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Endocannabinoid system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908562/ontogeny-of-sensorimotor-gating-and-short-term-memory-processing-throughout-the-adolescent-period-in-rats
#1
Anja A Goepfrich, Chris M Friemel, Sabina Pauen, Miriam Schneider
Adolescence and puberty are highly susceptible developmental periods during which the neuronal organization and maturation of the brain is completed. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system, which is well known to modulate cognitive processing, undergoes profound and transient developmental changes during adolescence. With the present study we were aiming to examine the ontogeny of cognitive skills throughout adolescence in male rats and clarify the potential modulatory role of CB1 receptor signalling. Cognitive skills were assessed repeatedly every 10th day in rats throughout adolescence...
November 19, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903595/lifelong-imbalanced-linoleic-alpha-linolenic-acid-intake-impairs-emotional-and-cognitive-behavior-in-adult-rats-via-changes-in-brain-endocannabinoid-system
#2
Erica Zamberletti, Fabiana Piscitelli, Valentina De Castro, Elisabetta Murru, Marina Gabaglio, Paola Colucci, Chiara Fanali, Pamela Prini, Tiziana Bisogno, Mauro Maccarrone, Patrizia Campolongo, Sebastiano Banni, Tiziana Rubino, Daniela Parolaro
Imbalanced dietary n-3 and n-6 PUFA content has been associated with a number of neurological conditions. Endocannabinoids are n-6 PUFA derivatives, whose brain concentrations are sensitive to modifications of fatty acid composition of the diet, and play a central role in the regulation of mood and cognition. As such, the endocannabinoid system appears to be an ideal candidate for mediating the effects of dietary fatty acids on mood and cognition. Lifelong administration of isocaloric alpha linolenic acid (ALA) deficient and enriched diets induced short-term memory deficits, whereas only dietary ALA enrichment altered emotional reactivity in adult male rats compared to animals fed a standard diet, balanced in ALA/linoleic (LA) ratio...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902931/human-presynaptic-receptors
#3
REVIEW
Eberhard Schlicker, Thomas Feuerstein
Presynaptic receptors are sites at which transmitters, locally formed mediators or hormones inhibit or facilitate the release of a given transmitter from its axon terminals. The interest in the identification of presynaptic receptors has faded in recent years and it may therefore be justified to give an overview of their occurrence in the autonomic and central nervous system; this review will focus on presynaptic receptors in human tissues. Autoreceptors are presynaptic receptors at which a given transmitter restrains its further release, though in some instances may also increase its release...
November 27, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900261/targeting-the-endocannabinoid-cb1-receptor-system-for-treating-obesity-in-prader-willi-syndrome
#4
Ibrahim Knani, Brian J Earley, Shiran Udi, Alina Nemirovski, Rivka Hadar, Asaad Gammal, Resat Cinar, Harry J Hirsch, Yehuda Pollak, Itai Gross, Talia Eldar-Geva, Daniela P Reyes-Capo, Joan C Han, Andrea M Haqq, Varda Gross-Tsur, Rachel Wevrick, Joseph Tam
OBJECTIVE: Extreme obesity is a core phenotypic feature of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Among numerous metabolic regulators, the endocannabinoid (eCB) system is critically involved in controlling feeding, body weight, and energy metabolism, and a globally acting cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) blockade reverses obesity both in animals and humans. The first-in-class CB1R antagonist rimonabant proved effective in inducing weight loss in adults with PWS. However, it is no longer available for clinical use because of its centrally mediated, neuropsychiatric, adverse effects...
