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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212410/a-high-throughput-genetic-screen-identifies-previously-uncharacterized-borrelia-burgdorferi-genes-important-for-resistance-against-reactive-oxygen-and-nitrogen-species
#1
Meghan E Ramsey, Jenny A Hyde, Diana N Medina-Perez, Tao Lin, Lihui Gao, Maureen E Lundt, Xin Li, Steven J Norris, Jon T Skare, Linden T Hu
Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease in humans, is exposed to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) in both the tick vector and vertebrate reservoir hosts. B. burgdorferi contains a limited repertoire of canonical oxidative stress response genes, suggesting that novel gene functions may be important for protection of B. burgdorferi against ROS or RNS exposure. Here, we use transposon insertion sequencing (Tn-seq) to conduct an unbiased search for genes involved in resistance to nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, and tertiary-butyl hydroperoxide in vitro...
February 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202084/aprepitant-limits-in-vivo-neuroinflammatory-responses-in-a-rhesus-model-of-lyme-neuroborreliosis
#2
Alejandra N Martinez, Amanda R Burmeister, Geeta Ramesh, Lara Doyle-Meyers, Ian Marriott, Mario T Philipp
BACKGROUND: Substance P (SP) is produced at high levels in the central nervous system (CNS), and its target receptor, neurokinin 1 receptor (NK-1R), is expressed by glia and leukocytes. This tachykinin functions to exacerbate inflammatory responses at peripheral sites. Moreover, SP/NK-1R interactions have recently been associated with severe neuroinflammation and neuronal damage. We have previously demonstrated that NK-1R antagonists can limit neuroinflammatory damage in a mouse model of bacterial meningitis...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201991/plasmid-diversity-and-phylogenetic-consistency-in-the-lyme-disease-agent-borrelia-burgdorferi
#3
Sherwood R Casjens, Eddie B Gilcrease, Marija Vujadinovic, Emmanuel F Mongodin, Benjamin J Luft, Steven E Schutzer, Claire M Fraser, Wei-Gang Qiu
BACKGROUND: Bacteria from the genus Borrelia are known to harbor numerous linear and circular plasmids. We report here a comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of 236 plasmids present in fourteen independent isolates of the Lyme disease agent B. burgdorferi. RESULTS: We have sequenced the genomes of 14 B. burgdorferi sensu stricto isolates that carry a total of 236 plasmids. These individual isolates carry between seven and 23 plasmids. Their chromosomes, the cp26 and cp32 circular plasmids, as well as the lp54 linear plasmid, are quite evolutionarily stable; however, the remaining plasmids have undergone numerous non-homologous and often duplicative recombination events...
February 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195158/infection-derived-lipids-elicit-an-immune-deficiency-circuit-in-arthropods
#4
Dana K Shaw, Xiaowei Wang, Lindsey J Brown, Adela S Oliva Chávez, Kathryn E Reif, Alexis A Smith, Alison J Scott, Erin E McClure, Vishant M Boradia, Holly L Hammond, Eric J Sundberg, Greg A Snyder, Lei Liu, Kathleen DePonte, Margarita Villar, Massaro W Ueti, José de la Fuente, Robert K Ernst, Utpal Pal, Erol Fikrig, Joao H F Pedra
The insect immune deficiency (IMD) pathway resembles the tumour necrosis factor receptor network in mammals and senses diaminopimelic-type peptidoglycans present in Gram-negative bacteria. Whether unidentified chemical moieties activate the IMD signalling cascade remains unknown. Here, we show that infection-derived lipids 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl diacylglycerol (PODAG) stimulate the IMD pathway of ticks. The tick IMD network protects against colonization by three distinct bacteria, that is the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and the rickettsial agents Anaplasma phagocytophilum and A...
February 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184973/-cxcl-13-as-a%C3%A2-biomarker-in-the-diagnostics-of-neuroborreliosis
#5
C Waiß, W Kindler, B Ströbele, C Aspöck, S Oberndorfer
BACKGROUND: The chemokine CXCL-13 is a potential intrathecal biomarker for neuroborreliosis (NB). According to the literature the sensitivity of CXCL-13 in the diagnostics of NB varies between 88% and 100% and the specificity between 63% and 99.7%. The objective of this study was to analyze the sensitivity and specificity of CXCL-13 in the diagnosis of NB in an endemic area of Borrelia burgdorferi. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a retrospective analysis of data from August 2014 to August 2016, 63 patients with clinically suspected NB were identified...
