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Gross pathology

Sang Woo Park, Jaehoon Choi, Junhyung Kim, Woohhyeok Jeong, Jun Sik Kim, Bae Kwon Jeong, Sung Chul Shin, Jin Hee Kim
The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of anthocyanins from the black soybean seed coat against radiation injury in dermal fibroblasts and mouse skin. Dermal fibroblasts treated with 50 and 100 µg/mL anthocyanins were irradiated with single doses of 20 Gy. Cell viability, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and mRNA expression were measured. A total of 60 mice were used for an in vivo study. A dose of 100 µg/mL anthocyanins was administered daily for 5 days before or after radiation therapy...
March 19, 2018: Archives of Dermatological Research
Simone Scherrer, Patricia Landolt, Natasha Carroli, Roger Stephan
Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) is an important zoonotic pathogen with raising global health concerns. In humans, MAH is one of the most widespread non-tuberculous mycobacterial species responsible for lung disease. In animals, MAH is frequently isolated from pigs; however, it is also an opportunistic pathogen for other mammals including cattle. To elucidate the genetic diversity of MAH in cattle, a molecular characterization of isolates ( n  = 26) derived from lymph nodes was performed. Fourteen isolates originated from slaughtered cattle with visible altered lymph nodes at meat inspection, whereas 12 isolates were from lymph nodes without any gross pathological changes of healthy slaughtered cattle...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Xingli Ji, Honglian Wang, Zhaojun Wu, Xia Zhong, Menglian Zhu, Yuwei Zhang, Ruizhi Tan, Yuhang Liu, Jianchun Li, Li Wang
BACKGROUND Fibrosis is the common pathological feature in most kinds of chronic kidney disease (CKD). TGF-β/Smads signaling is the master pathway regulating kidney fibrosis pathogenesis, in which Smad3 acts as the integrator of various pro-fibrosis signals. In this study, we analyzed the role of SIS3, a specific inhibitor of Smad3, in mouse unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) kidneys. MATERIAL AND METHODS UUO mice were intraperitoneally injected with 0.2 mg/kg/day or 2 mg/kg/day of SIS3 or control saline for 7 days, followed by analysis of structure injury, fibrosis status, inflammation, apoptosis, and TGF-β/Smads signaling activity...
March 20, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Yong-Cheng Liu, Yi-Ze Mao, Jun-Cheng Wang, Jun Wang, Xiang-Ming Lao, Min-Shan Chen, Sheng-Ping Li
BACKGROUND: Diaphragmatic resection is not common in patients undergoing hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aims to evaluate retrospectively the clinical characteristics and surgical results of HCC patients undergoing hepatectomy plus diaphragmatic resection. METHODS: Between January 2000 and December 2013, 52 HCC patients underwent curative resections combined with diaphragmatic resection, with 11 patients had pathological diaphragmatic invasion (DI), 41 patients had diaphragmatic fibrous adhesion (DFA)...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
Julia Kim, Tom A Schweizer, Corinne E Fischer, David G Munoz
INTRODUCTION: Despite having severe Alzheimer disease pathology, some individuals remain cognitively asymptomatic (cASYM). To explore noncognitive manifestations in these cASYM individuals, we aim to investigate the prevalence and pathologic substrates of psychosis. METHODS: Data were obtained from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire, quick version was used to evaluate presence of psychosis. Subjects with Mini-Mental Status Examination score of ≥24 with frequent neuritic plaques (NPs) were defined as NPcASYM, and those with Braak and Braak stage of neurofibrillary tangles of V/VI were defined as NTcASYM (both groups collectively designated cASYM)...
March 16, 2018: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Heather T Whittaker, Shenghua Zhu, Domenico L Di Curzio, Richard Buist, Xin-Min Li, Suzanna Noy, Frances K Wiseman, Jonathan D Thiessen, Melanie Martin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology causes microstructural changes in the brain. These changes, if quantified with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), could be studied for use as an early biomarker for AD. The aim of our study was to determine if T1 relaxation, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and quantitative magnetization transfer imaging (qMTI) metrics could reveal changes within the hippocampus and surrounding white matter structures in ex vivo transgenic mouse brains overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein with the Swedish mutation...
