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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333608/morbidity-in-pregnant-women-associated-with-unverified-penicillin-allergies-antibiotic-use-and-group-b-streptococcus-infections
#1
Shilpa H Desai, Michael S Kaplan, Qiaoling Chen, Eric M Macy
CONTEXT: The morbidity potentially associated with unverified penicillin allergy in pregnant women, with and without group B streptococcus (GBS) infections, is unknown. Penicillin allergy testing is safe during pregnancy but is done infrequently. OBJECTIVE: To determine morbidity associated with antibiotic use in a large cohort of pregnant women, with and without an unverified history of penicillin allergy, and with and without GBS. DESIGN: Retrospective...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333320/cross-resistance-to-lincosamides-streptogramins-a-and-pleuromutilins-in-streptococcus-agalactiae-isolates-from-the-usa
#2
Paulina A Hawkins, Caitlin S Law, Benjamin J Metcalf, Sopio Chochua, Delois M Jackson, Lars F Westblade, Robert Jerris, Bernard W Beall, Lesley McGee
Background: Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is a leading cause of meningitis, sepsis and pneumonia in neonates in the United States. GBS also causes invasive disease in older infants, pregnant women, children and young adults with underlying medical conditions, and older adults. Resistance to lincosamides in the absence of erythromycin resistance is rare in GBS, but has been previously reported in clinical isolates, both on its own or in combination with resistance to streptogramins A and pleuromutilins (L/LSA/LSAP phenotypes)...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332133/molecular-typing-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-to-six-antimicrobials-of-clostridium-difficile-isolates-from-three-czech-hospitals-in-eastern-bohemia-in-2011-2012
#3
V Beran, E J Kuijper, C Harmanus, I M Sanders, S M van Dorp, C W Knetsch, J Janeckova, A Seidelova, L Barekova, J Tvrdik, D Chmelar, I Ciznar
In 2011-2012, a survey was performed in three regional hospitals in the Czech Republic to determine the incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) and to characterize bacterial isolates. C. difficile isolates were characterized by PCR ribotyping, toxin genes detection, multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing to fidaxomicin, vancomycin, metronidazole, clindamycin, LFF571, and moxifloxacin using agar dilution method. The incidence of CDI in three studied hospitals was 145, 146, and 24 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in 2011 and 177, 258, and 67 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in 2012...
March 22, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330484/antibiotic-resistance-and-biofilm-production-among-the-strains-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-pus-wound-swab-samples-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-nepal
#4
Ankit Belbase, Narayan Dutt Pant, Krishus Nepal, Bibhusan Neupane, Rikesh Baidhya, Reena Baidya, Binod Lekhak
BACKGROUND: The increasing drug resistance along with inducible clindamycin resistance, methicillin resistance and biofilm production among the strains of Staphylococcus aureus are present as the serious problems to the successful treatment of the infections caused by S. aureus. So, the main objectives of this study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns along with the rates of inducible clindamycin resistance, methicillin resistance and biofilm production among the strains of S...
March 23, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325626/group-b-streptococcal-necrotizing-pneumonia-in-a-diabetic-adult-patient
#5
Andrea Pacha, Ramiro Luna Cian, Laura Bonofiglio, Melisa Solari, Virginia Strada, Mariana Suárez, Laura Vigliarolo, Carina Tersigni, Marta Mollerach, Horacio Lopardo
The aim of this report is to describe a rare case of necrotizing pneumonia due to group B Streptococcus serotype III in a relatively young male adult (48 years old) suffering from diabetes. The organism was isolated from his pleural fluid and was only resistant to tetracycline. The patient first received ceftazidime (2g/8h i.v.)+clindamycin (300mg/8h) for 18 days and then he was discharged home and orally treated with amoxicillin clavulanic acid (1g/12h) for 23 days with an uneventful evolution. As in the cases of invasive infection by Streptococcus pyogenes, clindamycin could prevent streptococcal toxic shock syndrome...
March 18, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321533/perioperative-antibiotic-use-in-vagus-nerve-stimulator-implantation-a-clinical-series
#6
Jeffrey S Raskin, Daniel Hansen, Arvind Mohan, I-Wen Pan, Daniel J Curry, Sandi Lam
PURPOSE: Preoperative antibiosis contributes up to one third of total antibiotic use in major hospitals. Choice of antibiotic is not uniformly standardized, and polypharmacy regimens may be used without knowing the effect on rates of surgical site infection, nonsurgical infections, or antibiotic resistance. Careful examination of trends in surgical prophylaxis is warranted. In this study, we aimed to examine our institution's experience with vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) implantation, focusing on association between perioperative antibiotic practices and postoperative infectious outcomes...