February 9, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182723/antibody-responses-to-borrelia-burgdorferi-detected-by-western-blot-vary-geographically-in-canada
#6
Nicholas H Ogden, Julie Arsenault, Todd F Hatchette, Samir Mechai, L Robbin Lindsay
Lyme disease is emerging in eastern and central Canada, and most cases are diagnosed using the two-tier serological test (Enzyme Immuno Assay [EIA] followed by Western blot [WB]). Simplification of this algorithm would be advantageous unless it impacts test performance. In this study, accuracy of individual proteins of the IgG WB algorithm in predicting the overall test result in samples from Canadians was assessed. Because Borrelia burgdorferi strains vary geographically in Canada, geographic variations in serological responses were also explored...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180323/the-borrelia-burgdorferi-telomere-resolvase-rest-possesses-atp-dependent-dna-unwinding-activity
#7
Shu Hui Huang, McKayla R Cozart, Madison A Hart, Kerri Kobryn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179027/genome-scaffolding-and-annotation-for-the-pathogen-vector-ixodes-ricinus-by-ultra-long-single-molecule-sequencing
#8
Wibke J Cramaro, Oliver E Hunewald, Lesley Bell-Sakyi, Claude P Muller
BACKGROUND: Global warming and other ecological changes have facilitated the expansion of Ixodes ricinus tick populations. Ixodes ricinus is the most important carrier of vector-borne pathogens in Europe, transmitting viruses, protozoa and bacteria, in particular Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, the most prevalent vector-borne disease in humans in the Northern hemisphere. To faster control this disease vector, a better understanding of the I...
February 8, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175945/-neuroborreliosis-diagnostics-treatment-and-course
#9
R Dersch, S Rauer
Lyme neuroborreliosis is a tick-borne infectious disease caused by the spirochete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Clinical manifestations are classified as early and late Lyme neuroborreliosis. Early manifestations are much more common than late manifestations. Serological testing should only be performed when typical neurological symptoms are present because false positive results are common due to a high seroprevalence in the population. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis should be performed if Lyme neuroborreliosis is suspected...
February 7, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170447/comparison-of-mkp-and-bsk-h-media-for-the-cultivation-and-isolation-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-lato
#10
Eva Ružić-Sabljić, Vera Maraspin, Daša Stupica, Tereza Rojko, Petra Bogovič, Franc Strle, Tjaša Cerar
The isolation of B. burgdorferi sensu lato requires the use of complex cultivation media. The aim of the study was to compare the usefulness of BSK-H (a commercial medium produced by HiMedia, India) and MKP medium. MKP and BSK-H media were prepared in accordance with the relevant protocols. Borrelia strains and skin culture biopsies were simultaneously inoculated into both media, incubated and checked for growth. Borrelial growth characteristics, isolation rates and characteristics of the isolated borreliae were analysed and compared...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166814/closely-related-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-stricto-strains-exhibit-similar-fitness-in-single-infections-and-asymmetric-competition-in-multiple-infections
#11
Evelyn C Rynkiewicz, Julia Brown, Danielle M Tufts, Ching-I Huang, Helge Kampen, Stephen J Bent, Durland Fish, Maria A Diuk-Wasser
BACKGROUND: Wild hosts are commonly co-infected with complex, genetically diverse, pathogen communities. Competition is expected between genetically or ecologically similar pathogen strains which may influence patterns of coexistence. However, there is little data on how specific strains of these diverse pathogen species interact within the host and how this impacts pathogen persistence in nature. Ticks are the most common disease vector in temperate regions with Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, being the most common vector-borne pathogen in North America...
February 6, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158751/borrelia-burgdorferi-bbi39-paralogs-are-targets-of-protective-immunity-inducing-microbicidal-responses-and-reducing-pathogen-persistence-either-in-hosts-or-in-the-vector
#12
Preeti Singh, Deepshikha Verma, Brian T Backstedt, Simarjot Kaur, Manish Kumar, Alexis A Smith, Kavita Sharma, Xiuli Yang, José F Azevedo, Maria Gomes-Solecki, Ozlem Buyuktanir, Utpal Pal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153013/effects-of-dexamethasone-and-meloxicam-on-borrelia-burgdorferi-induced-inflammation-in-glial-and-neuronal-cells-of-the-central-nervous-system
#13
Geeta Ramesh, Alejandra N Martinez, Dale S Martin, Mario T Philipp
BACKGROUND: Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), affects both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Previously, we reported that in a model of acute LNB in rhesus monkeys, treatment with the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone significantly reduced both pleocytosis and levels of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immune mediators that were induced by Bb. Dexamethasone also inhibited the formation of inflammatory, neurodegenerative, and demyelinating lesions in the brain and spinal cord of these animals...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152581/bridging-of-cryptic-borrelia-cycles-in-european-songbirds
#14
Dieter Heylen, Aleksandra Krawczyk, Isabel Lopes de Carvalho, Maria Sofia Núncio, Hein Sprong, Ana Cláudia Norte
The principal European vector for Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., the causative agents of Lyme disease, is the host-generalist tick Ixodes ricinus. Almost all terrestrial host-specialist ticks have been supposed not to contribute to the terrestrial Borrelia transmission cycles. Through an experiment with blackbirds, we show successful transmission by the widespread I. frontalis, an abundant bird-specialized tick that infests a broad range of songbirds. In the first phase of the experiment, we obtained Borrelia-infected I...
