and increased the level of GCPII protein when compared with that of the wild-type HDAC1...
February 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jitka Neburkova, Frantisek Sedlak, Jirina Zackova Suchanova, Libor Kostka, Pavel Sacha, Vladimír Šubr, Tomáš Etrych, Petr Simon, Jitka Barinkova, Robin Krystufek, Hana Spanielova, Jitka Forstova, Jan Konvalinka, Petr Cigler
Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) is a membrane protease overexpressed by prostate cancer cells and detected in the neovasculature of most solid tumors. Targeting GCPII with inhibitor-bearing nanoparticles can enable recognition, imaging, and delivery of treatments to cancer cells. Compared to methods based on antibodies and other large biomolecules, inhibitor-mediated targeting benefits from the low molecular weight of the inhibitor molecules, which are typically stable, easy-to-handle, and able to bind the enzyme with very high affinity...
February 1, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Chen Gao, Xiumei Xing, Zhini He, Shen Chen, Shan Wang, Qingye Li, Ping Guo, Haiyan Zhang, Huiyao Li, Liping Chen, Qing Wang, Jian Zhao, Yongmei Xiao, Wen Chen, Daochuan Li
Cell immortalization is the initial step for cancer development. To identify the differentially expressed genes regulated by DNA methylation over the course of human primary bronchial epithelial cell (HPBECs) immortalization, an immortalized HBE cell line (HBETT) was generated via introduction of an SV40 LT and a catalytic subunit of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) into the HPBECs. Microarrays of mRNA and DNA methylation were performed to compare the transcriptomes and DNA methylomes between these two types of cells...
February 5, 2018: Gene
Zuzana Chaloupková, Anna Balzerová, Jitka Bařinková, Zdenka Medříková, Pavel Šácha, Petr Beneš, Václav Ranc, Jan Konvalinka, Radek Zbořil
Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers among men and can in its later stages cause serious medical problems. Due to the limited suitability of current diagnostic biochemical markers, new biomarkers for the detection of prostate cancer are highly sought after. An ideal biomarker should serve as a reliable prognostic marker, be applicable for early diagnosis, and be applicable for monitoring of therapeutic response. One potential candidate is glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII), also known as prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), which has a promising role for direct imaging...
January 2, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Charalambos Kaittanis, Chrysafis Andreou, Haley Hieronymus, Ninghui Mao, Catherine A Foss, Matthias Eiber, Gregor Weirich, Palak Panchal, Anuradha Gopalan, Juan Zurita, Samuel Achilefu, Gabriela Chiosis, Vladimir Ponomarev, Markus Schwaiger, Brett S Carver, Martin G Pomper, Jan Grimm
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) or folate hydrolase 1 (FOLH1) is highly expressed on prostate cancer. Its expression correlates inversely with survival and increases with tumor grade. However, the biological role of PSMA has not been explored, and its role in prostate cancer remained elusive. Filling this gap, we demonstrate that in prostate cancer, PSMA initiates signaling upstream of PI3K through G protein-coupled receptors, specifically via the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR). PSMA's carboxypeptidase activity releases glutamate from vitamin B9 and other glutamated substrates, which activate mGluR I...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Yoshiaki Miyamoto, Noriyuki Iegaki, Kequan Fu, Yudai Ishikawa, Kazuyuki Sumi, Sota Azuma, Kyosuke Uno, Shin-Ichi Muramatsu, Atsumi Nitta
Background: Several clinical studies have suggested that N-acetylaspartate and N-acetylaspartylglutamate levels in the human brain are associated with various psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder. We have previously identified Shati/Nat8l, an N-acetyltransferase, in the brain using an animal model of psychosis. Shati/Nat8l synthesizes N-acetylaspartate from L-aspartate and acetyl-coenzyme A. Further, N-acetylaspartate is converted into N-acetylaspartylglutamate, a neurotransmitter for metabotropic glutamate receptor 3...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Tomáš Knedlík, Barbora Vorlová, Václav Navrátil, Jan Tykvart, František Sedlák, Šimon Vaculín, Miloslav Franěk, Pavel Šácha, Jan Konvalinka
Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII), also known as prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) or folate hydrolase, is a metallopeptidase expressed predominantly in the human brain and prostate. GCPII expression is considerably increased in prostate carcinoma, and the enzyme also participates in glutamate excitotoxicity in the brain. Therefore, GCPII represents an important diagnostic marker of prostate cancer progression and a putative target for the treatment of both prostate cancer and neuronal disorders associated with glutamate excitotoxicity...
