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Clindamycin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213335/transformation-products-of-clindamycin-in-moving-bed-biofilm-reactor-mbbr
#1
Gordon T H Ooi, Monica Escola Casas, Henrik R Andersen, Kai Bester
Clindamycin is widely prescribed for its ability to treat a number of common bacterial infections. Thus, clindamycin enters wastewater via human excretion or disposal of unused medication and widespread detection of pharmaceuticals in rivers proves the insufficiency of conventional wastewater treatment plants in removing clindamycin. Recently, it has been discovered that attached biofilm reactors, e.g., moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) obtain a higher removal of pharmaceuticals than conventional sludge wastewater treatment plants...
February 2, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213022/prevalence-genetic-diversity-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-listeria-monocytogenes-isolated-from-fresh-and-smoked-fish-in-poland
#2
Kinga Wieczorek, Jacek Osek
A total of 57 out of 301 (18.9%) fresh and smoked fish samples in Poland were positive for Listeria monocytotgenes. The bacteria were most frequently identified in fresh and smoked salmon (32.0% and 33.8% respectively) as well as in fresh cod (31.8%). Only three samples of smoked salmon were contaminated with the bacteria above 100 CFU/g. Four molecular serogroups were identified and the most prevalent, 1/2a-3a (40 isolates; 70.2%), was present in samples from both marine (33 strains; 71.7%) and freshwater fish (7 isolates; 63...
June 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210463/frequency-of-inducible-clindamycin-resistance-among-gram-positive-cocci-in-a-tertiary-hospital-tehran-iran
#3
Hiva Saffar, Afsaneh Rajabiani, Alireza Abdollahi, Shirin Habibi, Zohreh Baseri
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Accurate designation of antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the infecting microorganisms is an important crucial factor in making appropriate therapeutic decisions. Macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B antibiotics are in a family, reserved as an alternative approach in treatment of resistant Gram positive cocci. Amongst them, clindamycin has been considered as the preferred agent due to its excellent pharmacokinetic properties. The inducible resistance to clindamycin in Gram positive staphylococci and streptococci cannot be recognized by routine broth or agar based susceptibility tests and D-zone testing is necessary...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202770/daptomycin-for-complicated-skin-infections-a-randomized-trial
#4
John Bradley, Chad Glasser, Hernando Patino, Sandra R Arnold, Antonio Arrieta, Blaise Congeni, Robert S Daum, Tsoline Kojaoghlanian, Minjung Yoon, Diane Anastasiou, Dominik J Wolf, Paula Bokesch
BACKGROUND: Complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI) are common in children. Due to safety and resistance issues with recommended agents, new treatment options would be advantageous. METHODS: Multicenter, evaluator-blinded clinical trial. Patients 1 to 17 years old with cSSSI caused by Gram-positive pathogens were randomized 2:1 to intravenous daptomycin or standard-of-care (SOC) treatment for ≤14 days. Daptomycin was administered once daily with dosing by patient age: 12 to 17 years, 5 mg/kg; 7 to 11 years, 7 mg/kg; 2 to 6 years, 9 mg/kg; 12 to 23 months, 10 mg/kg...
February 15, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192251/antibiotic-induced-depletion-of-anti-inflammatory-clostridia-is-associated-with-the-development-of-gvhd-in-pediatric-stem-cell-transplant-patients
#5
Tiffany R Simms-Waldrip, Gauri Sunkersett, Laura A Coughlin, Milan R Savani, Carlos Arana, Jiwoong Kim, Minsoo Kim, Xiaowei Zhan, David E Greenberg, Yang Xie, Stella M Davies, Andrew Y Koh
Adult stem cell transplantation (SCT) patients with graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) exhibit significant disruptions in gut microbial communities. These changes are associated with higher overall mortality and appear to be driven by specific antibiotic therapies. It is unclear whether pediatric SCT patients who develop GVHD exhibit similar antibiotic-induced gut microbiota community changes. Here, we show that pediatric SCT patients (from Children's Medical Center Dallas, n=8, and Cincinnati Children's Hospital, n=7) who develop GVHD show a significant decline, up to 10-log fold, in gut anti-inflammatory Clostridia (AIC), compared to those without GVHD...
February 9, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183731/c-septicum-complicating-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-survival-without-surgical-intervention
#6
Rachel M Engen, Elizabeth Y Killien, Jessica L Davis, Jordan M Symons, Silvia M Hartmann
Clostridium septicum is an anaerobic bacterium that causes rapidly progressive myonecrosis, bacteremia, and central nervous system infection. It has been reported as a complication of Escherichia coli hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in 8 children worldwide; 5 children died, and the 3 reported survivors had surgically treated disease. We present 3 cases of C septicum complicating HUS in children, including the first 2 reported cases of survival without surgical intervention. All patients presented with classic cases of HUS with initial clinical improvement followed by deterioration...
