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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646955/toxic-shock-syndrome-the-seven-rs-of-management-and-treatment
#1
Amanda L Wilkins, Andrew C Steer, Pierre R Smeesters, Nigel Curtis
Staphylococcal and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There has been considerable progress in understanding the pathophysiology and delineating optimal management and treatment. This article reviews the management of TSS, outlining the 'Seven Rs of Managing and Treating TSS': Recognition, Resuscitation, Removal of source of infection, Rational choice of antibiotics, Role of adjunctive treatment (clindamycin and intravenous immunoglobulin), Review of progress and Reduce risk of secondary cases in close contacts...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646540/animal-embryotoxicity-studies-of-key-non-artemisinin-antimalarials-and-use-in-women-in-the-first-trimester
#2
REVIEW
Robert L Clark
The World Health Organization currently recommends quinine+clindamycin for use against malaria in the first trimester. This may soon change to recommending artemisinin-based combination therapies (standard duration of dosing = 3 days). The non-artemisinin partner drugs include amodiaquine, lumefantrine, mefloquine, piperaquine, sulfadoxine+pyrimethamine, and pyronaridine. For quinine, clindamycin, and mefloquine and the combinations of sulfadoxine+pyrimethamine and artemether+lumefantrine, there are reports (including studies without internal comparison groups) that combined describe 304 to >1100 exposures of women in the first trimester for each drug with no conclusive evidence of adverse effects on pregnancy at therapeutic doses...
June 24, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642756/high-prevalence-of-macrolide-resistance-and-molecular-characterization-of-streptococcus-pyogenes-isolates-circulating-in-china-from-2009-to-2016
#3
Binghuai Lu, Yujie Fang, Yanyan Fan, Xingchun Chen, Junrui Wang, Ji Zeng, Yi Li, Zhijun Zhang, Lei Huang, Hongxia Li, Dong Li, Fengxia Zhu, Yanchao Cui, Duochun Wang
Streptococcus pyogenes, or group A Streptococcus, is a pathogen responsible for a wide range of clinical manifestations, from mild skin and soft tissue infections and pharyngitis to severe diseases. Its epidemiological characteristics should be comprehensively under surveillance for regulating the national prevention and treatment practice. Herein, a total of 140 S. pyogenes, including 38 invasive and 102 noninvasive isolates, were collected from infected patients in 10 tertiary general hospitals from 7 cities/provinces in China during the years 2009-2016...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640870/dominance-of-community-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-clones-in-a-maternity-hospital
#4
Edet E Udo, Noura Al-Sweih
BACKGROUND: Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major pathogen causing healthcare- and community- acquired infections. The purpose of this study was to characterize MRSA isolated at the Maternity Hospital between 2006 and 2011 for their genetic relatedness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MRSA isolates were investigated using a combination of antibiogram, Staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) and spa typing to determine their relatedness to MRSA isolated in other Kuwait hospitals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633790/ochrobactrum-anthropi-caused-osteomyelitis-in-the-foot-mimicking-a%C3%A2-bone-tumor-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Roy Gigi, Gideon Flusser, Assaf Kadar, Moshe Salai, Shlomo Elias
Osteomyelitis due to Ochrobactrum anthropi, a new genus Ochrobacterum widely distributed in the environment and occasionally associated with human infection, has been described in only a few case reports. We present a report of an unusual case of osteomyelitis caused by O. anthropi that was identified 9 years after a nail puncture to the lateral cuneiform bone. The patient was an 18-year-old male with a painful foot lesion that had originally been misdiagnosed as an osteolytic tumor. He underwent surgery and 2 firm pieces of rubber measuring 7 and 10 mm were removed from the lower portion of the lateral cuneiform bone, which appeared to be affected by an infection...