September 2017: FEBS Open Bio
Michael Nedelcovych, Ranjeet P Dash, Lukáš Tenora, Sarah C Zimmermann, Alexandra J Gadiano, Caroline Garrett, Jesse Alt, Kristen R Hollinger, Elie Pommier, Andrej Jančařík, Camilo Rojas, Ajit G Thomas, Ying Wu, Krystyna Wozniak, Pavel Majer, Barbara S Slusher, Rana Rais
2-(Phosphonomethyl)pentanedioic acid (2-PMPA) is a potent and selective inhibitor of glutamate carboxypeptidase-II (GCPII) with efficacy in multiple neurological and psychiatric disease models, but its clinical utility is hampered by low brain penetration due to the inclusion of multiple acidic functionalities. We recently reported an improvement in the brain-to-plasma ratio of 2-PMPA after intranasal (IN) dosing in both rodents and primates. Herein, we describe the synthesis of several 2-PMPA prodrugs with further improved brain delivery of 2-PMPA after IN administration by masking of the γ-carboxylate...
October 2, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Rana Rais, Jan Vávra, Tomáš Tichý, Ranjeet P Dash, Alexandra J Gadiano, Lukáš Tenora, Lenka Monincová, Cyril Bařinka, Jesse Alt, Sarah C Zimmermann, C Ethan Slusher, Ying Wu, Krystyna Wozniak, Pavel Majer, Takashi Tsukamoto, Barbara S Slusher
4-Carboxy-α-[3-(hydroxyamino)-3-oxopropyl]-benzenepropanoic acid 1 is a potent hydroxamate-based inhibitor of glutamate carboxypeptidase II. In an attempt to improve its poor oral pharmacokinetics, we synthesized a series of prodrugs by masking its hydrophilic hydroxamate group. Prodrugs were evaluated for oral availability in mice and showed varying degree of plasma exposure to 1. Of these, para-acetoxybenzyl-based, 4-(5-(((4-acetoxybenzyl)oxy)amino)-2-carboxy-5-oxopentyl)benzoic acid, 12, provided 5-fold higher plasma levels of 1 compared to oral administration of 1 itself...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Francesco Ceci, Paolo Castellucci, Juliano J Cerci, Stefano Fanti
Nowadays several new imaging modalities are available for investigating prostate cancer (PCa) such as magnet resonance imaging (MRI) in the form of whole body MRI and pelvic multiparametric MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) using choline as radiotracers. Nevertheless, these modalities proved sub-optimal accuracy for detecting PCa metastases, particularly in the recurrence setting. A new molecular probe targeting the prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) has been recently developed for PET imaging...
November 1, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Virginia Plá, Neus Barranco, Esther Pozas, Fernando Aguado
Regulated secretion of neuropeptides and neurotrophic factors critically modulates function and plasticity of synapses and circuitries. It is believed that rising amyloid-β (Aβ) concentrations, synaptic dysfunction and network disorganization underlie early phases of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we analyze the impact of soluble Aβ1-42 assemblies on peptidergic secretion in cortical neurons and astrocytes. We show that neurons and astrocytes differentially produce and release carboxypeptidase E (CPE) and secretogranin III (SgIII), two dense-core vesicle (DCV) markers belonging to the regulated secretory pathway...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Takahiro Nonaka, Toshihiko Yamada, Tatsuhiro Ishimura, Daiying Zuo, John R Moffett, Joseph H Neale, Tatsuo Yamamoto
N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) is the third most prevalent and widely distributed neurotransmitter in the mammalian nervous system. NAAG activates a group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR3) and is inactivated by an extracellular enzyme, glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) in vivo. Inhibitors of this enzyme are analgesic in animal models of inflammatory, neuropathic and bone cancer pain. NAAG and GCPII are present in the locus coeruleus, a center for the descending noradrenergic inhibitory pain system...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
Kyota Yasuda, Sarah F Clatterbuck-Soper, Meredith E Jackrel, James Shorter, Stavroula Mili
Cytoplasmic inclusions of the RNA-binding protein fused in sarcoma (FUS) represent one type of membraneless ribonucleoprotein compartment. Formation of FUS inclusions is promoted by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-linked mutations, but the cellular functions affected upon inclusion formation are poorly defined. In this study, we find that FUS inclusions lead to the mislocalization of specific RNAs from fibroblast cell protrusions and neuronal axons. This is mediated by recruitment of kinesin-1 mRNA and protein within FUS inclusions, leading to a loss of detyrosinated glutamate (Glu)-microtubules (MTs; Glu-MTs) and an inability to support the localization of RNAs at protrusions...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
Rafal T Olszewski, Karolina J Janczura, Tomasz Bzdega, Elise K Der, Faustino Venzor, Brennen O'Rourke, Timothy J Hark, Kirsten E Craddock, Shankar Balasubramanian, Charbel Moussa, Joseph H Neale
Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) inactivates the peptide neurotransmitter N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) following synaptic release. Inhibitors of GCPII increase extracellular NAAG levels and are efficacious in animal models of clinical disorders via NAAG activation of a group II metabotropic glutamate receptor. mGluR2 and mGluR3 knock-out (ko) mice were used to test the hypothesis that mGluR3 mediates the activity of GCPII inhibitors ZJ43 and 2-PMPA in animal models of memory and memory loss. Short- (1...
