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Endocannabinoid system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450258/the-cannabinoids-%C3%AE-8-thc-cbd-and-hu-308-act-via-distinct-receptors-to-reduce-corneal-pain-and-inflammation
#1
Dinesh Thapa, Elizabeth A Cairns, Anna-Maria Szczesniak, James T Toguri, Meggie D Caldwell, Melanie E M Kelly
Background and Purpose: Corneal injury can result in dysfunction of corneal nociceptive signaling and corneal sensitization. Activation of the endocannabinoid system has been reported to be analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The purpose of this research was to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of cannabinoids with reported actions at cannabinoid 1 (CB 1 R) and cannabinoid 2 (CB 2 R) receptors and/or noncannabinoid receptors in an experimental model of corneal hyperalgesia. Methods: Corneal hyperalgesia (increased pain response) was generated using chemical cauterization of the corneal epithelium in wild-type (WT) and CB 2 R knockout (CB 2 R -/- ) mice...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441900/role-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-the-formation-and-development-of-depression
#2
Dan Zhou, Yue Li, Tian Tian, Wei Quan, Lei Wang, Qing Shao, Lian-Qiang Fu, Xiao-Hong Zhang, Xiao-Ye Wang, Hui Zhang, Yan-Min Ma
Two types of cannabinoid (CB) receptors have been described in the human body: CB1 and CB2 receptors. CB1 receptor distribution may be related to the cannabinoid functions of memory and cognition regulation as well as motor control. In addition, the endocannabinoid system (ECS) related to CB1 receptors may be involved in human emotion regulation, especially depression occurrence. Indeed, CB1 receptors are all distributed in depression associated neuroanatomical structures and neural circuits. Both animal experiments and clinical studies have demonstrated that impairment of the ECS pathway is present in depression models and patients, and application of both CB1 receptor agonists and anandamide (cannabinoid-like substance) degradation inhibitors produce similar biochemical and behavioral effects as antidepressants...
August 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438780/modulation-of-central-endocannabinoid-system-results-in-gastric-mucosal-protection-in-the-rat
#3
V E Tóth, Á Fehér, J Németh, I Gyertyán, Z S Zádori, K Gyires
Previous findings showed that inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), degrading enzymes of anandamide (2-AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), reduced the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastric lesions. The present study aimed to investigate: i./whether central or peripheral mechanism play a major role in the gastroprotective effect of inhibitors of FAAH, MAGL and AEA uptake, ii./which peripheral mechanism(s) may play a role in mucosal protective effect of FAAH, MAGL and uptake inhibitors...
February 10, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437028/changes-in-the-peripheral-endocannabinoid-system-as-a-risk-factor-for-the-development-of-eating-disorders
#4
Anna Capasso, Walter Milano, Omar Cauli
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Eating Disorder (ED) is characterized by persistently and severely disturbed eating behaviours. They arise from a combination of long-standing behavioural, emotional, psychological, interpersonal, and social factors and result in insufficient nutrient ingestion and/or adsorption. The three main EDs are: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. We review the role of peripheral endocannabinoids in eating behaviour. DISCUSSION: The neuronal pathways involved in feeding behaviours are closely related to catecholaminergic, serotoninergic and peptidergic systems...
February 12, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434586/bioactive-lipids-and-chronic-inflammation-managing-the-fire-within
#5
REVIEW
Valerio Chiurchiù, Alessandro Leuti, Mauro Maccarrone
Inflammation is an immune response that works as a contained fire that is pre-emptively sparked as a defensive process during infections or upon any kind of tissue insult, and that is spontaneously extinguished after elimination or termination of the damage. However, persistent and uncontrolled immune reactions act as a wildfire that promote chronic inflammation, unresolved tissue damage and, eventually, chronic diseases. A wide network of soluble mediators, among which endogenous bioactive lipids, governs all immune processes...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414121/sacred-maya-incense-copal-protium-copal-burseraceae-has-antianxiety-effects-in-animal-models
#6
Zul Merali, Christian Cayer, Pamela Kent, Rui Liu, Victor Cal, Cory S Harris, John T Arnason
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The Maya have traditionally used copal, Protium copal, as incense during ceremonies since pre-Columbian times. Anecdotally, copal (when burned as incense), is thought to elicit mentally uplifting and calming effects. The main objective of this study was to determine whether the incense elicits anxiolytic-like behavior in animal models using rats. A second objective was to characterize active constituents and discern potential mechanism(s) of action, specifically the involvement of the GABAergic and endocannabinoid (eCB) systems...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412125/the-endocannabinoid-system-and-heart-disease-the-role-of-cannabinoid-receptor-type-2
#7
Morad Hebi, Douglas P Thewke
Decades of research has provided evidence for the role of the endocannabinoid system in human health and disease. This versatile system, consisting of two receptors (CB1 and CB2), their endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids), and metabolic enzymes has been implicated in a wide variety of disease states, ranging from neurological disorders to cancer. CB2 has gained much interest for its beneficial immunomodulatory role that can be obtained without eliciting psychotropic effects through CB1. Recent studies have shed light on a protective role of CB2 in cardiovascular disease, an ailment which currently takes more lives each year in Western countries than any other disease or injury...
