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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151281/skeletal-muscle-performance-and-ageing
#1
REVIEW
Michael Tieland, Inez Trouwborst, Brian C Clark
The world population is ageing rapidly. As society ages, the incidence of physical limitations is dramatically increasing, which reduces the quality of life and increases healthcare expenditures. In western society, ~30% of the population over 55 years is confronted with moderate or severe physical limitations. These physical limitations increase the risk of falls, institutionalization, co-morbidity, and premature death. An important cause of physical limitations is the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, also referred to as sarcopenia...
November 19, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151218/structures-of-dynamic-protein-complexes-hybrid-techniques-to-study-map-kinase-complexes-and-the-escrt-system
#2
Wolfgang Peti, Rebecca Page, Evzen Boura, Bartosz Różycki
The integration of complementary molecular methods (including X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, small angle X-ray/neutron scattering, and computational techniques) is frequently required to obtain a comprehensive understanding of dynamic macromolecular complexes. In particular, these techniques are critical for studying intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDRs) or intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) that are part of large protein:protein complexes. Here, we explain how to prepare IDP samples suitable for study using NMR spectroscopy, and describe a novel SAXS modeling method (ensemble refinement of SAXS; EROS) that integrates the results from complementary methods, including crystal structures and NMR chemical shift perturbations, among others, to accurately model SAXS data and describe ensemble structures of dynamic macromolecular complexes...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151207/rapid-prediction-of-multi-dimensional-nmr-data-sets-using-fandas
#3
Siddarth Narasimhan, Deni Mance, Cecilia Pinto, Markus Weingarth, Alexandre M J J Bonvin, Marc Baldus
Solid-state NMR (ssNMR) can provide structural information at the most detailed level and, at the same time, is applicable in highly heterogeneous and complex molecular environments. In the last few years, ssNMR has made significant progress in uncovering structure and dynamics of proteins in their native cellular environments [1-4]. Additionally, ssNMR has proven to be useful in studying large biomolecular complexes as well as membrane proteins at the atomic level [5]. In such studies, innovative labeling schemes have become a powerful approach to tackle spectral crowding...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151163/strengthening-the-healthy-start-workforce-a-mixed-methods-study-to-understand-the-roles-of-community-health-workers-in-healthy-start-and-inform-the-development-of-a-standardized-training-program
#4
Katherine Rachel DeAngelis, Katelyn Flaherty Doré, Deborah Dean, Paul Osterman
Introduction Healthy Start (HS) is dedicated to preventing infant mortality, improving birth outcomes, and reducing disparities in maternal and infant health. In 2014, the HS program was reenvisioned and standardization of services and workforce development were prioritized. This study examined how HS community health workers (CHW), as critical members of the workforce, serve families and communities in order to inform the development of a CHW training program to advance program goals. Methods In 2015, an online organizational survey of all 100 HS programs was conducted...
November 18, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151160/tolerance-improvement-of-corynebacterium-glutamicum-on-lignocellulose-derived-inhibitors-by-adaptive-evolution
#5
Xia Wang, Imrana Khushk, Yanqiu Xiao, Qiuqiang Gao, Jie Bao
Robustness of fermenting strains to lignocellulose derived inhibitors is critical for efficient biofuel and biochemical productions. In this study, the industrial fermenting strain Corynebacterium glutamicum S9114 was evolved for improved inhibitor tolerance using long-term adaptive evolution by continuously transferring into the inhibitors containing corn stover hydrolysate every 24 h, and finally a stably evolved C. glutamicum was obtained after 128 days of serial transfers. The evolved strain exhibited the highly increased conversion rate to the typical lignocellulose derived inhibitors including furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, vanillin, syringaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and acetic acid...
November 18, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151108/a-phenomenological-account-of-sensorimotor-difficulties-in-autism-intentionality-movement-and-proprioception
#6
Till D A Grohmann
During the last decades, the focus in autism research has been progressively extended. Today it offers a large amount of material on sensorimotor disturbances as well as perceptive-cognitive preferences of people with autism. However, there are more and more critical voices against an intellectualist perspective in the cognitive sciences. The "enactive approach" as well as a new "movement perspective" to autism challenge the view of autism as a mere "cognitive" disturbance. They criticize the conception of a cognizing subject which is only interested in the world in as much as she/he can extract knowledge and organize it rationally...
November 18, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151085/a-novel-mutation-in-the-critical-p-box-residue-of-steroidogenic-factor-1-presenting-with-xy-sex-reversal-and-transient-adrenal-failure
#7
Anna S Orekhova, Natalia Kalinchenko, Ivan A Morozov, Evgeny V Vasilyev, Petr M Rubtsov, Ivan I Dedov, Anatoly Tiulpakov
BACKGROUND: Although the importance of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1, NR5A1) for adrenal development is supported by numerous in vitro and in vivo studies, cases of SF1 deficiency associated with adrenal failure are exceptionally rare. The first human NR5A1 mutation was a heterozygous de novo p.G35E variant identified in a patient with disorder of sex development (DSD) 46,XY and primary adrenal insufficiency. Here we describe another association of the "classic" SF1 phenotype with a novel NR5A1 mutation affecting G35 residue...