September 2017: Neurochemical Research
Callum Hicks, Ryan A Gregg, Sunil U Nayak, Lee Anne Cannella, Giana J Schena, Christopher S Tallarida, Allen B Reitz, Garry R Smith, Scott M Rawls
RATIONALE: Metabotropic glutamate 2 and 3 (mGluR2/3) receptors are implicated in drug addiction as they limit excessive glutamate release during relapse. N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) is an endogenous mGluR2/3 agonist that is inactivated by the glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) enzyme. GCPII inhibitors, and NAAG itself, attenuate cocaine-seeking behaviors. However, their effects on the synthetic cathinone 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) have not been examined. OBJECTIVES: We determined whether withdrawal following repeated MDPV administration alters GCPII expression in corticolimbic regions...
June 2017: Psychopharmacology
Hui-Yuan Wu, Peng Wei, James I Morgan
Proteins may undergo a type of posttranslational modification - polyglutamylation, where a glutamate residue is enzymatically linked to the γ-carboxyl group of a glutamate in the primary sequence of proteins and additional glutamates are then sequentially added via α-carboxyl-linkages to the growing glutamate side chain. Nna1 (a.k.a. CCP1) defines the 6-member cytosolic carboxypeptidase (CCP) family that metabolizes polyglutamate side chain and its loss results in neurodegeneration and male infertility. Whereas most CCPs catalyze hydrolysis of α-carboxyl-linked glutamates, CCP5 uniquely metabolizes the γ-carboxyl linked, branch point glutamate...
January 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jae-Hye Lee, Hyun-Soo Cho, Jeong-Ju Lee, Soo Young Jun, Jun-Ho Ahn, Ju-Sik Min, Ji-Yong Yoon, Min-Hyuk Choi, Su-Jin Jeon, Jung Hwa Lim, Cho-Rok Jung, Dae-Soo Kim, Hyun-Taek Kim, Valentina M Factor, Yun-Han Lee, Snorri S Thorgeirsson, Cheol-Hee Kim, Nam-Soon Kim
Tumor metastasis is the leading cause of cancer death. In the metastatic process, EMT is a unique phenotypic change that plays an important role in cell invasion and changes in cell morphology. Despite the clinical significance, the mechanism underlying tumor metastasis is still poorly understood. Here we report a novel mechanism by which secreted plasma glutamate carboxypeptidase(PGCP) negatively involves Wnt/β-catenin signaling by DKK4 regulation in liver cancer metastasis. Pathway analysis of the RNA sequencing data showed that PGCP knockdown in liver cancer cell lines enriched the functions of cell migration, motility and mesenchymal cell differentiation...
November 29, 2016: Oncotarget
Min Woo Lee, Rira Seo, Yu Jeong Lee, Ju Hye Bae, Jung-Kwon Park, Joung-Hahn Yoon, Jei Wan Lee, Ho Won Jung
An Arabidopsis thaliana ALTERED MERISTEM PROGRAM1 (AtAMP1), which encodes a putative glutamate carboxypeptidase, not only controls shoot apical meristem development, but also is involved in tolerance response to abiotic stresses. Here, we introduce a novel mutant; named amp1-32 that is a phenocopier to previously isolated different amp1 mutant alleles. Interestingly, tiny leaves were continuously developed at the bottom of pre-emerged leaves in the amp1-32. The amp1-32 mutant was less sensitive to heat shock treatment lasting for 3 h, whereas disease symptoms were severely developed in the mutant after Pseudomonas syringae infection...
November 18, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"