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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635589/regulation-of-escherichia-coli-pathogenesis-by-alternative-sigma-factor-n
#1
James T Riordan, Avishek Mitra
σ(N) (also σ(54)) is an alternative sigma factor subunit of the RNA polymerase complex that regulates the expression of genes from many different ontological groups. It is broadly conserved in the Eubacteria with major roles in nitrogen metabolism, membrane biogenesis, and motility. σ(N) is encoded as the first gene of a five-gene operon including rpoN (σ(N)), ptsN, hpf, rapZ, and npr that has been genetically retained among species of Escherichia, Shigella, and Salmonella. In an increasing number of bacteria, σ(N) has been implicated in the control of genes essential to pathogenic behavior, including those involved in adherence, secretion, immune subversion, biofilm formation, toxin production, and resistance to both antimicrobials and biological stressors...
June 2017: EcoSal Plus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633503/range-expansion-and-increasing-borrelia-burgdorferi-infection-of-the-tick-ixodes-scapularis-acari-ixodidae-in-iowa-1990-2013
#2
Jonathan D Oliver, Steve W Bennett, Lorenza Beati, Lyric C Bartholomay
A passive surveillance program monitored ticks submitted by the public in Iowa from 1990-2013. Submitted ticks were identified to species and life stage, and Ixodes scapularis Say nymphs and adults were tested for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi. An average of 2.6 of Iowa's 99 counties submitted first reports of I. scapularis per year over the surveillance period, indicating expansion of this tick species across the state. The proportion of vector ticks infected by B. burgdorferi increased over time between 1998 and 2013...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630010/borrelia-burgdorferi-infection-induces-lipid-mediator-production-during-lyme-arthritis
#3
Charles R Brown, Edward A Dennis
Experimental Lyme arthritis provides a mouse model for exploring the development of pathology following infection of C3H mice with Borrelia burgdorferi. Infected mice develop a reliable inflammatory arthritis of the ankle joint with severity that typically peaks around two to three weeks post-infection and then undergoes spontaneous resolution. This makes experimental Lyme arthritis an excellent model for investigating the mechanisms that drive both the development and resolution phases of inflammatory disease...
June 16, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625898/doctor-says-you-are-cured-but-you-still-feel-the-pain-borrelia-dna-persistence-in-lyme-disease
#4
REVIEW
Jorge Cervantes
Lyme disease is a zoonosis caused by infection with Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb). A great amount of research has attempted to elucidate the mechanisms by which Bb causes inflammation and chronic symptomatology in some patients. Patients often seek unconventional treatments that lack scientific evidence, as medical care is unable to effectively explain and treat their illness. Bb-DNA can persist for long periods of time in some individuals, even after antibiotic therapy. Herein, scientific rationale is presented for a new therapeutic approach against remaining bacterial DNA, and/or increasing the ability of human macrophages to remove extracellular Bb DNA...
June 15, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620587/a-dual-luciferase-reporter-system-for-b-burgdorferi-measures-transcriptional-activity-during-tick-pathogen-interactions
#5
Philip P Adams, Carlos Flores Avile, Mollie W Jewett
Knowledge of the transcriptional responses of vector-borne pathogens at the vector-pathogen interface is critical for understanding disease transmission. Borrelia (Borreliella) burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease in the United States, is transmitted by the bite of infected Ixodes sp. ticks. It is known that B. burgdorferi has altered patterns of gene expression during tick acquisition, persistence and transmission. Recently, we and others have discovered in vitro expression of RNAs found internal, overlapping, and antisense to annotated open reading frames in the B...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616477/is-there-a-lyme-like-disease-in-australia-summary-of-the-findings-to-date
#6
REVIEW
Melissa Judith Chalada, John Stenos, Richard Stewart Bradbury
Lyme Borreliosis is a common tick-borne disease of the northern hemisphere caused by the spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi s. l.) complex. It results in multi-organ disease with arthritic, cardiac, neurological and dermatological manifestations. In the last twenty-five years there have been over 500 reports of an Australian Lyme-like syndrome in the scientific literature. However, the diagnoses of Lyme Borreliosis made in these cases have been primarily by clinical presentation and laboratory results of tentative reliability and the true cause of these illnesses remains unknown...
December 2016: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612350/blood-donor-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-lato-seroprevalence-and-history-of-tick-bites-at-a-northern-limit-of-the-vector-distribution
#7
Dag Hvidsten, Liisa Mortensen, Bjørn Straume, Mirjana Grujic Arsenovic, Anne-Berit Pedersen, Gro Lyngås, Jeremy S Gray, Nils Grude
In order to study the antibody seroprevalence of the causal agent of Lyme borreliosis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), and the history of tick bites at a geographical distribution limit of Ixodes ricinus, we compared healthy blood donors in geographically extreme regions: the borreliosis-endemic Vestfold County (59°N) and the region of northern Norway. Blood samples were screened using IgG/VlsE ELISA, and positive/borderline samples were confirmed using C6 ELISA and immunoblot assays. Also, donors completed a questionnaire consisting of several items including the places they have lived, and whether they owned any pets...