July 2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630196/antimicrobial-susceptibility-trends-among-staphylococcus-aureus-from-united-states-hospitals-results-from-7-years-of-the-ceftaroline-aware-surveillance-program-2010-2016
#6
Helio S Sader, Rodrigo E Mendes, Jennifer M Streit, Robert K Flamm
We evaluated trends in Staphylococcus aureus antimicrobial susceptibility in United States hospitals in the 2010-2016 period. A total of 21,056 clinical isolates from 42 medical centers were tested for susceptibility by broth microdilution methods. MRSA rates decreased from 50.0% (2010) to 42.2% (2016). Susceptibility to erythromycin, levofloxacin, and clindamycin increased slightly, whereas susceptibility to ceftaroline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline remained stable. Ceftaroline retained potent activity against MSSA and MRSA (97...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623856/antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-propionibacterium-acnes-isolated-from-acne-patients-in-japan-between-2013-and-2015
#7
Keisuke Nakase, Nobukazu Hayashi, Yui Akiyama, Sae Aoki, Norihisa Noguchi
The prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Propionibacterium acnes strains isolated from acne patients has been increasing in Japan. Here, to estimate the current resistance rate, we tested antimicrobial susceptibility among P. acnes from acne patients having visited a specialized dermatology clinic between 2013 and 2015. Rates of resistance to macrolides and clindamycin were 44.3 (31/70) and 38.6% (27/70), respectively. erm(X), which confers high-level clindamycin resistance (minimum inhibitory concentration ≥256 μg/mL), was detected in six isolates, whereas no resistance determinants were identified in eight strains showing high-level resistance to clindamycin...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620316/incidence-and-antimicrobial-sensitivity-profiles-of-normal-conjunctiva-bacterial-flora-in-the-central-area-of-china-a-hospital-based-study
#8
Hua Tao, Juan Wang, Lei Li, Hui-Zhi Zhang, Meng-Ping Chen, Le Li
Objective: To study the distribution and patterns of resistance to antimicrobial agents of normal conjunctival bacteria. Materials and Methods: Conjunctival specimens were collected from 8,224 patients and then cultured, which underwent antimicrobial susceptibility test following standard methods. Patients with infectious symptoms such as erythema or oedema and those using systemic or topical antibiotics within 1 month were excluded. Results: In this study, the incidence of isolated bacteria was 24.2%. The middle aged group of 41-65 years presented the lowest rate of bacterial isolation which was 19...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620262/prevalence-of-multiple-drug-resistant-streptococcus-suis-in-and-around-guwahati-india
#9
Mrinalee Devi, Jyoti B Dutta, Swaraj Rajkhowa, Dhireswar Kalita, Girindra Kumar Saikia, Bipin Chandra Das, Razibuddin Ahmed Hazarika, Gauranga Mahato
AIM: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus suis and their resistance patterns isolated from both clinically healthy carriers and diseased pigs in and around Guwahati, Assam, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 497 samples were collected during October, 2012, to April, 2014, from clinically healthy (n=67) and diseased (n=230) pigs of varying age and either sex maintained under organized and unorganized farming systems...
May 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618168/streptococcus-pyogenes-quinolinate-salvage-pathway-structural-and-functional-studies-of-quinolinate-phosphoribosyl-transferase-and-nh3-dependent-nad-synthetase
#10
William T Booth, Trevor L Morris, David P Mysona, Milan J Shah, Linda K Taylor, Taylor W Karlin, Kathryn Clary, Karolina A Majorek, Lesa R Offermann, Maksymilian Chruszcz
Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as Group A Strep (GAS), is an obligate human pathogen that is responsible for millions of infections and numerous deaths per year. Infection manifestations can range from simple, acute pharyngitis to more complex, necrotizing fasciitis. To date, most treatments for GAS infections involve the use of common antibiotics including tetracycline and clindamycin. Unfortunately, new strains have been identified that are resistant to these drugs therefore, new targets must be identified to treat drug resistant strains...