March 12, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Philippa R P Krahn, Sheldon M Singh, Venkat Ramanan, Labonny Biswas, Nicolas Yak, Kevan J T Anderson, Jennifer Barry, Mihaela Pop, Graham A Wright
BACKGROUND: Radiofrequency (RF) ablation has become a mainstay of treatment for ventricular tachycardia, yet adequate lesion formation remains challenging. This study aims to comprehensively describe the composition and evolution of acute left ventricular (LV) lesions using native-contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) during CMR-guided ablation procedures. METHODS: RF ablation was performed using an actively-tracked CMR-enabled catheter guided into the LV of 12 healthy swine to create 14 RF ablation lesions...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
I Yu Lisitskiy, A M Kiselev, S E Kiselev
Pathological processes in the craniovertebral region (CVR) are usually accompanied by dislocation complications leading to gross neurological disorders. One of the diseases that affect the CVR and lead to atlanto-axial dislocation (AAD) is rheumatoid arthritis. Errors in the diagnosis of rheumatoid disease and in the choice of a treatment approach may cause adverse outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To define the approach for surgical treatment of AAD associated with rheumatoid disease of the CVR, with allowance for the rigidity of deformity...
2018: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
Lihui Weng, Davis Seelig, Omid Souresrafil
PURPOSE: To determine the physiologic response to resorbable carboxymethyl cellulose/chitosan (CMC/CN) microspheres in a long-term rabbit model, including the clinical response, gross pathology, and histopathology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six rabbits were embolized with CMC/CN microspheres (300-500 µm) in one kidney via an inferior renal artery branch. Angiography was performed immediately before and after embolization and prior to killing at 6 months (180 ± 7 days, n = 3) and 12 months (365 ± 10 days, n = 3)...
March 14, 2018: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
Joseph Tracey, Danny Arora, Christopher E Gross, Selene G Parekh
BACKGROUND: Third generation total talar prostheses (TTPs) are viable options for talar avascular necrosis (AVN) in the absence of neighboring joint pathology. The use of modern three-dimensional (3D) printing allows the production of custom implants that exactly mimic the patient's anatomy. The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy of 3D printing in reproducing a synthetic talus and, in doing so, restoring more normal anatomical relationships. We hypothesize that this mode of replication will restore and maintain normal radiographic alignment of the ankle, subtalar, and forefoot joints in the setting of talar AVN...
March 1, 2018: Foot & Ankle Specialist
Meredith A Ray, Nicholas R Faris, Matthew P Smeltzer, Carrie Fehnel, Cheryl Houston-Harris, Paul Levy, Lynn Wiggins, Vishal Sachdev, Todd Robbins, David Spencer, Raymond U Osarogiagbon
BACKGROUND: Accurate pathologic nodal staging improves early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer survival. In an ongoing implementation study, we measured the impact of a surgical lymph node specimen collection kit and a more thorough pathologic gross dissection method, on attainment of guideline-recommended pathologic nodal staging quality. METHODS: We prospectively collected data on curative-intent non-small cell lung cancer resections from 2009-2016 from 11 hospitals in 4 contiguous Dartmouth Hospital Referral Regions...
March 10, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Dhissanuvach Chaikhot, Matthew J D Taylor, Florentina J Hettinga
An awareness of sex differences in gait can be beneficial for detecting the early stages of gait abnormalities that may lead to pathology. The same may be true for wheelchair propulsion. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sex on wheelchair biomechanics and mechanical efficiency in novice young able-bodied wheelchair propulsion. Thirty men and 30 women received 12  min of familiarisation training. Subsequently, they performed two 10-m propulsion tests to evaluate comfortable speed (CS). Additionally, they performed a 4-min submaximal propulsion test on a treadmill at CS, 125% and 145% of CS...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Vrunda B Desai, Jason D Wright, Peter E Schwartz, Elisa M Jorgensen, Linda Fan, Babak Litkouhi, Haiqun Lin, Cary P Gross, Xiao Xu
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of corpus uteri, cervix uteri, and ovarian malignancy in women undergoing hysterectomy or myomectomy for presumed benign indications. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the 2014-2015 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Adult women undergoing hysterectomies and myomectomies without evidence for known or suspected cancer at the beginning of surgery were identified from the database...
