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Endocannabinoid system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223925/effects-of-intermittent-alcohol-exposure-on-emotion-and-cognition-a-potential-role-for-the-endogenous-cannabinoid-system-and-neuroinflammation
#1
Laura Sanchez-Marin, Francisco J Pavon, Juan Decara, Juan Suarez, Ana Gavito, Estela Castilla-Ortega, Fernando Rodriguez de Fonseca, Antonia Serrano
Intermittent alcohol exposure is a common pattern of adolescent alcohol use that can lead to binge drinking episodes. Alcohol use is known to modulate the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is involved in neuronal communication, neuroplasticity, neuroinflammation and behavior. Adolescent male Wistar rats were exposed to 4-week intermittent alcohol intoxication (3 g/kg injections for 4 days/week) or saline (N = 12 per group). After alcohol deprivation, adult rats were assessed for emotionality and cognition and the gene expression of the ECS and other factors related to behavior and neuroinflammation was examined in the brain...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222356/extinction-of-avoidance-behavior-by-safety-learning-depends-on-endocannabinoid-signaling-in-the-hippocampus
#2
Vincenzo Micale, Jens Stepan, Angela Jurik, Fabricio A Pamplona, Rudolph Marsch, Filippo Drago, Matthias Eder, Carsten T Wotjak
The development of exaggerated avoidance behavior is largely responsible for the decreased quality of life in patients suffering from anxiety disorders. Studies using animal models have contributed to the understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the acquisition of avoidance responses. However, much less is known about its extinction. Here we provide evidence in mice that learning about the safety of an environment (i.e., safety learning) rather than repeated execution of the avoided response in absence of negative consequences (i...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222022/central-and-peripheral-control-of-food-intake
#3
M M I Abdalla
The maintenance of the body weight at a stable level is a major determinant in keeping the higher animals and mammals survive. Th e body weight depends on the balance between the energy intake and energy expenditure. Increased food intake over the energy expenditure of prolonged time period results in an obesity. Th e obesity has become an important worldwide health problem, even at low levels. The obesity has an evil effect on the health and is associated with a shorter life expectancy. A complex of central and peripheral physiological signals is involved in the control of the food intake...
January 1, 2017: Endocrine Regulations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220271/anandamide-oxidative-metabolism-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-apoptosis
#4
M Almada, B M Fonseca, C Amaral, M Diniz-da-Costa, G Correia-da-Silva, N Teixeira
The Endocannabinoid System (ECS) has been recognized as a crucial player in human reproduction. Changes in the levels of anandamide (AEA), the main endocannabinoid (eCB), negatively affect reproductive events, such as implantation, decidualization and placentation. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a major enzyme expressed in the endometrium and its involvement in female reproductive system has evolved over the last few years. Currently, COX-2 oxidative metabolism is emerging as a key mediator of AEA-induced actions...
February 20, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220060/a-pulsed-electromagnetic-field-protects-against-glutamate-induced-excitotoxicity-by-modulating-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-ht22-cells
#5
Xin Li, Haoxiang Xu, Tao Lei, Yuefan Yang, Da Jing, Shuhui Dai, Peng Luo, Qiaoling Xu
Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity is common in the pathogenesis of many neurological diseases. A pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) exerts therapeutic effects on the nervous system, but its specific mechanism associated with excitotoxicity is still unknown. We investigated the role of PEMF exposure in regulating glutamate-induced excitotoxicity through the endocannabinoid (eCB) system. PEMF exposure improved viability of HT22 cells after excitotoxicity and reduced lactate dehydrogenase release and cell death...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210207/cannabinoid-receptor-2-signaling-in-neurodegenerative-disorders-from-pathogenesis-to-a-promising-therapeutic-target
#6
REVIEW
Tommaso Cassano, Silvio Calcagnini, Lorenzo Pace, Federico De Marco, Adele Romano, Silvana Gaetani
As a consequence of an increasingly aging population, the number of people affected by neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, is rapidly increasing. Although the etiology of these diseases has not been completely defined, common molecular mechanisms including neuroinflammation, excitotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction have been confirmed and can be targeted therapeutically. Moreover, recent studies have shown that endogenous cannabinoid signaling plays a number of modulatory roles throughout the central nervous system (CNS), including the neuroinflammation and neurogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209996/transient-cannabinoid-receptor-2-blockade-during-immunization-heightens-intensity-and-breadth-of-antigen-specific-antibody-responses-in-young-and-aged-mice
#7
Emmanuel Dotsey, Irina Ushach, Egest Pone, Rie Nakajima, Algis Jasinskas, Donovan A Argueta, Andrea Dillon, Nicholas DiPatrizio, Huw Davies, Albert Zlotnik, Peter D Crompton, Philip L Felgner
The hallmark of vaccines is their ability to prevent the spread of infectious pathogens and thereby serve as invaluable public health tool. Despite their medical relevance, there is a gap in our understanding of the physiological factors that mediate innate and adaptive immune response to vaccines. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is a critical modulator of homeostasis in vertebrates. Our results indicate that macrophages and dendritic cells produce the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG) upon antigen activation...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193523/faah-inhibition-produces-antidepressant-like-efforts-of-mice-to-acute-stress-via-synaptic-long-term-depression
#8
Ying Wang, Xia Zhang
Recent studies have shown that inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the major degradative enzyme of the endocannabinoid N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA), produced antidepressant behavioral responses, but its underlying mechanism is not clear. Here we find that a systemic administration of the FAAH inhibitor PF3845 or an intra-CA1 application of AEA elicits an in vivo long-term depression (LTD) at excitatory glutamatergic CA3-CA1 synapses of the hippocampus. The PF3845- and/or AEA-elicited LTD are abolished by the LTD-blocking peptide Tat-GluR2...
