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Endocannabinoid system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663353/positron-emission-tomography-imaging-of-cerebral-glucose-metabolism-and-type-1-cannabinoid-receptor-availability-during-temporal-lobe-epileptogenesis-in-the-amygdala-kindling-model-in-rhesus-monkeys
#1
Evy Cleeren, Cindy Casteels, Karolien Goffin, Michel Koole, Koen Van Laere, Peter Janssen, Wim Van Paesschen
OBJECTIVE: We investigated changes in the endocannabinoid system and glucose metabolism during temporal lobe epileptogenesis. METHODS: Because it is rarely possible to study epileptogenesis in humans, we applied the electrical amygdala kindling model in nonhuman primates to image longitudinal changes in type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) binding and cerebral glucose metabolism. Two rhesus monkeys received [18 F]-MK-9470 and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography ([18 F]-FDG -PET) scans in each of the 4 kindling stages to quantify relative changes over time of CB1R binding and cerebral glucose metabolism in vivo...
April 17, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663308/insight-on-the-impact-of-endocannabinoid-system-in-cancer-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Ana Isabel Fraguas-Sánchez, Cristina Martín-Sabroso, Ana Isabel Torres-Suárez
In the last decades, the endocannabinoid system has attracted a great interest in medicine and cancer disease is probably one of its most promising therapeutic areas. On the one hand, endocannabinoid system expression has been found altered in numerous types of tumours compared to healthy tissue, and this aberrant expression has been related to cancer prognosis and disease outcome, suggesting a role of this system in tumour growth and progression that depends on cancer type. On the other hand, it has been reported that cannabinoids exert an anticancer activity by inhibiting the proliferation, migration and/or invasion of cancer cells; and also tumour angiogenesis...
April 16, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662957/new-york-physicians-perspectives-and-knowledge-of-the-state-medical-marijuana-program
#3
Alexandra Sideris, Fahad Khan, Alina Boltunova, Germaine Cuff, Christopher Gharibo, Lisa V Doan
Introduction: In 2014, New York (NY) became the 23rd state to legalize medical marijuana (MMJ). The purpose of this survey was to collect data about practicing NY physicians' comfort level, opinions, and experience in recommending or supporting patient use of MMJ. Materials and Methods: An anonymous web-based survey was distributed to medical societies and to academic departments in medical schools within NY. Results: A total of 164 responses were analyzed. Physician participants were primarily located in New York City and surrounding areas...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662438/cannabinoid-receptor-type-1-expression-in-the-developing-avian-retina-morphological-and-functional-correlation-with-the-dopaminergic-system
#4
Luzia da Silva Sampaio, Regina C C Kubrusly, Yolanda P Colli, Priscila P Trindade, Victor T Ribeiro-Resende, Marcelo Einicker-Lamas, Roberto Paes-de-Carvalho, Patricia F Gardino, Fernando G de Mello, Ricardo A De Melo Reis
The avian retina has been used as a model to study signaling by different neuro- and gliotransmitters. It is unclear how dopaminergic and cannabinoid systems are related in the retina. Here we studied the expression of type 1 and 2 cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2 ), as well as monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the enzyme that degrades 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), during retina development. Our data show that CB1 receptor is highly expressed from embryonic day 5 (E5) until post hatched day 7 (PE7), decreasing its levels throughout development...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660628/transcriptional-abundance-of-type-1-endocannabinoid-receptor-cb1-and-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-faah-in-bull-spermatozoa-relationship-with-field-fertility
#5
Vimlesh Kumar, Arumugam Kumaresan, Pradeep Nag, Puneeth Kumar, Tirtha Kumar Datta, Rubina Kumari Baithalu, Tushar Kumar Mohanty
A highly sophisticated endogenous cannabinoid system (ECS) has been shown to play a crucial role in controlling sperm functions and fertility in men. In the present study, we report the differences in the expression level of components of ECS [type-1 endocannabinoid receptor (CB1) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH)] in spermatozoa from bulls with different field fertility ratings. Cryopreserved spermatozoa from crossbred cattle bulls (n = 40) were utilized for the study. The bulls were classified into high-, medium- and low-fertile bulls based on field conception rates...