June 14, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605964/impact-of-a-freeway-on-the-dispersal-of-ticks-and-ixodes-ricinus-borne-pathogens-forested-resting-areas-may-become-lyme-disease-hotspots
#8
Sándor Hornok, Maria Mulvihill, Krisztina Szőke, Enikő Gönczi, Kinga M Sulyok, Miklós Gyuranecz, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann
Man-made barriers are well known for their effects on ecosystems. Habitat fragmentation, for instance, is a recognised consequence of modern-day infrastructure. The aim of the present study was to investigate the diversity and abundance of tick species, as well as the risks of acquiring tick-borne infections in habitats adjacent to a freeway. Therefore, ixodid ticks were collected from the vegetation at two-week intervals (in the main tick season, from March to June) in eight habitats of different types (forest, grove, grassland) along both sides of a freeway...
June 2017: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600768/detection-and-differentiation-of-lyme-spirochetes-and-other-tick-borne-pathogens-from-blood-using-real-time-pcr-with-molecular-beacons
#9
Samantha Schlachter, Kamfai Chan, Salvatore A E Marras, Nikhat Parveen
Real-time PCR assays have recently been implemented in diagnostics for many bacterial pathogens, allowing rapid and accurate detection, which ultimately results in improved clinical intervention. Here, we describe a sensitive method of detection for three common tick-borne pathogens Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti since coinfections with these pathogens have started occurring with increasing frequency over the last several years in both North America and Europe. A shared geographic region, the same tick vectors, and similar transmission cycle all favor simultaneous transmission of these three tick-borne pathogens...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592866/a-protein-protein-interaction-dictates-borrelial-infectivity
#10
Meghna Thakur, Kavita Sharma, Kinlin Chao, Alexis A Smith, Osnat Herzberg, Utpal Pal
Two Borrelia burgdorferi interacting proteins, BB0238 and BB0323, play distinct roles in pathogen biology and infectivity although a significance of their interaction remained enigmatic. Here we identified the polypeptide segment essential for BB0238-BB0323 interaction and examined how it supports spirochete infectivity. We show that the interaction region in BB0323 requires amino acid residues 22-200, suggesting that the binding encompasses discontinuous protein segments. In contrast, the interaction region in BB0238 spans only 11 amino acids, residues 120-130...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591858/the-geographic-distribution-of-ixodes-scapularis-acari-ixodidae-revisited-the-importance-of-assumptions-about-error-balance
#11
A Townsend Peterson, Ram K Raghavan
The black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, is the primary vector of Borrelia burgdorferi, a spirochete that causes Lyme disease, in eastern North America. Lyme disease risk has generally been considered to be focused in the Northeast and the northern Midwest in the United States, yet the distribution of the vector extends considerably more broadly. A recent analysis of the distribution of the species using ecological niche modeling approaches painted an odd biogeographic picture, in which the species is distributed in a "rimming" distribution across the northern Midwest and Northeast, and along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the eastern United States, but not broadly in the interior of eastern North America...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583949/bosr-is-a-novel-fur-family-member-responsive-to-copper-and-regulating-copper-homeostasis-in-borrelia-burgdorferi
#12
Peng Wang, Zhuoteng Yu, Thomas J Santangelo, John Olesik, Yufeng Wang, Ekaterina Heldwein, Xin Li
The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) family of DNA-binding proteins represses and/or activates gene transcription via divalent metal ion-dependent signal sensing. The Borrelia burgdorferi Fur homologue, also known as Borrelia oxidative stress regulator (BosR), promotes spirochetal adaptation to the mammalian host by directly repressing the lipoproteins required for tick colonization and indirectly activating those required for establishing infection in the mammal. Here, we examined whether the DNA-binding activity of BosR was regulated by any of the four most prevalent transition metal ions in B...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583197/no-evidence-of-borrelia-mayonii-in-an-endemic-area-for-lyme-borreliosis-in-france
#13
Pierre H Boyer, Sylvie J De Martino, Yves Hansmann, Laurence Zilliox, Nathalie Boulanger, Benoît Jaulhac
BACKGROUND: Borrelia mayonii is currently the latest species belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) complex to be discovered. Interestingly it is involved in human pathology causing a high fever. We looked for its presence in post- tick bite febrile patients as well as in Ixodes ricinus ticks in an endemic area of France. RESULTS: After ensuring that our molecular technics correctly detected B. mayonii, 575 patients and 3,122 Ixodes ricinus nymphs were tested...
June 5, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582983/occurrence-of-i-coxiella-burnetii-i-i-ehrlichia-canis-i-i-rickettsia-i-species-and-i-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-i-like-bacterium-in-ticks-collected-from-dogs-and-cats-in-south-africa
#14
Khethiwe Mtshali, Ryo Nakao, Chihiro Sugimoto, Oriel Thekisoe
Ticks are major vectors of arthropod-borne infections and transmit a wide variety of zoonotic pathogens. This study was conducted mainly to determine the occurrence of canine tick-borne bacterial and rickettsial pathogens especially those with zoonotic potential. We examined 276 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 38 Haemaphysalis elliptica and 4 Amblyomma hebraeum ticks from 90 dogs and 4 cats from the Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, North West and Mpumalanga provinces. DNA of Coxiella burnetii (41%), Ehrlichia or Anaplasma (18%), Rickettsia spp...