November 17, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151075/formation-of-new-blood-vessels-during-gastric-ulcer-healing-role-of-bone-marrow-derived-endothelial-progenitor-cells
#8
A Ahluwalia, T Brzozowski, M K Jones, Y Ichikawa, A S Tarnawski
Regeneration of blood vessels (neovascularization) is critical for gastric ulcer (GU) healing. The contributions of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (BMD-EPCs) to neovascularization during GU healing are not fully elucidated. Our specific aims were to determine whether in GU, BMD-EPCs are incorporated into blood vessels of GU granulation tissue jointly with ECs, thus forming hybrid vessels; or, form separate vessels consisting of only BMD-EPCs. GUs were induced in rats by serosal application of acetic acid...
August 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151067/the-x-a-like-cell-revisited-spotlight-on-the-peripheral-effects-of-nucb2-nesfatin-1-and-ghrelin
#9
E Weibert, A Stengel
The gastric X/A-like cell was long thought to be restricted to the production of acyl ghrelin. However, the subsequent years witnessed the discovery of other peptide products derived from this cell, namely desacyl ghrelin, obestatin and nesfatin-1. While the role of obestatin remains highly questionable and is very critically discussed in the literature, besides acyl ghrelin also desacyl ghrelin and nesfatin-1 have been implicated in the regulation of food intake. As observed for several other peptide hormones before, ghrelin and nesfatin-1 are not restricted to one function but rather exert pleiotropic actions including effects on gastrointestinal motility, thermogenesis, lipid and glucose homeostasis, stress mediation, cardiovascular as well as reproductive functions...
August 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151061/evolution-of-sanitary-epidemiological-services-in-poland-in-the-years-1944-2014
#10
Marek L Grabowski, Bożena Kosińska, Józef P Knap
This paper presents the history of sanitary-epidemiological services in the context of the health, economic and socio-political situation in Poland in the years 1944-2014, with a critical analysis of legal restraints, efficiency and achievements. Polish Sanitary Services, established in 1919, as a state service, have preserved for more than 95 years (also during World War II and the occupation) the continuity of its structures and essential objectives to enable their implementation in the field of public health protection...
November 8, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151003/lung-ultrasound-in-the-critically-ill-luci-a-translational-discipline
#11
Daniel A Lichtenstein, Manu L N G Malbrain
In the early days of ultrasound, it was not a translational discipline. The heart was claimed by cardiologists, with others, such as gynaecologists, urologists and vascular surgeons claiming their part while the rest was given to radiologists. Only recently, ultrasound transgressed and crossed the usual borders between the different disciplines, such as emergency and critical care medicine. The advent of portable machines in the early 1980s, allowed the critical care physician to perform bedside ultrasound, and the development of whole body critical care ultrasound (CCUS) was born...
November 18, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151002/management-of-arrhythmia-in-sepsis-and-septic-shock
#12
Martin Balik, Vojtech Matousek, Michal Maly, Tomas Brozek
The occurrence of supraventricular arrhythmias is associated with an unfavourable prognosis in septic shock. Available trials are difficult to apply in sepsis and septic shock patients due to included cohorts, control groups and because "one size does not fit all". The priorities in the critically ill are maintenance of a sinus rhythm and diastolic ventricular filling. The rate control modality should be reserved for chronic AF and in situations when a sinus rhythm is difficult to maintain due to extreme stress conditions resulting from a high dosage of vasoactive agents...
November 18, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151001/intravenous-fluid-therapy-for-hospitalized-and-critically-ill-children-rationale-available-drugs-and-possible-side-effects
#13
Thomas Langer, Rosamaria Limuti, Concezione Tommasino, Niels van Regenmortel, Els L I M Duval, Pietro Caironi, Manu L N G Malbrain, Antonio Pesenti
Human beings are constituted mainly of water. In particular, children's total body water might reach 75-80% of their body weight, compared to 60-70% in adults. It is therefore not surprising, that children, especially hospitalized newborns and infants, are markedly prone to water and electrolyte imbalances. Parenteral fluid therapy is a cornerstone of medical treatment and is thus of exceptional relevance in this patient population. It is crucial to appreciate the fact that intravenous fluids are drugs with very different characteristics, different indications, contraindications and relevant side effects...
November 18, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151000/implementing-clinical-practice-changes-in-critical-care-lessons-learned-in-a-national-collaborative-of-over-60-icu-teams
#14
Ruth Kleinpell, Jerry J Zimmerman
Improving care in the intensive care unit (ICU) is a global area of focus for clinicians worldwide. The complexity of the ICU environment, compounded by multiple patient comorbidities and high acuity levels, makes the ICU a unique and challenging area of clinical practice. The essence of quality improvement - designing and implementing strategies to enhance care - fit well with the ICU setting. However, implementing clinical change is challenging, regardless of the clinical setting. A national collaborative targeting ICU settings was initiated which provided a number of lessons learned regarding implementing quality of care initiatives in critical care...