April 8, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655919/endocannabinoid-system-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-first-evidence-for-a-deranged-2-arachidonoylglycerol-metabolism
#6
Luca Navarini, Tiziana Bisogno, Pamela Mozetic, Fabiana Piscitelli, Domenico Paolo Emanuele Margiotta, Fabio Basta, Antonella Afeltra, Mauro Maccarrone
The endocannabinoid (eCB) system plays a key role in many physiological and pathological conditions and its dysregulation has been described in several rheumatological and autoimmune diseases. Yet, its possible alteration in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has never been investigated. Here, we aimed filling this gap in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with SLE and age- and sex- matched healthy subjects (HS). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry quantitation of eCB levels highlighted that plasma levels of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) were significantly increased in SLE patients compared to HS (p = 0...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650790/effect-of-endocannabinoid-oleamide-on-rat-and-human-liver-cytochrome-p450-enzymes-in-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-models
#7
Gabriela Dovrtelova, Ondrej Zendulka, Kristyna Noskova, Jan Jurica, Ondrej Pes, Jan Dusek, Alejandro Carazo, Iveta Zapletalova, Natasa Hlavacova, Petr Pavek
The endocannabinoid system is important for many physiological and pathological processes, but its role in the regulation of liver cytochromes P450 (CYPs) is still unknown. We studied the influence of the endocannabinoid oleamide on rat and human liver CYPs. Oleamide was administered i.p. to rats at doses of 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/kg/day for 7 days. The content and activity of key CYPs was evaluated in rat liver microsomes. Moreover, its interactions with nuclear receptors regulating CYP genes and serum levels of their ligands (prolactin, corticosterone, and free triiodothyronine) were tested in vitro CYP inhibition assays...
April 12, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650773/cannabinoid-type-1-receptors-are-upregulated-during-acute-activation-of-brown-adipose-tissue
#8
Minna Lahesmaa, Olof Eriksson, Thorsten Gnad, Vesa Oikonen, Marco Bucci, Jussi Hirvonen, Kalle Koskensalo, Jarmo Teuho, Tarja Niemi, Markku Taittonen, Salla Lahdenpohja, Mueez U Din, Merja Haaparanta-Solin, Alexander Pfeifer, Kirsi A Virtanen, Pirjo Nuutila
Activating brown adipose tissue (BAT) could provide a potential approach for the treatment of obesity and metabolic disease in humans. Obesity is associated with up-regulation of the endocannabinoid system, and blocking the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R) has been shown to cause weight loss and decrease cardiometabolic risk factors. These effects may partly be mediated via increased BAT metabolism, since there is evidence that CB1R antagonism activates BAT in rodents. To investigate the significance of CB1R in BAT function, we quantified the density of CB1R in human and rodent BAT using the positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand [18 F]FMPEP- d 2 , and in parallel measured BAT activation with the glucose analogue [18 F]FDG...
April 12, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643404/canine-napepld-associated-models-of-human-myelin-disorders
#9
K M Minor, A Letko, D Becker, M Drögemüller, P J J Mandigers, S R Bellekom, P A J Leegwater, Q E M Stassen, K Putschbach, A Fischer, T Flegel, K Matiasek, K J Ekenstedt, E Furrow, E E Patterson, S R Platt, P A Kelly, J P Cassidy, G D Shelton, K Lucot, D L Bannasch, H Martineau, C F Muir, S L Priestnall, D Henke, A Oevermann, V Jagannathan, J R Mickelson, C Drögemüller
Canine leukoencephalomyelopathy (LEMP) is a juvenile-onset neurodegenerative disorder of the CNS white matter currently described in Rottweiler and Leonberger dogs. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) allowed us to map LEMP in a Leonberger cohort to dog chromosome 18. Subsequent whole genome re-sequencing of a Leonberger case enabled the identification of a single private homozygous non-synonymous missense variant located in the highly conserved metallo-beta-lactamase domain of the N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPEPLD) gene, encoding an enzyme of the endocannabinoid system...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627714/circulating-endocannabinoids-and-affect-regulation-in-human-subjects
#10
Emil F Coccaro, Matthew N Hill, Lauren Robinson, Royce J Lee
The endocannabinoid (EC) system influences a wide variety of neurobiological processes including affect and emotionality as well as other neuropsychiatric functions. In this study we examined the relationship of circulating endocannabinoids [anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG)] with affect and emotionality in 175 individuals with (n = 115) and without (n = 60) mood, anxiety, and/or personality disorders. Circulating AEA levels displayed a modest, though statistically significant, inverse relationship with a composite measure of affect regulation (β = - 0...