December 2016: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899885/interacting-cannabinoid-and-opioid-receptors-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core-control-adolescent-social-play
#5
Antonia Manduca, Olivier Lassalle, Marja Sepers, Patrizia Campolongo, Vincenzo Cuomo, Giovanni Marsicano, Brigitte Kieffer, Louk J M J Vanderschuren, Viviana Trezza, Olivier J J Manzoni
Social play behavior is a highly rewarding, developmentally important form of social interaction in young mammals. However, its neurobiological underpinnings remain incompletely understood. Previous work has suggested that opioid and endocannabinoid neurotransmission interact in the modulation of social play. Therefore, we combined behavioral, pharmacological, electrophysiological, and genetic approaches to elucidate the role of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in social play, and how cannabinoid and opioid neurotransmission interact to control social behavior in adolescent rodents...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899300/role-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-the-control-of-mouse-myometrium-contractility-during-the-menstrual-cycle
#6
Ester Pagano, Pierangelo Orlando, Stefania Finizio, Antonietta Rossi, Lorena Buono, Fabio Arturo Iannotti, Fabiana Piscitelli, Angelo A Izzo, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Francesca Borrelli
Cannabis and cannabinoids are known to affect female reproduction. However, the role of the endocannabinoid system in mouse uterine contractility in the dioestrus and oestrus phases has not been previously investigated. The present study aimed at filling this gap. Endocannabinoid (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) levels were measured in mouse uterus at dioestrus and oestrus phases by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; quantitative reverse transcription-PCR measured mRNA expression of cannabinoid receptors and enzymes involved in the metabolism of endocannabinoids...
November 26, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891602/cannabimimetic-phytochemicals-in-the-diet-an-evolutionary-link-to-food-selection-and-metabolic-stress-adaptation
#7
REVIEW
Jürg Gertsch
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a major lipid signaling network that plays important pro-homeostatic (allostatic) roles not only in the nervous system but in peripheral organs. Increasing evidence points towards a dietary component in the modulation of the ECS. Cannabinoid receptors in hominids co-evolved with diet and the ECS constitutes a feedback loop for food selection and energy metabolism. Here it is postulated that the mismatch of ancient lipid genes of hunter-gatheres and pastoralists with the high carbohydrate diet introduced by agriculture could be compensated via dietary modulation of the ECS...
November 27, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891077/presynaptic-g-protein-coupled-receptors-gatekeepers-of-addiction
#8
REVIEW
Kari A Johnson, David M Lovinger
Drug abuse and addiction cause widespread social and public health problems, and the neurobiology underlying drug actions and drug use and abuse is an area of intensive research. Drugs of abuse alter synaptic transmission, and these actions contribute to acute intoxication as well as the chronic effects of abused substances. Transmission at most mammalian synapses involves neurotransmitter activation of two receptor subtypes, ligand-gated ion channels that mediate fast synaptic responses and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that have slower neuromodulatory actions...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890673/functional-validation-of-abhd12-mutations-in-the-neurodegenerative-disease-pharc
#9
Angèle Tingaud-Sequeira, Demetrio Raldúa, Julie Lavie, Guilaine Mathieu, Magali Bordier, Anja Knoll-Gellida, Pierre Rambeau, Isabelle Coupry, Michèle André, Eva Malm, Claes Möller, Sten Andreasson, Nanna D Rendtorff, Lisbeth Tranebjærg, Michel Koenig, Didier Lacombe, Cyril Goizet, Patrick J Babin
ABHD12 mutations have been linked to neurodegenerative PHARC (polyneuropathy, hearing loss, ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa, and early-onset cataract), a rare, progressive, autosomal, recessive disease. Although ABHD12 is suspected to play a role in the lysophosphatidylserine and/or endocannabinoid pathways, its precise functional role(s) leading to PHARC disease had not previously been characterized. Cell and zebrafish models were designed to demonstrate the causal link between an identified new missense mutation p...
November 23, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890603/a-novel-inhibitor-of-endocannabinoid-catabolic-enzymes-sheds-light-on-behind-the-scene-interplay-between-chronic-pain-analgesic-tolerance-and-heroin-dependence
#10
Josée Guindon
From the Aristotelian ancient Greece, pain has been associated with appetites or emotions and is opposite to pleasure. Reward and addiction is also linked to pleasure and compulsive drug seeking reinstates pleasure. Alleviation of chronic pain can induce a euphoric phase similar to what is found in addiction. Both chronic pain and addiction are recognized as a disease of the central nervous system. They share many characteristics and brain regions/mechanisms. Evidence points to the usefulness of cannabinoids as a new class of agents to add to the pharmaceutical toolbox in the management of chronic pain...