March 8, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Woon Tak Yuh, Chun Kee Chung, Sung-Hye Park, Ki-Jeong Kim, Sun-Ho Lee, Kyoung-Tae Kim
OBJECTIVE: A spinal cord subependymoma is an uncommon, indolent, benign spinal cord tumor. It is radiologically similar to a spinal cord ependymoma, but surgical findings and outcomes differ. Gross total resection of the tumor is not always feasible. The present study was done to determine the clinical, radiological and pathological characteristics of spinal cord subependymomas. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of ten spinal cord subependymoma patients (M : F=4 : 6; median 38 years; range, 21-77) from four institutions...
March 2018: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
Kyoung Su Sung, Ju Hyung Moon, Eui Hyun Kim, Seok-Gu Kang, Se Hoon Kim, Chang-Ok Suh, Sun Ho Kim, Kyu-Sung Lee, Won Seok Chang, Jong Hee Chang
OBJECTIVE Solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma (SFT/HPC) is a new combined entity for which a soft-tissue-type grading system, ranging from grades I to III, has been introduced in the 2016 WHO classification of tumors of the CNS. The results of the treatment of this new disease entity require evaluation. METHODS The authors retrospectively reevaluated the pathological findings and medical records of patients with SFT/HPC. This study included 60 patients (27 men and 33 women, median age 42.5 years, range 13-69 years) treated at Severance Hospital between February 1981 and February 2016...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
P Ninvilai, N Nonthabenjawan, B Limcharoen, W Tunterak, K Oraveerakul, W Banlunara, A Amonsin, A Thontiravong
Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV), a newly emerging virus in ducks, was first reported in China in 2010. However, an unknown severe contagious disease associated with severe neurological signs and egg production losses in ducks, resembling to DTMUV infection, was observed in Thailand since 2007. To determine the presence of DTMUV in 2007, the clinical samples from affected ducks collected in 2007 were tested for DTMUV using pathological and virological analyses. Gross and histopathological lesions of affected ducks were mostly restricted to the ovary, brain and spinal cord, and correlated with the presence of flavivirus antigen in the brain and spinal cord samples...
March 8, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Margaret Cocks, Inbal Sander, Barbara Crain
A complete academic autopsy includes an external examination with inspection of gross dermatologic findings. At our institution, the postmortem examination also includes a standard skin biopsy. We determined the microscopic yield of this standard postmortem skin biopsy and the overall frequency of macroscopic dermatologic diagnoses. We reviewed 389 complete autopsies conducted between 2012 and 2014. Both microscopic and macroscopic dermatologic diagnoses were analyzed. A macroscopic dermatologic diagnosis was made in 32% of cases while a microscopic diagnosis was recorded in 10% of cases...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Andrew J Gall, June E Olds, Arno Wünschmann, Laura E Selmic, James Rasmussen, Anne D Lewis
Reproductive lesions have been described in various nonhuman primate species, including rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta), cynomolgus macaques ( Macaca fascicularis), baboons ( Papio spp.), squirrel monkeys ( Saimiri sciureus), and chimpanzees ( Pan spp.); however, there are few publications describing reproductive disease and pathology in Japanese macaques ( Macaca fuscata). A retrospective evaluation of postmortem reports for two captive M. fuscata populations housed within zoos from 1982 through 2015 was completed, comparing reproductive diseases diagnosed by gross pathology and histopathology...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Joe S Smith, Matthew Sheley, Munashe Chigerwe
Among members of the genus Bos, aspiration pneumonia has been described in domestic cattle ( Bos taurus and Bos indicus). In these species, aspiration pneumonia is most commonly a sequelae to oral administration of fluids or medications, as well as aspiration during procedures under anesthesia. Management of aspiration pneumonia secondary to complications from anesthesia for short duration surgical procedures is minimally reported in the Tibetan yak ( Bos grunniens). Although regurgitation under anesthesia has been reported in the yak, there are no reports of aspiration pneumonia treatment...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Young Ju Lee, Seung-June Oh
PURPOSE: To report de novo calculi in the prostatic surgical bed as a complication of Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent HoLEP and were enrolled in our Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) Database Registry from July 2008 to December 2015 were reviewed. Cases of calculi removal in the prostatic surgical bed were identified. Clinical data, including preoperative evaluation, postoperative symptoms with a detailed history, urinalysis, pathology, cystourethroscopy, and stone analysis were collected and described...
March 7, 2018: Urology Journal
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