February 9, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182844/characterization-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-from-lactobacillus-isolated-from-traditional-dairy-products
#7
Huiling Guo, Lin Pan, Lina Li, Jie Lu, Laiyu Kwok, Bilige Menghe, Heping Zhang, Wenyi Zhang
Lactobacilli are widely used as starter cultures or probiotics in yoghurt, cheese, beer, wine, pickles, preserved food, and silage. They are generally recognized as safe (GRAS). However, recent studies have shown that some lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains carry antibiotic resistance genes and are resistant to antibiotics. Some of them may even transfer their intrinsic antibiotic resistance genes to other LAB or pathogens via horizontal gene transfer, thus threatening human health. A total of 33 Lactobacillus strains was isolated from fermented milk collected from different areas of China...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180934/measuring-acne-using-coproporphyrin-iii-protoporphyrin-ix-and-lesion-specific-inflammation-an-exploratory-study
#8
Sachin V Patwardhan, C Richter, A Vogt, U Blume-Peytavi, D Canfield, J Kottner
Propionibacterium acnes: (P. acnes) produce Porphyrins; however, fluorescence measurement of Porphyrins from Ultraviolet-A (UVA) images has failed to establish a correlation. Acne clinical research and imaging has ignored the spectral excitation-emission characteristics and the exact pattern of the Porphyrins synthesized by P. acnes. In this exploratory study, for the first time, the possible relationships of Coproporphyrin III (CpIII) and Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence as well as acne lesion-specific inflammation measurements with clinical signs of acne are investigated...
February 8, 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173648/-antibiotic-resistance-analysis-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates-from-the-hospitalized-children-in-shanxi-children-s-hospital-from-2012-to-2014
#9
L L Ge, Z Y Han, A H Liu, L Zhu, J H Meng
Objective: To investigate the antibiotic resistance status of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from hospitalized children in Shanxi Children's Hospital. Method: E-test and Kirby-Bauer methods were applied to determine drug sensitivity of the isolates collected from the body fluid specimens of hospitalized children in Shanxi Children's Hospital from January 2012 to December 2014. The antimicrobial sensitivity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Streptococcus pneumoniae to the conventional antibiotics were analyzed, in order to compare the annual trends of non-invasive isolates, while the differentiation of sensitivity from specimens...
February 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167857/high-frequency-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-in-children-an-alarming-concern
#10
F Sabouni, Z Movahedi, S Mahmoudi, B Pourakbari, S Keshavarz Valian, S Mamishi
INTRODUCTION: Enterococcus spp. is considered as important etiological agents of nosocomial infections. However, a little is known about the epidemiology of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VREF). The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of VREF and detecting of two prevalent resistance genes (vanA, vanB) at Children Medical Center Hospital, an Iranian referral pediatric Hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During January 2013 to December 2013, 180 E...
December 2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166707/isolation-and-partial-characterization-of-streptococcus-suis-from-clinical-cases-in-cattle
#11
Ogi Okwumabua, Hanna Peterson, Hui-Min Hsu, Phil Bochsler, Melissa Behr
Sixteen isolates of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria were obtained from clinical cases of diverse conditions in cattle and identified as Streptococcus suis using 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequencing and other bacterial identification methods. None of the isolates could be assigned to any of the known S. suis capsular types. Virulence-associated gene profiling that targeted muramidase-released protein, extracellular protein factor, suilysin, 89-kb pathogenicity island, and arginine deiminase ( arcA) genes were negative except for 1 isolate that was arcA positive...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164610/an-investigation-of-the-frequency-of-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-pathogens-and-their-antibiotic-patterns-in-tonsils-and-adenoids-of-adenotonsillectomy-patients
#12
Yasar Nakipoglu, Gulsen Gunel, Deniz Kanliada, Levent Aydemir, Nezahat Gurler, Bulent Gurler
BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the potentially pathogenic bacteria of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and their susceptibilities to different antibiotics. METHODS: Two-hundred adenoid and tonsil specimens from 100 patients who had undergone adenotonsillectomy were obtained and analyzed bacteriologically. Identification of the pathogens was made by conventional or commercial identification systems and antibiotic susceptibility tests were carried out by disk diffusion method...
August 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154581/detection-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-determination-of-minimum-inhibitory-concentration-of-vancomycin-for-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-pus-wound-swab-samples-of-the-patients-attending-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-kathmandu-nepal
#13
Raghabendra Adhikari, Narayan Dutt Pant, Sanjeev Neupane, Mukesh Neupane, Roshan Bhattarai, Sabita Bhatta, Raina Chaudhary, Binod Lekhak
The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of cefoxitin disc diffusion method and oxacillin broth microdilution method for detection of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA), taking presence of mecA gene as reference. In addition, inducible clindamycin resistance and beta-lactamase production were studied and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of vancomycin for S. aureus isolates was determined. A total of 711 nonrepeated pus/wound swab samples from different anatomic locations were included in the study...