November 24, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890602/the-endocannabinoid-hydrolysis-inhibitor-sa-57-intrinsic-antinociceptive-effects-augmented-morphine-induced-antinociception-and-attenuated-heroin-seeking-behavior-in-mice
#11
Jenny L Wilkerson, Sudeshna Ghosh, Mohammed Mustafa, Rehab A Abdullah, Micah J Niphakis, Roberto Cabrera, Rafael L Maldonado, Benjamin F Cravatt, Aron H Lichtman
Although opioids are highly efficacious analgesics, their abuse potential and other untoward side effects diminish their therapeutic utility. The addition of non-opioid analgesics offers a promising strategy to reduce required antinociceptive opioid doses that concomitantly reduce opioid-related side effects. Inhibitors of the primary endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) show opioid-sparing effects in preclinical models of pain. As simultaneous inhibition of these enzymes elicits enhanced antinociceptive effects compared with single enzyme inhibition, the present study tested whether the dual FAAH-MAGL inhibitor SA-57 [4-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 2-(methylamino)-2-oxoethyl ester] produces morphine-sparing antinociceptive effects, without major side effects associated with either drug class...
November 24, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889374/-consumption-of-cannabis-in-adolescents
#12
O Phan, I Obradovic, A Har
Over the past 10 years, the consumption of cannabis among adolescents has dramatically increased. Today, adolescent cannabis use is a major public health problem. Two forms of cannabis are commonly smoked: herb (marijuana) and resin. These forms have a high concentration of tetrahydrocannabinol, the active molecule of cannabis. Recent research has helped understand how the cannabinoid system works. This system combines specific receptors and specific molecules: the endocannabinoids. The effects of cannabis use are now well documented...
November 23, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884725/endocannabinoid-system-in-sexual-motivational-processes-is-it-a-novel-therapeutic-horizon
#13
REVIEW
Renata Androvicova, Jiri Horacek, Tibor Stark, Filippo Drago, Vincenzo Micale
The endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is composed of the cannabinoid receptors types 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2) for marijuana's psychoactive ingredient Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), the endogenous ligands (AEA and 2-AG) and the enzymatic systems involved in their biosynthesis and degradation, recently emerged as important modulator of emotional and non-emotional behaviors. For centuries, in addition to its recreational actions, several contradictory claims regarding the effects of Cannabis use in sexual functioning and behavior (e...
November 21, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877130/cannabidiol-as-a-potential-new-type-of-an-antipsychotic-a-critical-review-of-the-evidence
#14
REVIEW
Cathrin Rohleder, Juliane K Müller, Bettina Lange, F M Leweke
There is urgent need for the development of mechanistically different and less side-effect prone antipsychotic compounds. The endocannabinoid system has been suggested to represent a potential new target in this indication. While the chronic use of cannabis itself has been considered a risk factor contributing to the development of schizophrenia, triggered by the phytocannabinoid delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), cannabidiol, the second most important phytocannabinoid, appears to have no psychotomimetic potential...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876485/cannabinoid-receptors-and-trpa1-on-neuroprotection-in-a-model-of-retinal-ischemia
#15
D S M Araújo, V S Miya-Coreixas, P Pandolfo, K C Calaza
Retinal ischemia is a pathological event present in several retinopathies such as diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma, leading to partial or full blindness with no effective treatment available. Since synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids have been studied as modulators of ischemic events in the central nervous system (CNS), the present study aimed to investigate the involvement of cannabinoid system in the cell death induced by ischemia in an avascular (chick) retina. We observed that chick retinal treatment with a combination of WIN 55212-2 and cannabinoid receptor antagonists (either AM251/O-2050 or AM630) decreased the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) induced by retinal ischemia in an oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) model...