March 20, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314743/adjunctive-clindamycin-for-cellulitis-a-clinical-trial-comparing-flucloxacillin-with-or-without-clindamycin-for-the-treatment-of-limb-cellulitis
#7
Richard Brindle, O Martin Williams, Paul Davies, Tim Harris, Heather Jarman, Alastair D Hay, Peter Featherstone
OBJECTIVE: To compare flucloxacillin with clindamycin to flucloxacillin alone for the treatment of limb cellulitis. DESIGN: Parallel, double-blinded, randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Emergency department attendances and general practice referrals within 20 hospitals in England. INTERVENTIONS: Flucloxacillin, at a minimum of 500 mg 4 times per day for 5 days, with clindamycin 300 mg 4 times per day for 2 days given orally versus flucloxacillin given alone...
March 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303826/prevalence-of-pneumococcal-serotypes-in-adults-%C3%A2-50-years-of-age
#8
Chand Wattal, Neeraj Goel, S P Byotra
CONTEXT: Currently, majority of studies on antibiotic resistance and serotype prevalence in Streptococcus pneumoniae are in paediatric population and there is limited epidemiologic data pertaining to elderly Indian population. AIMS: This study was undertaken to assess antibiotic resistance pattern and the coverage of the polysaccharide vaccine 23 (PPV23) in the elderly population. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This was a prospective 2-year pneumococcal surveillance study in patients with community-acquired pneumococcal infections of ≥50 years' age group on fifty isolates of S...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299216/successful-treatment-of-necrotizing-fasciitis-and-streptococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome-with-the-addition-of-linezolid
#9
Hana Rac, Karine D Bojikian, Jose Lucar, Katie E Barber
Necrotizing fasciitis is a deep-seated subcutaneous tissue infection that is commonly associated with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS). Surgical debridement plus penicillin and clindamycin are the current standard of care. We report a case of necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal TSS where linezolid was added after a failure to improve with standard therapy. Briefly after isolation of Streptococcus pyogenes from tissue cultures, the patient underwent two surgical debridement procedures and was changed to standard of care therapy...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291426/case-report-of-a-6-year-old-girl-with-mycoplasma-hominis-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-infection
#10
Masanori Sato, Noriko Kubota, Yoshihiko Katsuyama, Yota Suzuki, Yosuke Miyairi, Kisei Minami, Masashi Kasai
Mycoplasma hominis is a rare causative pathogen for surgical site infections after neurosurgical procedures. This organism lacks a cell wall, rendering it undetectable by Gram staining and making it resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics. In addition, some special techniques are required to identify this organism. Thus, it is very difficult to diagnose infections caused by this pathogen. Here, the authors report a pediatric case of M. hominis ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) infection with central nervous system involvement for which beta-lactam antibiotics were not effective and Gram staining revealed no pathogens...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290221/microbiological-diagnosis-and-antimicrobial-sensitivity-profiles-in-diseased-free-living-raptors
#11
Anna Vidal, Laia Baldomà, Rafael A Molina-Lopez, Marga Martin, Laila Darwich
Free-living raptors (birds of prey) can act as reservoirs of potentially zoonotic agents but they also can be affected by microorganisms as target hosts. In this retrospective study, microbiological results (n=663) and antibiotic sensitivity profiles (n=108) of bacterial isolates were analyzed from diseased free-living raptors. Sixty-nine percent of cases (n=457) yielded bacteria: 58% were in pure culture and 42% were of different species. Remarkably, samples from necropsies (47%) had higher percentage of pure isolations than those obtained from clinical (31%) samples (p<0...
March 14, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290120/development-of-a-pediatric-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model-of-clindamycin-using-opportunistic-pharmacokinetic-data
#12
Christoph P Hornik, Huali Wu, Andrea N Edginton, Kevin Watt, Michael Cohen-Wolkowiez, Daniel Gonzalez
Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling is a powerful tool used to characterize maturational changes in drug disposition to inform dosing across childhood; however, its use is limited in pediatric drug development. Access to pediatric pharmacokinetic data is a barrier to widespread application of this model, which impedes its development and optimization. To support the development of a pediatric PBPK model, we sought to leverage opportunistically-collected plasma concentrations of the commonly used antibiotic clindamycin...
March 13, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289755/-necrotizing-fasciitis-of-the-upper-and-lower-extremities
#13
M Kückelhaus, T Hirsch, M Lehnhardt, A Daigeler
Necrotizing fasciitis is a potentially fatal soft tissue infection that may affect the upper and lower extremities, scrotum, perineum and abdominal wall. Typically, the infection demonstrates rapid spreading along the fascial planes leading to sepsis with mortality rates of 15-46%. Without adequate treatment, the mortality rate increases to close to 100%. There are four groups of pathogens that can lead to necrotizing fasciitis, namely beta-hemolytic group A streptococci, mixed infections with obligate and facultative anaerobes, clostridium species and fungal infections...
