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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125008/does-more-favourable-handling-of-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-increase-the-diagnostic-sensitivity-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-lato-specific-pcr-in-lyme-neuroborreliosis
#1
Kristine J N Forselv, Åslaug R Lorentzen, Unn Ljøstad, Åse Mygland, Randi Eikeland, Vivian Kjelland, Sølvi Noraas, Hanne Quarsten
BACKGROUND: Tests for direct detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bb) in Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) are needed. Detection of Bb DNA using PCR is promising, but clinical utility is hampered by low diagnostic sensitivity. We aimed to examine whether diagnostic sensitivity can be improved by the use of larger cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes and faster handling of samples. METHODS: Patients who underwent CSF examination for LNB were included. We collected two millilitres of CSF for PCR analysis, extracted DNA from the pellets within 24 h and analysed the eluate by two real-time PCR protocols (16S rRNA and OspA)...
November 10, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121976/prevalence-of-tick-borne-pathogens-in-questing-ixodes-ricinus-ticks-in-urban-and-suburban-areas-of-switzerland
#2
Corinne P Oechslin, Daniel Heutschi, Nicole Lenz, Werner Tischhauser, Olivier Péter, Olivier Rais, Christian M Beuret, Stephen L Leib, Sergei Bankoul, Rahel Ackermann-Gäumann
BACKGROUND: Throughout Europe, Ixodes ricinus transmits numerous pathogens. Its widespread distribution is not limited to rural but also includes urbanized areas. To date, comprehensive data on pathogen carrier rates of I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Switzerland is lacking. RESULTS: Ixodes ricinus ticks sampled at 18 (sub-) urban collection sites throughout Switzerland showed carrier rates of 0% for tick-borne encephalitis virus, 18.0% for Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), 2...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120859/tick-borne-infections-and-co-infections-in-patients-with-non-specific-symptoms-in-poland-tick-borne-infections-and-co-infections
#3
Justyna Dunaj, Anna Moniuszko-Malinowska, Izabela Swiecicka, Martin Andersson, Piotr Czupryna, Krzysztof Rutkowski, Grzegorz Zambrowski, Joanna Zajkowska, Sambor Grygorczuk, Maciej Kondrusik, Renata Świerzbińska, Sławomir Pancewicz
AIM: The aim of the study was the evaluation of the frequency of infections and co-infections among patients hospitalized because of non-specific symptoms after a tick bite. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Whole blood, serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples from 118 patients hospitalised for non-specific symptoms up to 8 weeks after tick bite from 2010 to 2013 were examined for tick-borne infections. ELISA, Western blot and/or molecular biology (PCR; fla gene; 16S rRNA; sequencing) and thin blood smears (MDD) were used...
November 7, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116038/borrelia-burgdorferi-glycosaminoglycan-binding-proteins-a-potential-target-for-new-therapeutics-against-lyme-disease
#4
Yi-Pin Lin, Lingyun Li, Fuming Zhang, Robert J Linhardt
The spirochete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferisensu lato is the causative agent of Lyme disease, the most common vector-borne disease in Europe and the United States. The spirochetes can be transmitted to humans via ticks, and then spread to different tissues, leading to arthritis, carditis and neuroborreliosis. Although antibiotics have commonly been used to treat infected individuals, some treated patients do not respond to antibiotics and experience persistent, long-term arthritis. Thus, there is a need to investigate alternative therapeutics against Lyme disease...
November 8, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110020/granuloma-annulare-and-morphea-correlation-with-borrelia-burgdorferi-infections-and-chlamydia-related-bacteria
#5
Lauri Tolkki, Kati Hokynar, Seppo Meri, Jaana Panelius, Mirja Puolakkainen, Annamari Ranki
A retrospective study of 109 skin biopsies with granuloma annulare (GA) or morphea histology from patients with suspected tick bite was performed. Biopsies were tested for cutaneous Borrelia burgdorferi DNA using PCR. The same biopsies were analysed for tick-borne novel agents, Chlamydia-related bacteria (members of the Chlamydiales order), using a PCR-based method. Borrelia DNA was detected in 7/73 (9.6%) biopsies with GA and in 1/36 (2.8 %) biopsies with morphea, while Chlamydiales DNA was found in 53/73 (72...
November 7, 2017: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105221/analysis-of-recombinational-switching-at-the-antigenic-variation-locus-of-the-lyme-spirochete-using-a-novel-pacbio-sequencing-pipeline
#6
Theodore B Verhey, Mildred Castellanos, George Chaconas
The Lyme disease spirochete evades the host immune system by combinatorial variation of VlsE, a surface antigen. Antigenic variation occurs via segmental gene conversion from contiguous silent cassettes into the vlsE locus. Because of the high degree of similarity between switch variants and the size of vlsE, short-read NGS technologies have been unsuitable for sequencing vlsE populations. Here we use PacBio sequencing technology coupled with the first fully-automated software pipeline (VAST) to accurately process NGS data by minimizing error frequency, eliminating heteroduplex errors and accurately aligning switch variants...