February 6, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411704/-genetic-association-analyses-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-on-anxious-phenotype
#8
Judit Lazary, Nora Eszlari, Gabriella Juhasz, Gyorgy Bagdy
BACKGROUND: Accumulating data confirmed that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is involved in the regulation of stress response and emotional processes, therefore ECS became an important pharmacological target as a potential anxiolytic. Although unequivocal data from animal studies confirmed the relevancy of the ECS in anxious phenotype, human genetic data are poorly available in the literature in this field. In the presented studies we tested possible associations between anxious phenotype and the cannabinoid receptor 1 and the fatty acid amide hydrolase gene polymorphisms...
December 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410032/the-synthetic-cannabinoid-xlr-11-induces-in-vitro-nephrotoxicity-by-impairment-of-endocannabinoid-mediated-regulation-of-mitochondrial-function-homeostasis-and-triggering-of-apoptosis
#9
João P Silva, Helena Carmo, Félix Carvalho
Synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs)-related intoxications and deaths have been increasingly reported, turning its widespread recreational use into a major public health concern. Specifically, a direct link between SCBs and acute kidney injury (AKI) has been established. XLR-11 is an SCB commonly found in the toxicological analysis of patients with SCB-associated AKI. However, the pathophysiology of AKI among SCB consumers remains unknown. This work thus represents the first in vitro assessment of SCB nephrotoxicity, as a first approach to identify its cellular targets...
February 3, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408878/the-endocannabinoid-system-in-canine-steroid-responsive-meningitis-arteritis-and-intraspinal-spirocercosis
#10
Jessica Freundt-Revilla, Franciska Heinrich, Alexander Zoerner, Felix Gesell, Martin Beyerbach, Merav Shamir, Anna Oevermann, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Andrea Tipold
Endocannabinoids (ECs) are involved in immunomodulation, neuroprotection and control of inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). Activation of cannabinoid type 2 receptors (CB2) is known to diminish the release of pro-inflammatory factors and enhance the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) has been proved to induce the migration of eosinophils in a CB2 receptor-dependent manner in peripheral blood and activate neutrophils independent of CB activation in humans...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407214/impaired-glucocorticoid-mediated-hpa-axis-negative-feedback-induced-by-juvenile-social-isolation-in-male-rats
#11
Giorgia Boero, Maria Giuseppina Pisu, Francesca Biggio, Laura Muredda, Gianfranca Carta, Sebastiano Banni, Elena Paci, Paolo Follesa, Alessandra Concas, Patrizia Porcu, Mariangela Serra
We previously demonstrated that socially isolated rats at weaning showed a significant decrease in corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, associated with an enhanced response to acute stressful stimuli. Here we shown that social isolation decreased levels of total corticosterone and of its carrier corticosteroid-binding globulin, but did not influence the availability of the free active fraction of corticosterone, both under basal conditions and after acute stress exposure. Under basal conditions, social isolation increased the abundance of glucocorticoid receptors, while it decreased that of mineralocorticoid receptors...
January 31, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405480/diverse-actions-of-the-modulatory-peptide-neurotensin-on-central-synaptic-transmission
#12
Christopher W Tschumi, Michael J Beckstead
Neurotensin (NT) is a 13 amino acid neuropeptide that is expressed throughout the central nervous system and is implicated in the etiology of multiple diseases and disorders. Many primary investigations of NT-induced modulation of neuronal excitability at the level of the synapse have been conducted, but they have not been summarized in review form in nearly 30 years. Therefore, the goal of this review is to discuss the many actions of NT on neuronal excitability across brain regions as well as NT circuit architecture...
February 6, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402275/acute-administration-of-beta-caryophyllene-prevents-endocannabinoid-system-activation-during-transient-common-carotid-artery-occlusion-and-reperfusion
#13
Laura Poddighe, Gianfranca Carta, Maria Pina Serra, Tiziana Melis, Marianna Boi, Sara Lisai, Elisabetta Murru, Laura Muredda, Maria Collu, Sebastiano Banni, Marina Quartu
BACKGROUND: The transient global cerebral hypoperfusion/reperfusion achieved by induction of Bilateral Common Carotid Artery Occlusion followed by Reperfusion (BCCAO/R) has been shown to stimulate early molecular changes that can be easily traced in brain tissue and plasma, and that are indicative of the tissue physiological response to the reperfusion-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. The aim of the present study is to probe the possibility to prevent the molecular changes induced by the BCCAO/R with dietary natural compounds known to possess anti-inflammatory activity, such as the phytocannabinoid beta-caryophyllene (BCP)...