March 13, 2017: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288290/effect-of-commonly-prescribed-liquid-medications-on-streptococcus-mutans-biofilm-an-in-vitro-study
#14
Samantha A Clark, LaQuia A Vinson, George Eckert, Richard L Gregory
OBJECTIVE: This study addressed the effect of pediatric liquid antibiotic medications on Streptococcus mutans UA159. These suspensions commonly contain sugars such as sucrose to make them more palatable for children. The study was designed to evaluate the effects of oral liquid antibiotics on Streptococcus mutans growth and biofilm formation. STUDY DESIGN: A 24 hour culture of S. mutans was treated with various concentrations of liquid medications commonly prescribed to children for odontogenic or fungal infections- amoxicillin, penicillin VK, clindamycin, and nystatin...
2017: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287001/transplacental-passage-of-vancomycin
#15
Craig V Towers, Beth Weitz
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a larger number of patients receiving a vancomycin dosing regimen of 20 mg/kg IV every 8 hours for Group B streptococcus (GBS) chemoprophylaxis and analyze maternal and neonatal cord blood levels at delivery. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled every mother that entered labor with a positive GBS culture and a high-risk penicillin allergy with resistance to clindamycin or unknown sensitivity. Maternal and cord blood vancomycin levels were obtained at delivery...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286152/toxin-production-of-clostridium-difficile-in-sub-mic-of-vancomycin-and-clindamycin-alone-and-in-combination-with-ceftazidime
#16
Ebrahim Rezazadeh Zarandi, Shahla Mansouri, Nouzar Nakhaee, Farhad Sarafzadeh, Mohammad Moradi
Toxin production in Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a key process for induction of diarrhea. Several factors such as sub-MIC of antibiotics impact on toxin production. The aim of this research is investigation of sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (sub-MIC) of vancomycin (VAN), clindamycin (CLI) separately and in combination with ceftazidime (CAZ) on toxin production in C. difficile. About ∼10(6) colony forming units (CFU) from 18-h culture of C. difficile ATCC 9689 and clinical isolates A(+)/B(+)/CTD(-), were cultured anaerobically in the pre-reduced medium with appropriate concentration of separated and in combination antibiotics...
March 7, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284608/characterization-of-pig-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#17
Jun Li, Nansong Jiang, Yuebin Ke, Andrea T Feßler, Yang Wang, Stefan Schwarz, Congming Wu
Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) have been reported in various countries worldwide. However, although China is one of the biggest pig and pork producers, large-scale studies on pig-associated LA-MRSA from China are scarce. The aims of this study were to analyze 2420 non-duplicate samples collected from pigs at swine farms and slaughterhouses in different regions in China during 2014 for the prevalence of pig-associated MRSA and to determine the antimicrobial resistance pheno- and genotypes of the respective isolates...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282521/surgical-site-infections-in-patients-receiving-osteomyocutaneous-free-flaps-to-the-head-and-neck-does-choice-of-antibiotic-prophylaxis-matter
#18
James Murphy, Amal Isaiah, Donita Dyalram, Joshua E Lubek
PURPOSE: The most appropriate prophylactic antibiotic for clean-and-contaminated head and neck osteomyocutaneous free flap (OFF) tissue transfer procedures is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the choice of perioperative antibiotic was related to recipient surgical site infection (SSI) in patients receiving an OFF to the head and neck. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study evaluated SSI in relation to the perioperative antibiotic received from July 2010 through October 2013 at a tertiary care medical center...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275214/investigation-of-drug-polymer-compatibility-using-chemometric-assisted-uv-spectrophotometry
#19
Amir Ibrahim Mohamed, Amr Mohamed Elsayed Abd-Motagaly, Osama A A Ahmed, Suzan Amin, Alaa Ibrahim Mohamed Ali
A simple chemometric-assisted UV-spectrophotometric method was used to study the compatibility of clindamycin hydrochloride (HC1) with two commonly used natural controlled-release polymers, alginate (Ag) and chitosan (Ch). Standard mixtures containing 1:1, 1:2, and 1:0.5 w/w drug-polymer ratios were prepared and UV scanned. A calibration model was developed with partial least square (PLS) regression analysis for each polymer separately. Then, test mixtures containing 1:1 w/w drug-polymer ratios with different sets of drug concentrations were prepared...
January 16, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274863/microfluidic-aided-fabrication-of-nanoparticles-blend-based-on-chitosan-for-a-transdermal-multidrug-delivery-application
#20
Mohammad Shamsi, Payam Zahedi, Hedayatollah Ghourchian, Sara Minaeian
The aim of this work was to provide a microfluidic-aided fabrication of nanoparticles based on chitosan/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid)/cellulose laurate [CS/P(NIPAAm-co-AAc/CL] blend for transdermal multidrug delivery applications. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) results showed that the diameter sizes of samples were in the range from 200 to 300nm along with a narrow size distribution. Also, the CS-based nanoparticles containing tretinoin and clindamycin phosphate prepared using microfluidic technique exhibited a sustained control release of the drugs as well as minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations compared to the samples fabricated via bulk mixing method...
March 6, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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