2017: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139320/extended-use-of-perioperative-antibiotics-in-head-and-neck-microvascular-reconstruction
#14
Stefanie Saunders, Stephen Reese, Jimmy Lam, Jacqueline Wulu, Scharkuh Jalisi, Waleed Ezzat
PURPOSE: Many head and neck surgical procedures are considered clean-contaminated wounds and antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended. Despite prophylaxis, the incidence of surgical site infections remains significant - especially in the setting of free tissue transfer. The antibiotic course is often of a longer duration after free tissue transfer than the recommended 24hour post-operatively. Currently, there is no consensus on appropriate antibiotic regimen or duration at this time. This study investigates the outcomes of a 7-day perioperative antibiotic regimen after microvascular reconstruction of the head and neck at our institution...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137820/pharmacokinetics-of-clindamycin-in-obese-and-non-obese-children
#15
Michael J Smith, Daniel Gonzalez, Jennifer L Goldman, Ram Yogev, Janice E Sullivan, Michael D Reed, Ravinder Anand, Karen Martz, Katherine Berezny, Daniel K Benjamin, P Brian Smith, Michael Cohen-Wolkowiez, Kevin Watt
Although obesity is prevalent among children in the United States, pharmacokinetic (PK) data in obese children are limited. Clindamycin is a commonly used antibiotic that may require dose adjustment in obese children due to its lipophilic properties. We performed a clindamycin population PK analysis using data from three separate trials. A total of 420 samples from 220 children, 76 of whom had a body mass index ≥ 95(th) percentile for age, were included in the analysis. As compared to other metrics, total body weight (TBW) was the most robust measure of body size...
January 30, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134677/are-there-any-reasons-to-change-our-behavior-in-necrotizing-fasciitis-with-the-advent-of-new-antibiotics
#16
Francesco Menichetti, Simone Giuliano, Simona Fortunato
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The treatment of necrotizing fasciitis requires a multifaceted approach, consisting of surgical source control with immediate surgical debridement along with life support, clinical monitoring, and antimicrobial therapy. Many drugs are now available for the treatment of this life-threatening infectious disease, and the purpose of this review is to provide the reader with an updated overview of the newest therapeutic options. RECENT FINDINGS: Because most necrotizing soft tissue infections are polymicrobial, broad-spectrum coverage is advisable...
January 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128084/boils-at-frictional-locations-in-a-patient-with-hidradenitis-suppurativa
#17
Jurr Boer, Dalibor Mihajlovic
Dear Editor, Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, recurrent, inflammatory skin disease. The primary clinical presentation are painful inflamed nodules or boils of inverse areas, i.e. the axillary and anogenito-crural regions, but it can also involve the infra- and inter-mammary regions (1,2). The etiology of HS is not clearly defined. Obesity, smoking, and genetic factors are considered important risk factors. In addition, it has also been suggested that friction may contribute to the development of HS, especially in the obese, but this is based on highly anecdotal reports (3-5)...
December 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122513/drug-resistance-dynamics-of-staphylococcus-aureus-between-2008-and-2014-at-a-tertiary-teaching-hospital-jiangxi-province-china
#18
Kaisen Chen, Yanfang Huang, Qiuyue Song, Chenhui Wu, Xiaowen Chen, Lingbing Zeng
BACKGROUND: To understand the relationship between the Staphylococcus aureus infection rate and the reasonable usage of antibiotics, which will help in the effective control of MRSA infection. METHODS: All data were obtained by the application of the nosocomial infection surveillance network. Drug resistance, departmental sources, and isolated sites as well as infection rate variations of S. aureus were analyzed in the 7-year period in key departments. RESULTS: Between 2008 and 2014, 2525 strains of S...
January 25, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110780/subtyping-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-clostridium-difficile-pcr-ribotype-078-126-isolates-of-human-and-animal-origin
#19
Sergio Álvarez-Pérez, José L Blanco, Celine Harmanus, Ed Kuijper, Marta E García
The Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype complex 078/126 (RT078/126) is often involved in human disease and is also frequently isolated from diverse animal species. The high genetic relatedness between human and animal RT078/126 isolates found in different regions has encouraged discussion about the zoonotic potential of this lineage. We compared for the first time the genetic diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of human and animal C. difficile RT078/126 isolates from Spain. A collection of 96 isolates (50 of human and 46 of animal origin; 63 and 33 of ribotypes 078 and 126, respectively) was subtyped by an improved amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting method and tested for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility...
February 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109846/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-clinical-isolates-of-actinomyces-and-related-genera-reveals-an-unusual-clindamycin-resistance-among-actinomyces-urogenitalis-strains
#20
Claudia Barberis, Mabel Budia, Susana Palombarani, Carlos Hernán Rodriguez, María Soledad Ramírez, Barbara Arias, Laura Bonofiglio, Angela Famiglietti, Marta Mollerach, Marisa Almuzara, Carlos Vay
OBJECTIVES: Patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility in Actinomyces and related genera are very limited in the literature. Data of predominant susceptibility profiles could contribute to the establishment of an accurate empirical treatment. METHODS: A total of 113 isolates from clinical samples were included in this study. Each isolate was identified using phenotypic methods and MALDI-TOF/MS. When discrepancies were observed, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
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