February 5, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400439/functional-relevance-of-endocannabinoid-dependent-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-cns
#14
Shana M Augustin, David M Lovinger
The endocannabinoid signaling system plays a key role in short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity in brain regions involved in various neural functions ranging from action selection to appetite control. This review will explore the role of endocannabinoids (eCBs) in shaping neural circuit function to regulate behaviors. In particular, we will discuss the behavioral consequences of eCB mediated long-term synaptic plasticity in different brain regions. This review brings together evidence from in vitro and ex-vivo studies and points out the need for more in vivo studies...
February 5, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399721/cannabinoid-receptors-in-diabetic-kidney-disease
#15
REVIEW
F Barutta, R Mastrocola, S Bellini, G Bruno, Gabriella Gruden
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to examine and summarize studies assessing the relevance of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in diabetic kidney disease (DKD). RECENT FINDINGS: Endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid receptors of type 1 (CB1R) and of type 2 (CB2R) are present in the normal kidney. Expression of CB1R and CB2R is altered in experimental DKD. Studies in experimental animals and cultured kidney cells show a beneficial effect of peripheral CB1R blockade and CB2R activation in DKD and an even greater efficacy of a combined treatment...
February 5, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392440/cannabinoids-and-glial-cells-possible-mechanism-to-understand-schizophrenia
#16
REVIEW
Valéria de Almeida, Daniel Martins-de-Souza
Clinical and neurobiological findings have reported the involvement of endocannabinoid signaling in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. This system modulates dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission that is associated with positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. Despite neurotransmitter impairments, increasing evidence points to a role of glial cells in schizophrenia pathobiology. Glial cells encompass three main groups: oligodendrocytes, microglia, and astrocytes. These cells promote several neurobiological functions, such as myelination of axons, metabolic and structural support, and immune response in the central nervous system...
February 1, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390896/targeting-the-endocannabinoid-system-as-a-potential-anticancer-approach
#17
Rico Schwarz, Robert Ramer, Burkhard Hinz
The endocannabinoid system is currently under intense investigation due to the therapeutic potential of cannabinoid-based drugs as treatment options for a broad variety of diseases including cancer. Besides the canonical endocannabinoid system that includes the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 and the endocannabinoids N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, recent investigations suggest that other fatty acid derivatives, receptors, enzymes, and lipid transporters likewise orchestrate this system as components of the endocannabinoid system when defined as an extended signaling network...
February 1, 2018: Drug Metabolism Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388710/psychobiological-responses-to-aerobic-exercise-in-individuals-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#18
Kevin M Crombie, Angelique G Brellenthin, Cecilia J Hillard, Kelli F Koltyn
Previous reports have shown improvements in mood and increases in endocannabinoids in healthy adults following a session of aerobic exercise, but it is unclear whether adults with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experience similar responses. The purpose of this study was to examine psychobiological responses (plasma endocannabinoids [eCBs], mood, and pain) to aerobic exercise in a sample of adults with a diagnosis of PTSD (n = 12) and healthy controls (n = 12). Participants engaged in an aerobic exercise session in which they ran on a treadmill for 30 min at a moderate intensity (70 to 75% maximum heart rate [MHR])...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388323/effects-of-repeated-long-term-psychosocial-stress-and-acute-cannabinoid-exposure-on-mouse-corticostriatal-circuitries-implications-for-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#19
Jordi Tomas-Roig, Fabiana Piscitelli, Vanesa Gil, Ester Quintana, Lluís L Ramió-Torrentà, Jose Antonio Del Río, Timothy Patrick Moore, Hope Agbemenyah, Gabriela Salinas, Claudia Pommerenke, Stephan Lorenzen, Tim Beißbarth, Sigrid Hoyer-Fender, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Ursula Havemann-Reinecke
INTRODUCTION: Vulnerability to psychiatric manifestations is achieved by the influence of genetic and environment including stress and cannabis consumption. Here, we used a psychosocial stress model based on resident-intruder confrontations to study the brain corticostriatal-function, since deregulation of corticostriatal circuitries has been reported in many psychiatric disorders. CB1 receptors are widely expressed in the central nervous system and particularly, in both cortex and striatum brain structures...
January 31, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388063/medical-cannabis-for-neuropathic-pain
#20
REVIEW
Gemayel Lee, Brittany Grovey, Tim Furnish, Mark Wallace
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Many cultures throughout history have used cannabis to treat a variety of painful ailments. Neuropathic pain is a complicated condition that is challenging to treat with our current medications. Recent scientific discovery has elucidated the intricate role of the endocannabinoid system in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain. As societal perceptions change, and legislation on medical cannabis relaxes, there is growing interest in the use of medical cannabis for neuropathic pain...
February 1, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
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