June 15, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614287/nasal-swab-screening-for-staphylococcus-aureus-in-spinal-deformity-patients-treated-with-growing-rods
#11
Scott J Luhmann, June C Smith
BACKGROUND: Surgical-site infections are one of the most concerning complications in patients treated with growing rods (GR). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of preoperative screening for Staphylococcus aureus (SA) for all growing spine procedures, and if this would permit alteration of prophylactic antibiotics to cover the identified resistances. METHODS: All patients were identified who had SA screening during the course of GR treatment. In otal, 34 patients [23 neuromuscular (NMS), 4 congenital, 4 idiopathic scoliosis (IS), and 3 syndromic] were identified who had 111 preoperative screenings [79 lengthenings, 23 insertions, 6 revisions, and 3 conversions to posterior spinal fusions (PSF)]...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606284/-efficacy-of-clindamycin-primaquine-as-the-salvage-treatment-for-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-non-hiv-infected-patients
#12
X Wang, G F Wang, Z Jin, J J Huang, X D Mu, W Zhang
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of clindamycin-primaquine as the salvage treatment for pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in non-HIV-infected patients. Methods: Clinical data of non-HIV-infected patients with PCP who were treated with clindamycin-primaquine as the salvage treatment in Peking University First Hospital from Jan 2010 to May 2016 were collected and reviewed in this retrospective study. Clinical outcomes were analyzed to evaluate the efficacy of clindamycin-primaquine as a salvage treatment. Results: A total of 19 non-HIV-infected patients with PCP were included...
June 13, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605582/assessing-antibiotic-permeability-of-gram-negative-bacteria-via-nanofluidics
#13
SoonGweon Hong, Tobias J Moritz, Christopher M Rath, Pramila Tamrakar, Philip Lee, Thomas Krucker, Luke P Lee
While antibiotic resistance is increasing rapidly, drug discovery has proven to be extremely difficult. Antibiotic resistance transforms some bacterial infections into deadly medical conditions. A significant challenge in antibiotic discovery is designing potent molecules that enter Gram-negative bacteria and also avoid active efflux mechanisms. Critical analysis in rational drug design has been hindered by the lack of effective analytical tools to analyze the bacterial membrane permeability of small molecules...
June 16, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603609/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-clostridium-difficile-isolated-in-thailand
#14
Papanin Putsathit, Monthira Maneerattanaporn, Pipat Piewngam, Daniel R Knight, Pattarachai Kiratisin, Thomas V Riley
BACKGROUND: Exposure to antimicrobials is the major risk factor associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Paradoxically, treatment of CDI with antimicrobials remains the preferred option. To date, only three studies have investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility of C. difficile from Thailand, two of which were published in the 1990s. This study aimed to investigate the contemporary antibiotic susceptibility of C. difficile isolated from patients in Thailand. METHODS: A collection of 105 C...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602805/erm-gene-distribution-among-norwegian-bacteroides-isolates-and-evaluation-of-phenotypic-tests-to-detect-inducible-clindamycin-resistance-in-bacteroides-species
#15
Bjørn Odd Johnsen, Nina Handal, Roger Meisal, Jørgen Vildershøj Bjørnholt, Peter Gaustad, Truls Michael Leegaard
The aims of this study were to describe the distribution of the most common erm genes in a collection of Norwegian Bacteroides isolates and to investigate whether the phenotypic tests for determining inducible clindamycin resistance among Bacteroides species recommended by EUCAST, NordicAST and the manufacturer of E-test(®), are effective. We investigated 175 unique Bacteroides isolates for the presence of erm(B), erm(F) and erm(G) genes, determined their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to clindamycin and categorised their susceptibility according to EUCAST breakpoints...
June 8, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600216/molecular-epidemiology-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-circulating-in-the-russian-federation
#16
Vladimir Gostev, Alexander Kruglov, Olga Kalinogorskaya, Olga Dmitrenko, Olga Khokhlova, Tatsuo Yamamoto, Yuri Lobzin, Irina Ryabchenko, Sergey Sidorenko
The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of antimicrobial resistance and molecular features of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates in Russia. Isolates recovered from hospital patients (n=480), healthy medical personnel (n=25), and healthy carriers (n=13) were included in the study. Hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) demonstrated high resistance to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol (76%-92%), moderate - to tetracycline, erythromycin, clindamycin, and rifampicin (38%-54%), and low - to fusidic acid, co-trimoxazole, mupirocin, and daptomycin (2%-7%)...