November 19, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871881/targeting-brain-and-peripheral-plasticity-of-the-lipidome-in-acute-kainic-acid-induced-epileptic-seizures-in-mice-via-quantitative-mass-spectrometry
#16
Raissa Lerner, Julia Post, Sebastian Loch, Beat Lutz, Laura Bindila
Epilepsy is a highly common chronic neurological disorder, manifested in many different types, affecting ~1% of the worldwide human population. The molecular mechanisms of epileptogenesis has not yet been clarified, and pharmacoresistance exhibited by 30-40% of epilepsy patients remains a major obstacle in medical care. Growing evidence indicates a role of lipid signalling pathways in epileptogenesis, thus lipid signals emerge as potential biomarkers for the onset and evolving course of the epileptic disorder, as well as potential therapeutic agents and targets...
November 15, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867000/neuromodulatory-effects-of-the-dorsal-hippocampal-endocannabinoid-system-in-dextromethorphan-morphine-induced-amnesia
#17
Zahra Ghasemzadeh, Ameneh Rezayof
Dextromethorphan which is an active ingredient in many cough medicines has been previously shown to potentiate amnesic effect of morphine in rats. However, the effect of dextromethorphan, that is also a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, in combination with morphine on hippocampus-based long term memory has not been well characterized. The aim of the present study was to assess the possible role of endocannabinoid system of the dorsal hippocampus in dextromethorphan /morphine-induced amnesia...
November 17, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861894/fabp1-gene-ablation-inhibits-high-fat-diet-induced-increase-in-brain-endocannabinoids
#18
Gregory G Martin, Danilo Landrock, Sarah Chung, Lawrence J Dangott, Drew R Seeger, Eric J Murphy, Mikhail Y Golovko, Ann B Kier, Friedhelm Schroeder
The endocannabinoid system shifts energy balance toward storage and fat accumulation, especially in the context of diet-induced obesity. Relatively little is known about factors outside the central nervous system that may mediate the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) on brain endocannabinoid levels. One candidate is the liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP1), a cytosolic protein highly prevalent in liver, but not detected in brain, which facilitates hepatic clearance of fatty acids. The impact of Fabp1 gene ablation (LKO) on the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) on brain and plasma endocannabinoid levels was examined and data expressed for each parameter as the ratio of high-fat diet/control diet...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861784/focus-on-cannabinoids-and-synthetic-cannabinoids
#19
R Le Boisselier, J Alexandre, V Lelong-Boulouard, D Debruyne
The recent emergence of a multitude of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) has generated a wealth of new information, suggesting the usefulness of state-of-the-art on lato sensu cannabinoids. By modulating a plurality of neurotransmission pathways, the endocannabinoid system is involved in many physiological processes increasingly explored. SCs desired and adverse effects are considered to be more intense than those observed with cannabis smoking, which is partly explained by the full agonist activity and higher affinity for cannabinoid receptors...
November 9, 2016: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861558/modulation-of-type-1-and-type-2-cannabinoid-receptors-by-saffron-in-a-rat-model-of-retinal-neurodegeneration
#20
Rita Maccarone, Cinzia Rapino, Darin Zerti, Monia di Tommaso, Natalia Battista, Stefano Di Marco, Silvia Bisti, Mauro Maccarrone
Experimental studies demonstrated that saffron (Crocus sativus) given as a dietary supplement counteracts the effects of bright continuous light (BCL) exposure in the albino rat retina, preserving both morphology and function and probably acting as a regulator of programmed cell death [1]. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether the neuroprotective effect of saffron on rat retina exposed to BCL is associated with a modulation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS). To this aim, we used eight experimental groups of Sprague-Dawley rats, of which six were exposed to BCL for 24 hours...
2016: PloS One
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