March 16, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627605/evaluation-of-bisphenol-a-influence-on-endocannabinoid-system-in-pregnant-women
#11
Monika Zbucka-Kretowska, Robert Zbucki, Ewa Parfieniuk, Maciej Maslyk, Urszula Lazarek, Wojciech Miltyk, Jan Czerniecki, Slawomir Wolczynski, Adam Kretowski, Michal Ciborowski
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic chemical widely used in the industry, which may potentially evoke negative effects on human health, especially on reproductive processes and fetal development. BPA has been reported to act on estrogen, estrogen-related, androgen, thyroid hormone, pregnane X, peroxisome proliferation-activated, and aryl hydrocarbon receptors. However, other potential mechanisms of BPA action on pregnancy cannot be excluded. Comprehensive evaluation of BPA effect on pregnant women can be performed by use of metabolomics...
March 30, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621749/the-endocannabinoid-system-affects-myocardial-glucose-metabolism-in-the-doca-salt-model-of-hypertension
#12
Agnieszka Polak, Ewa Harasim-Symbor, Barbara Malinowska, Irena Kasacka, Alicja Lewandowska, Adrian Chabowski
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recent interest in the use of cannabinoids as therapeutic agents has revealed the involvement of the endogenous cannabinoid system (ECS) in the regulation of the cardiovascular system in hypertension. Abnormalities in glucose metabolism and insulin action are commonly detected in hypertensive animals. Thus, potential antihypertensive drugs should be investigated with respect to modulation of glucose homeostasis. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the ECS activation after chronic fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor (URB597) administration on plasma glucose and insulin concentrations as well as parameters of myocardial glucose metabolism in the deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats, an animal model of secondary hypertension...
March 29, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615860/endocannabinoid-system-and-migraine-pain-an-update
#13
REVIEW
Rosaria Greco, Chiara Demartini, Anna M Zanaboni, Daniele Piomelli, Cristina Tassorelli
The trigeminovascular system (TS) activation and the vasoactive release from trigeminal endings, in proximity of the meningeal vessels, are considered two of the main effector mechanisms of migraine attacks. Several other structures and mediators are involved, however, both upstream and alongside the TS. Among these, the endocannabinoid system (ES) has recently attracted considerable attention. Experimental and clinical data suggest indeed a link between dysregulation of this signaling complex and migraine headache...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605135/mass-spectrometry-profiling-reveals-altered-plasma-levels-of-monohydroxy-fatty-acids-and-related-lipids-in-healthy-humans-after-controlled-exposure-to-biodiesel-exhaust
#14
Sandra Gouveia-Figueira, Masoumeh Karimpour, Jenny A Bosson, Anders Blomberg, Jon Unosson, Maria Sehlstedt, Jamshid Pourazar, Thomas Sandström, Annelie F Behndig, Malin L Nording
Experimental human exposure studies are an effective tool to study adverse health effects from acute inhalation of particulate matter and other constituents of air pollution. In this randomized and double-blinded crossover study, we investigated the systemic effect on bioactive lipid metabolite levels after controlled biodiesel exhaust exposure of healthy humans and compared it to filtered air at a separate exposure occasion. Eicosanoids and other oxylipins, as well as endocannabinoids and related lipids, were quantified in plasma from 14 healthy volunteers at baseline and at three subsequent time points (2, 6, and 24 h) after 1 h exposure sessions...
August 14, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604314/zebrafish-models-relevant-to-studying-central-opioid-and-endocannabinoid-systems
#15
REVIEW
Konstantin A Demin, Darya A Meshalkina, Elana V Kysil, Kristina A Antonova, Andrey D Volgin, Oleg A Yakovlev, Polina A Alekseeva, Maria M Firuleva, Anton M Lakstygal, Murilo S de Abreu, Leonardo J G Barcellos, Wandong Bao, Ashton J Friend, Tamara G Amstislavskaya, Denis B Rosemberg, Pavel E Musienko, Cai Song, Allan V Kalueff
The endocannabinoid and opioid systems are two interplaying neurotransmitter systems that modulate drug abuse, anxiety, pain, cognition, neurogenesis and immune activity. Although they are involved in such critical functions, our understanding of endocannabinoid and opioid physiology remains limited, necessitating further studies, novel models and new model organisms. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is rapidly emerging as one of the most effective translational models in neuroscience and biological psychiatry. Due to their high physiological and genetic homology to humans, zebrafish may be effectively used to study the endocannabinoid and opioid systems...