November 4, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099929/transcriptome-assessment-of-erythema-migrans-skin-lesions-in-patients-with-early-lyme-disease-reveals-predominant-interferon-signaling
#7
Adriana Marques, Ira Schwartz, Gary P Wormser, Yanmei Wang, Ronald L Hornung, Cumhur Y Demirkale, Peter J Munson, Siu-Ping Turk, Carla Williams, Chyi-Chia Richard Lee, Jun Yang, Mary M Petzke
Background: The most common clinical manifestation of early Lyme disease is the erythema migrans (EM) skin lesion that develops at the tick bite site typically between 7 and 14 days following infection with Borreliella burgdorferi. The host-pathogen interactions that occur in the skin may have a critical role in determining outcome of infection. Methods: Gene arrays were utilized to characterize the global transcriptional alterations in skin biopsy samples of EM lesions from untreated adult patients with Lyme disease in comparison to controls...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084186/-morphological-and-immunological-variation-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-and-diagnostic-methods
#8
EDITORIAL
Tadeusz Płusa
Diagnostic problems observed in patients infected with Borrelia burgdorferi are a significant impediment to therapeutic decision making. It appears that the pathogen is characterized by morphological and immunological variation in particular stages of development. The bacterium has the ability to morphologically transform into a cell wall deficient form of spheroplast, L-form, bleb-like spirochetes and round body/form cysts. It also has the ability to create biofilm, which is a major barrier to antibiotics...
October 23, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075628/selective-essential-oils-from-spice-or-culinary-herbs-have-high-activity-against-stationary-phase-and-biofilm-borrelia-burgdorferi
#9
Jie Feng, Shuo Zhang, Wanliang Shi, Nevena Zubcevik, Judith Miklossy, Ying Zhang
Although the majority of patients with acute Lyme disease can be cured with the standard 2-4 week antibiotic treatment, about 10-20% of patients continue suffering from chronic symptoms described as posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome. While the cause for this is debated, one possibility is that persister bacteria are not killed by the current Lyme antibiotics and remain active in the system. It has been reported that essential oils have antimicrobial activities and some have been used by patients with persisting Lyme disease symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064060/regulation-of-gene-and-protein-expression-in-the-lyme-disease-spirochete
#10
Brian Stevenson, Janakiram Seshu
The infectious cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi necessitates persistent infection of both vertebrates and ticks, and efficient means of transmission between those two very different types of hosts. The Lyme disease spirochete has evolved mechanisms to sense its location in the infectious cycle, and use that information to control production of the proteins and other factors required for each step. Numerous components of borrelial regulatory pathways have been characterized to date. Their effects are being pieced together, thereby providing glimpses into a complex web of cooperative and antagonistic interactions...
October 25, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063857/anti-tumour-necrosis-factor-activity-in-saliva-of-various-tick-species-and-its-appearance-during-the-feeding-period
#11
Marketa Rezkova, Jan Kopecky
Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) plays a central role in the inflammatory process. In the skin, it contributes to immune containment of tick-transmitted pathogens like Borrelia burgdorferi. In the saliva of some tick species, active compounds are present that inhibit detection of TNF in specific ELISA. We compared the presence of anti-TNF activity in saliva or salivary gland extract from 11 tick species from the family Ixodidae and demonstrated it in genera Ixodes Latreille, 1795 and Haemaphysalis Koch, 1844. Analysis of anti-TNF activity in Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus, 1758) saliva during the feeding period showed that it is present in the late, rapid phase of engorgement...
October 20, 2017: Folia Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063358/geographic-distribution-and-incidence-of-lyme-borreliosis-in-the-west-of-ireland
#12
A Vellinga, H Kilkelly, J Cullinan, B Hanahoe, M Cormican
BACKGROUND: Lyme borreliosis is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and is the most common tick-transmitted infection in temperate regions. Infection often presents with erythema migrans and/or other clinical features in early infection. METHODS: Blood samples are submitted for testing for antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi by enzyme immunoassay and positive samples are confirmed by a reference laboratory by IgG and IgM line immune assay. A retrospective extraction of all laboratory requests and results for Lyme borreliosis from 2011 to 2014 was performed...
October 23, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061482/irc2-bf-a-yeast-and-borrelia-responsive-component-of-the-complement-system-from-the-hard-tick-ixodes-ricinus
#13
Veronika Urbanová, Ondřej Hajdušek, Radek Šíma, Zdeněk Franta, Helena Hönig-Mondeková, Lenka Grunclová, Pavla Bartošová-Sojková, Marie Jalovecká, Petr Kopáček
Ticks possess components of a primordial complement system that presumably play a role in the interaction of the tick immune system with tick-borne pathogens and affect their transmission. Here we characterized a novel complement component, tagged as IrC2/Bf, from the hard tick Ixodes ricinus, the principal vector of Lyme disease in Europe. IrC2/Bf is a multi-domain molecule composed of 5-7 CCP modules, varied by alternative splicing, followed by a von Willebrand factor A domain and a C-terminal trypsin-like domain...