February 2, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142214/epitope-mapping-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-ospc-protein-in-homodimeric-fold
#15
Adam Norek, Lubomír Janda
In current work, we used recombinant OspC protein derived from B. afzelii strain BRZ31 in the native homodimeric fold for mice immunisation and following selection process to produce three mouse monoclonal antibodies able to bind to variable parts of up to five different OspC proteins. Applying the combination of mass spectrometry assisted epitope mapping and affinity based theoretical prediction we have localised regions responsible for antigen-antibody interactions and approximate epitopes' amino acid composition...
January 31, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141584/safety-immunogenicity-and-efficacy-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-outer-surface-protein-a-ospa-vaccine-a-meta-analysis
#16
Hua Zhao, Fukai Frank Bao, Aihua Liu
INTRODUCTION: Lyme borreliosis, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in the United States and by several Borrelia species in Europe and Asia, has a great impact on the health of the global population. There are human vaccines available, such as the outer surface protein A (OspA) vaccine, but still more evidence is needed to verify its function. We investigated the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of adjuvanted or non-adjuvanted vaccines containing protective epitopes from Borrelia species OspA serotypes in healthy adults...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141502/division-of-the-genus-borrelia-into-two-genera-corresponding-to-lyme-disease-and-relapsing-fever-groups-reflects-their-genetic-and-phenotypic-distinctiveness-and-will-lead-to-a-better-understanding-of-these-two-groups-of-microbes-margos-et-al-2016-there-is
#17
Alan G Barbour, Mobolaji Adeolu, Radhey S Gupta
This rebuttal Letter responds to a Letter in the IJSEM by Margos et al. challenging division of the genus Borrelia into two genera. We discuss here point-by-point the issues raised by Margos et al. and show that much of their criticism is unfounded and in several cases based on misreading of the presented results. We summarize here the extensive evidence based on genomic, genetic and phenotypic properties showing that the members of the family Borreliaceae (containing mainly the genus Borrelia) comprises two distinct and cohesive groups of microbes, differing in diseases they cause and other phenotypes...
January 27, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135303/microrna-and-mrna-transcriptome-profiling-in-primary-human-astrocytes-infected-with-borrelia-burgdorferi
#18
Timothy Casselli, Humaira Qureshi, Elizabeth Peterson, Danielle Perley, Emily Blake, Bradley Jokinen, Ata Abbas, Sergei Nechaev, John A Watt, Archana Dhasarathy, Catherine A Brissette
Lyme disease is caused by infection with the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), which is transmitted to humans by deer ticks. The infection manifests usually as a rash and minor systemic symptoms; however, the bacteria can spread to other tissues, causing joint pain, carditis, and neurological symptoms. Lyme neuroborreliosis presents itself in several ways, such as Bell's palsy, meningitis, and encephalitis. The molecular basis for neuroborreliosis is poorly understood. Analysis of the changes in the expression levels of messenger RNAs and non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs, following Bb infection could therefore provide vital information on the pathogenesis and clinical symptoms of neuroborreliosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135131/health-survey-of-free-ranging-raccons-procyon-lotor-in-central-park-new-york-new-york-usa-implications-for-human-and-domestic-animal-health
#19
Kimberly L Rainwater, Krysten Marchese, Sally Slavinski, Lee A Humberg, Edward J Dubovi, Jodie A Jarvis, Denise McAloose, Paul P Calle
We conducted health assessments on 113 free-ranging raccoons ( Procyon lotor ) in Central Park, New York City, in February 2010, September 2010, and November 2011 in conjunction with a trap-vaccinate-release program to control a raccoon rabies epizootic. Five individuals were sampled at two time points for 118 raccoon examinations in total. We tested 13 of 13 and 8 of 13 euthanized raccoons for rabies and canine distemper virus, respectively, by antigen testing on brain tissue; all were negative for both viruses...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131594/detection-of-borrelia-miyamotoi-and-other-tick-borne-pathogens-in-human-clinical-specimens-and-ixodes-scapularis-ticks-in-new-york-state-2012-2015
#20
Danielle Wroblewski, Linda Gebhardt, Melissa A Prusinski, Lisa J Meehan, Tanya A Halse, Kimberlee A Musser
Borrelia miyamotoi (Bm) is a recently emerging bacterial agent transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks. Diagnosis of Bm infection can be challenging, as the organism is not easily cultivable. We have developed and validated a multiplex real-time PCR to simultaneously identify Bm infection and the agents causing human granulocytic anaplasmosis and human monocytic ehrlichiosis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis, respectively. The assay is 100% specific; highly sensitive, detecting 11 gene copies of Bm DNA in both whole blood and cerebral spinal fluid; and provides rapid results in less than two hours...
January 16, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
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