June 7, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598310/in-vitro-activities-of-vancomycin-and-linezolid-against-biofilm-producing-methicillin-resistant-staphylococci-species-isolated-from-catheter-related-bloodstream-infections-from-an-egyptian-tertiary-hospital
#17
Asmaa A Hashem, Noha M Abd El Fadeal, Atef S Shehata
PURPOSE: Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) are among the most common hospital-acquired infections. We aimed to survey methicillin resistance, biofilm production and susceptibility to vancomycin, linezolid and other antibiotics for staphylococci isolated from CRBSIs. METHODOLOGY: Fifty-eight isolates [20 S. aureus and 38 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS; 20 Staphylococcusepidermidis, nine Staphylococcushaemolyticus, three Staphylococcusschleiferi, two Staphylococcuswarneri and four Staphylococcuslugdunensis)] were tested for methicillin resistance by cefoxitin disk diffusion and detection of the mecA gene by PCR; biofilm-forming ability using Congo red agar and tissue culture plate methods; susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, cotrimoxazole, erythromycin, gentamicin, linezolid, rifampicin and tetracycline; and MIC determination for vancomycin...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593043/diffusion-of-clindamycin-resistant-and-erythromycin-resistant-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-mssa-potential-st398-in-united-states-veterans-health-administration-hospitals-2003-2014
#18
Margaret Carrel, Michihiko Goto, Marin L Schweizer, Michael Z David, Daniel Livorsi, Eli N Perencevich
BACKGROUND: Changing phenotypic profiles of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) isolates can indicate the emergence of novel sequence types (ST). The diffusion of MSSA ST can be tracked by combining established genotypic profiles with phenotypic surveillance data. ST398 emerged in New York City (NYC) and exhibits resistance to clindamycin and erythromycin but tetracycline susceptibility ("potential ST398"). Trends of potential ST398 were examined in a national cohort of all Veterans Health Administration patients with MSSA invasive infections during 2003-2014...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592549/emergence-of-a-staphylococcus-aureus-clone-resistant-to-mupirocin-and-fusidic-acid-carrying-exotoxin-genes-and-causing-mainly-skin-infections
#19
Anastassios Doudoulakakis, Iris Spiliopoulou, Nikolaos Spyridis, Nikolaos Giormezis, John Kopsidas, Maria Militsopoulou, Evangelia Lebessi, Maria Tsolia
Objectives: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) caused by mupirocin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains have recently increased in our settings. We sought to evaluate the characteristics of these cases over a 43-month period.Methods: All community-acquired staphylococcal infections caused by mupirocin-resistant strains were retrospectively reviewed. Genes encoding high level (HLR) mupirocin resistance (mupA), fusidic acid resistance (fusB), ermA, ermC, PVL (lukS/lukF-PV), exfoliative toxins (eta, etb), fibronectin binding protein A (fnbA) were investigated in 102 preserved selected strains by PCRs...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591972/-one-carrier-of-robinsoniella-peoriensis-in-china
#20
Jing-Yu Yang, Xiao-Xia Zhang, Ru-Jia Yu, Ping Feng, Zhi-Yong Zong
OBJECTIVES: To study morphological feature, biochemical characteristic and antibiotic resistance of Robinsoniella peoriensis (R.peoriensis) strain. METHODS: The clinical R.peoriensis strain was isolated from ananus swab samples being screened in ICU. Biochemical characteristic of the strain was completed by fully automatic microbial identification and drug susceptibility analysis system (BioMérieux, Marcy-l'éE toile, France) with the ANC Vitek2. Antibiotic susceptibility in vitro was performed using agar dilution...
July 2016: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
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