May 19, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580643/insights-into-pg-binding-conformational-change-and-dimerization-of-the-ompa-c-terminal-domains-from-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-and-borrelia-burgdorferi
#15
Kemin Tan, Brooke L Deatherage Kaiser, Ruiying Wu, Marianne Cuff, Yao Fan, Lance Bigelow, Robert P Jedrzejczak, Joshua N Adkins, John R Cort, Gyorgy Babnigg, Andrzej Joachimiak
S. Typhimurium can induce both humoral and cell-mediated responses when establishing itself in the host. These responses are primarily stimulated against the lipopolysaccharide and major outer membrane (OM) proteins. OmpA is one of these major OM proteins. It comprises a N-terminal eight-stranded β-barrel trans membrane domain and a C-terminal domain (OmpA(CTD) ). The OmpA(CTD) and its homologs are believed to bind to peptidoglycan (PG) within the periplasm, maintaining bacterial osmotic homeostasis and modulating the permeability and integrity of the OM...
June 5, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579253/molecular-evidence-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-lato-in-patients-in-brazilian-central-western-region
#16
Fernando Aguilar Lopes, Jania de Rezende, Danielly Beraldo Dos Santos Silva, Fernanda de Cássia Gonçalves Alves, Carina Elisei de Oliveira, Izaías Pereira da Costa
We aimed to detect DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi in whole blood and serum samples of patients with clinical symptoms and epidemiology compatible with Brazilian Lyme-like disease. Four patients with positive epidemiological histories were recruited for the study. Blood samples were collected, screened by serologic testing by ELISA and Western blotting and molecular identification of B. burgdorferi by amplifying a fragment of the conserved gene that synthesizes the hook flagellar flgE. The results showed positive serology and for the first time, the presence of B...
June 2, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566314/t2-magnetic-resonance-based-direct-detection-of-three-lyme-disease-related-borrelia-species-in-whole-blood-samples
#17
Jessica L Snyder, Heidi Giese, Cheryl Bandoski-Gralinski, Jessica Townsend, Beck E Jacobson, Robert Shivers, Anna M Schotthoefer, Thomas R Fritsche, Clayton Green, Steven M Callister, John A Branda, Thomas J Lowery
In early Lyme disease (LD), serological testing is insensitive and seroreactivity may reflect active or past infection. Here, we evaluated a novel assay for the direct detection of three species of Borrelia spirochetes in whole blood. The T2 Magnetic Resonance (T2MR®) assay platform was used to amplify Borrelia DNA released from intact spirochetes and to detect amplicon. Analytical sensitivity was determined from blood spiked with known concentrations of spirochetes, and the assay's limit of detection was found to be in the single cell/mL range: 5 cells/mL for B...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558791/receptor-tyrosine-kinases-play-a-significant-role-in-human-oligodendrocyte-inflammation-and-cell-death-associated-with-the-lyme-disease-bacterium-borrelia-burgdorferi
#18
Geetha Parthasarathy, Mario T Philipp
BACKGROUND: In previous studies, human oligodendrocytes were demonstrated to undergo apoptosis in the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi under an inflammatory milieu. Subsequently, we determined that the MEK/ERK pathway played a significant role in triggering downstream inflammation as well as apoptosis. However, the identity of receptors triggered by exposure to B. burgdorferi and initiating signaling events was unknown. METHODS: In this study, we explored the role of several TLR and EGFR/FGFR/PDGFR tyrosine kinase pathways in inducing inflammation in the presence of B...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558786/lost-in-plasmids-next-generation-sequencing-and-the-complex-genome-of-the-tick-borne-pathogen-borrelia-burgdorferi
#19
G Margos, S Hepner, C Mang, D Marosevic, S E Reynolds, S Krebs, A Sing, M Derdakova, M A Reiter, V Fingerle
BACKGROUND: Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato, including the tick-transmitted agents of human Lyme borreliosis, have particularly complex genomes, consisting of a linear main chromosome and numerous linear and circular plasmids. The number and structure of plasmids is variable even in strains within a single genospecies. Genes on these plasmids are known to play essential roles in virulence and pathogenicity as well as host and vector associations. For this reason, it is essential to explore methods for rapid and reliable characterisation of molecular level changes on plasmids...
May 30, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550059/europe-wide-meta-analysis-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-lato-prevalence-in-questing-ixodes-ricinus-ticks
#20
Martin Strnad, Václav Hönig, Daniel Růžek, Libor Grubhoffer, Ryan O M Rego
Lyme borreliosis is the most common zoonotic disease transmitted by ticks in Europe and North America. Despite having multiple tick vectors, the causative agent Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, is vectored mainly by Ixodes ricinus in Europe. In the present study, we aimed to review and summarize the existing data published from 2010 to 2016 concerning the prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. spirochetes in questing I. ricinus The primary focus was to evaluate the infection rate of these bacteria in ticks, accounting for tick stage, adult tick gender, region and detection method, as well as to investigate any changes in prevalence over time...
May 26, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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