November 18, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150999/focus-on-focus-lack-of-coherence-between-systemic-and-microvascular-indices-of-edema-formation
#15
Birkitt Ten Tusscher, Corien Gudden, Suus van Vliet, Bob Smit, Can Ince, E Christiaan Boerma, Harm-Jan S de Grooth, Paul W G Elbers
BACKGROUND: Fluid therapy remains a cornerstone of therapy in shock states. However, fluid overloading ultimately results in edema formation which is related to excess morbidity and mortality. Handheld microscopes are now frequently used to study the sublingual microcirculation. As a corollary, these devices measure focal distance, or surface to capillary distance. Physiologically, this could represent a microvascular index of edema formation and could have the potential to guide fluid therapy...
November 18, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150979/anterior-thalamic-nuclei-lesions-have-a-greater-impact-than-mammillothalamic-tract-lesions-on-the-extended-hippocampal-system
#16
Brook A L Perry, Stephanie A Mercer, Sophie C Barnett, Jungah Lee, John C Dalrymple-Alford
The anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN), mammillary bodies and their interconnecting fiber tract, the mammillothalamic tract (MTT), are important components of an extended hippocampal circuit for episodic memory. In humans, damage to the MTT or ATN in many disorders is associated with severe anterograde amnesia and it is assumed that their influence on memory is functionally equivalent. The relative influence of these two structures on memory has not, however, been assessed explicitly. Here, a direct comparison found that only ATN lesions impaired spatial reference memory in rats...
November 18, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150976/salt-bridge-interactions-within-the-%C3%AE-2-integrin-%C3%AE-7-helix-mediate-force-induced-binding-and-shear-resistance-ability
#17
Xiao Zhang, Linda Li, Ning Li, Xinyu Shu, Lüwen Zhou, Shouqin Lü, Shenbao Chen, Debin Mao, Mian Long
The functional performance of αI domain α7 helix in β2 integrin activation depends on the allostery of the α7 helix, which axially slides down; therefore, it is critical to elucidate what factors regulate the allostery. In this study, we determined that there were two conservative salt bridge interaction pairs that constrain both the upper and bottom ends of the α7 helix. Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations for three β2 integrin members of LFA-1 (αL β2 ), Mac-1 (αM β2 ) and αx β2 indicated that the magnitude of the salt bridge interaction is related to the stability of the αI domain and the strength of the corresponding force-induced allostery...
November 18, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150961/modulation-of-igg1-immunoeffector-function-by-glycoengineering-of-the-gdp-fucose-biosynthesis-pathway
#18
Ronan M Kelly, Ronald L Kowle, Zhirui Lian, Beth A Strifler, Derrick R Witcher, Bhavin S Parekh, Tongtong Wang, Christopher C Frye
Cross-linking of the Fcγ receptors expressed on the surface of hematopoietic cells by IgG immune complexes triggers the activation of key immune effector mechanisms, including antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). A conserved N-glycan positioned at the N-terminal region of the IgG CH 2 domain is critical in maintaining the quaternary structure of the molecule for Fcγ receptor engagement. The removal of a single core fucose residue from the N-glycan results in a considerable increase in affinity for FcγRIIIa leading to an enhanced receptor-mediated immunoeffector function...
November 18, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150954/physiological-role-of-urothelial-cancer-associated-1-long-noncoding-rna-in-human-skeletogenic-cell-differentiation
#19
Takanori Ishikawa, Takashi Nishida, Mitsuaki Ono, Takeshi Takarada, Nguyen Ha, Shinnosuke Kurihara, Takayuki Furumatsu, Yurika Murase, Masaharu Takigawa, Toshitaka Oohashi, Hiroshi Kamioka, Satoshi Kubota
A vast number of long-noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) are found expressed in human cells, which RNAs have been developed along with human evolution. However, the physiological functions of these lncRNAs remain mostly unknown. In the present study, we for the first time uncovered the fact that one of such lncRNAs plays a significant role in the differentiation of chondrocytes and, possibly, of osteoblasts differentiated from mesenchymal stem cells, which cells eventually construct the human skeleton. The urothelial cancer-associated 1 (UCA1) lncRNA is known to be associated with several human malignancies...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150946/lncrna-tcons_00034812-in-cell-proliferation-and-apoptosis-of-pulmonary-artery-smooth-muscle-cells-and-its-mechanism
#20
Yun Liu, Zengxian Sun, Jinquan Zhu, Bingxin Xiao, Jie Dong, Xiaomin Li
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been discovered to be playing important role in various biological processes. However, the contribution of lncRNAs to pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) remains largely unknown. Pulmonary vascular remodeling is an important pathological feature of PAH, leading to increased vascular resistance and reduced compliance. Here, we investigated the biological role of lncRNAs in PAH. Differences in the lncRNAs and mRNAs between hypoxia PAH rats and normoxia rats were screened using microarray analysis...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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