March 28, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604295/cannabinoid-receptor-mediated-disruption-of-sensory-gating-and-neural-oscillations-a-translational-study-in-rats-and-humans
#16
Patrick D Skosnik, Mihály Hajós, Jose A Cortes-Briones, Chad R Edwards, Brian P Pittman, William E Hoffmann, Andrew R Sewell, Deepak C D'Souza, Mohini Ranganathan
Cannabis use has been associated with altered sensory gating and neural oscillations. However, it is unclear which constituent in cannabis is responsible for these effects, or whether these are cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) mediated. Therefore, the present study in humans and rats examined whether cannabinoid administration would disrupt sensory gating and evoked oscillations utilizing electroencephalography (EEG) and local field potentials (LFPs), respectively. Human subjects (n = 15) completed four test days during which they received intravenous delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9 -THC), cannabidiol (CBD), Δ9 -THC + CBD, or placebo...
March 28, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593494/antiepileptogenic-effect-of-subchronic-palmitoylethanolamide-treatment-in-a-mouse-model-of-acute-epilepsy
#17
Julia M Post, Sebastian Loch, Raissa Lerner, Floortje Remmers, Ermelinda Lomazzo, Beat Lutz, Laura Bindila
Research on the antiepileptic effects of (endo-)cannabinoids has remarkably progressed in the years following the discovery of fundamental role of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in controlling neural excitability. Moreover, an increasing number of well-documented cases of epilepsy patients exhibiting multi-drug resistance report beneficial effects of cannabis use. Pre-clinical and clinical research has increasingly focused on the antiepileptic effectiveness of exogenous administration of cannabinoids and/or pharmacologically induced increase of eCBs such as anandamide (also known as arachidonoylethanolamide [AEA])...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588112/regulation-of-adipose-tissue-metabolism-by-the-endocannabinoid-system
#18
REVIEW
Robin van Eenige, Mario van der Stelt, Patrick C N Rensen, Sander Kooijman
White adipose tissue (WAT) stores excess energy as triglycerides, and brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized in dissipating energy as heat. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is involved in a broad range of physiological processes and is increasingly recognized as a key player in adipose tissue metabolism. High ECS tonus in the fed state is associated with a disadvantageous metabolic phenotype, and this has led to a search for pharmacological strategies to inhibit the ECS. In this review we present recent developments that cast light on the regulation of adipose tissue metabolism by the ECS, and we discuss novel treatment options including the modulation of endocannabinoid synthesis and breakdown enzymes...
March 24, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580129/bidirectional-influence-of-amygdala-%C3%AE-1-adrenoceptors-blockade-on-cannabinoid-signaling-in-contextual-and-auditory-fear-memory
#19
Mohammad Nasehi, Saman Shahbazzadeh, Mohaddeseh Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a major target and modulator of stress and has a critical role in the neural circuitry presenting learned fear behaviors. On the other hand, both the endocannabinoid and noradrenergic systems may be involved in regulating the stress responses, fear, and anxiety. Considering the aforementioned, we have investigated the involvement of the BLA β1 -adrenoceptors in conditioned fear responses induced by ACPA, a CB1 receptor (CB1R) agonist. In adult male NMRI mice, freezing responses to context and cue were measured using a Pavlovian fear conditioning apparatus...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576413/the-effects-of-antipsychotics-on-the-density-of-cannabinoid-receptors-in-selected-brain-regions-of-male-and-female-adolescent-juvenile-rats
#20
Jiamei Lian, Chao Deng
Antipsychotic drugs have been increasingly prescribed to children and adolescents for treating various mental disorders, such as childhood-onset schizophrenia. The abnormality of endocannabinoid system is involved in the pathophysiology of these disorders in juveniles. This study investigated the effect of antipsychotics on the cannabinoid (CB) receptors in the brain of both male and female juvenile rats. The postnatal rats (PD23±1) were administered aripiprazole (1 mg/kg), olanzapine (1 mg/kg), risperidone (0...
March 16, 2018: Psychiatry Research
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