October 20, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056701/prevalence-of-selected-zoonotic-and-vector-borne-agents-in-dogs-and-cats-on-the-pine-ridge-reservation
#14
A Valeria Scorza, Michael R Lappin
The prevalence of intestinal parasites and vector-borne agents of dogs and cats in the Pine Ridge Reservation, South Dakota were determined. Fecal samples (84 dogs, 9 cats) were examined by centrifugal floatation and by immunofluorescence assay (FA) for Giardia and Cryptosporidium. PCR was performed on Giardia [beta-giardin (bg), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), glutamate dehydrogenase genes (gdh)] and Cryptosporidium [heat shock protein-70 gene (hsp)] FA positive samples. Cat sera (n = 32) were tested for antibodies against Bartonella spp...
September 4, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052881/a-foot-tumour-as-late-cutaneous-lyme-borreliosis-a-new-entity-or-a-variant-of-an-inflammatory-proliferative-reaction-to-borrelia-burgdorferi
#15
COMMENT
H Hofmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051759/ifn%C3%AE-enhances-cd64-potentiated-phagocytosis-of-treponema-pallidum-opsonized-with-human-syphilitic-serum-by-human-macrophages
#16
Kelly L Hawley, Adriana R Cruz, Sarah J Benjamin, Carson J La Vake, Jorge L Cervantes, Morgan LeDoyt, Lady G Ramirez, Daniza Mandich, Mary Fiel-Gan, Melissa J Caimano, Justin D Radolf, Juan C Salazar
Syphilis is a multi-stage, sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum (Tp). Considered broadly, syphilis can be conceptualized as a dualistic process in which spirochete-driven inflammation, the cause of clinical manifestations, coexists to varying extents with bacterial persistence. Inflammation is elicited in the tissues, along with the persistence of spirochetes to keep driving a robust immune response while evading host defenses; this duality is best exemplified during the florid, disseminated stage called secondary syphilis (SS)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047399/pathogen-communities-of-songbird-derived-ticks-in-europe-s-low-countries
#17
Dieter Heylen, Manoj Fonville, Arieke Docters van Leeuwen, Arjan Stroo, Martin Duisterwinkel, Sip van Wieren, Maria Diuk-Wasser, Arnout de Bruin, Hein Sprong
BACKGROUND: Birds play a major role in the maintenance of enzootic cycles of pathogens transmitted by ticks. Due to their mobility, they affect the spatial distribution and abundance of both ticks and pathogens. In the present study, we aim to identify members of a pathogen community [Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.), B. miyamotoi, 'Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis', Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia helvetica] in songbird-derived ticks from 11 locations in the Netherlands and Belgium (2012-2014)...
October 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033900/weak-organic-acids-decrease-borrelia-burgdorferi-cytoplasmic-ph-eliciting-an-acid-stress-response-and-impacting-rpon-and-rpos-dependent-gene-expression
#18
Daniel P Dulebohn, Crystal L Richards, Hua Su, Kevin A Lawrence, Frank C Gherardini
The spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi survives in its tick vector, Ixodes scapularis, or within various hosts. To transition between and survive in these distinct niches, B. burgdorferi changes its gene expression in response to environmental cues, both biochemical and physiological. Exposure of B. burgdorferi to weak monocarboxylic organic acids, including those detected in the blood meal of fed ticks, decreased the cytoplasmic pH of B. burgdorferi in vitro. A decrease in the cytoplasmic pH induced the expression of genes encoding enzymes that have been shown to restore pH homeostasis in other bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032558/recombinant-e-coli-dualistic-role-as-an-antigen-adjuvant-delivery-vehicle-for-oral-immunization
#19
Maria Gomes-Solecki, Luciana Richer
Escherichia coli is the mainstay tool for fundamental microbiology research due to its ease of cultivation and safety. Auxotrophic strains of the K-12 and B lineages of E. coli are the organisms of choice to produce recombinant proteins. Components present in the cell envelope of bacteria are also potent immune modulators and have been used to develop adjuvants. We used live E. coli, after induction of recombinant protein expression, to develop a vehicle which has a dualistic function of producing vaccine while presenting itself as the adjuvant to deliver oral vaccines against a number of infectious diseases, including Lyme disease...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032557/xenodiagnosis-using-ixodes-scapularis-larval-ticks-in-humans
#20
Siu-Ping Turk, Carla Williams, Adriana Marques
Xenodiagnosis is the use of a natural vector to detect the presence of an organism, and xenodiagnosis using Ixodes ticks has long been used by entomologists in Lyme disease research to provide evidence of the host's infectious status with Borrelia burgdorferi. We developed the methodology and performed the first human research study using uninfected larval Ixodes scapularis ticks to assess evidence of B. burgdorferi infection. Here, we describe in detail the methodology used for the procedure. Xenodiagnosis using Ixodes ticks in humans remains an experimental method and must be performed under an approved clinical research protocol...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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