February 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192193/differential-expression-of-endocannabinoid-system-related-genes-in-the-dorsal-hippocampus-following-expression-and-reinstatement-of-morphine-conditioned-place-preference-in-mice
#9
Wei Li, Cong-Li Zhang, Zheng-Guo Qiu
The endocannabinoid signaling plays a critical role in mediating rewarding effects to morphine. The relative stability for the expression and reinstatement of morphine conditioned place preference (CPP) suggests the involvement of differential neuroadaptations in learned associations between environmental cues and morphine. Changes in gene expression in hippocampus through the endogenous cannabinoid system (eCB) may accompany and mediate the development of such neuroadaptations to repeated morphine stimulation...
February 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192082/endocannabinoid-dependent-protection-against-kainic-acid-induced-long-term-alteration-of-brain-oscillations-in-guinea-pigs
#10
Liubov Shubina, Rubin Aliev, Valentina Kitchigina
Changes in rhythmic activity can serve as early biomarkers of pathological alterations, but it remains unclear how different types of rhythmic activity are altered during neurodegenerative processes. Glutamatergic neurotoxicity, evoked by kainic acid (KA), causes hyperexcitation and acute seizures that result in delayed brain damage. We employed wide frequency range (0.1-300 Hz) local field potential recordings in guinea pigs to study the oscillatory activity of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, medial septum, and amygdala in healthy animals for three months after KA introduction...
February 9, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190698/therapeutic-effects-of-cannabinoids-in-animal-models-of-seizures-epilepsy-epileptogenesis-and-epilepsy-related-neuroprotection
#11
REVIEW
Evan C Rosenberg, Pabitra H Patra, Benjamin J Whalley
The isolation and identification of the discrete plant cannabinoids in marijuana revived interest in analyzing historical therapeutic claims made for cannabis in clinical case studies and anecdotes. In particular, sources as old as the 11th and 15th centuries claimed efficacy for crude marijuana extracts in the treatment of convulsive disorders, prompting a particularly active area of preclinical research into the therapeutic potential of plant cannabinoids in epilepsy. Since that time, a large body of literature has accumulated describing the effects of several of the >100 individual plant cannabinoids in preclinical models of seizures, epilepsy, epileptogenesis, and epilepsy-related neuroprotection...
February 9, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168010/rutin-as-a-mediator-of-lipid-metabolism-and-cellular-signaling-pathways-interactions-in-fibroblasts-altered-by-uva-and-uvb-radiation
#12
Agnieszka Gęgotek, Paula Rybałtowska-Kawałko, Elżbieta Skrzydlewska
Background. Rutin is a natural nutraceutical that is a promising compound for the prevention of UV-induced metabolic changes in skin cells. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of rutin on redox and endocannabinoid systems, as well as proinflammatory and proapoptotic processes, in UV-irradiated fibroblasts. Methods. Fibroblasts exposed to UVA and UVB radiation were treated with rutin. The activities and levels of oxidants/antioxidants and endocannabinoid system components, as well as lipid, DNA, and protein oxidation products, and the proinflammatory and pro/antiapoptotic proteins expression were measured...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164346/randomised-clinical-trial-the-analgesic-properties-of-dietary-supplementation-with-palmitoylethanolamide-and-polydatin-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#13
C Cremon, V Stanghellini, M R Barbaro, R F Cogliandro, L Bellacosa, J Santos, M Vicario, M Pigrau, C Alonso Cotoner, B Lobo, F Azpiroz, S Bruley des Varannes, M Neunlist, D DeFilippis, T Iuvone, S Petrosino, V Di Marzo, G Barbara
BACKGROUND: Intestinal immune activation is involved in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) pathophysiology. While most dietary approaches in IBS involve food avoidance, there are fewer indications on food supplementation. Palmithoylethanolamide, structurally related to the endocannabinoid anandamide, and polydatin are dietary compounds which act synergistically to reduce mast cell activation. AIM: To assess the effect on mast cell count and the efficacy of palmithoylethanolamide/polydatin in patients with IBS...
February 6, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162376/-152-the-endocannabinoid-system-current-knowledge-and-future-directions
#14
D Gray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161834/cannabinoid-receptors-in-regulating-the-gi-tract-experimental-evidence-and-therapeutic-relevance
#15
Ulrike Taschler, Carina Hasenoehrl, Martin Storr, Rudolf Schicho
Cannabinoid receptors are fundamentally involved in all aspects of intestinal physiology, such as motility, secretion, and epithelial barrier function. They are part of a broader entity, the so-called endocannabinoid system which also includes their endocannabinoid ligands and the ligands' synthesizing/degrading enzymes. The system has a strong impact on the pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract and is believed to maintain homeostasis in the gut by controlling hypercontractility and by promoting regeneration after injury...
February 5, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155016/power-of-screening-tests-for-colorectal-cancer-enhanced-by-high-levels-of-m2-pk-in-addition-to-fobt
#16
Cristina Zaccaro, Ilaria Maria Saracino, Giulia Fiorini, Natale Figura, John Holton, Valentina Castelli, Valeria Pesci, Luigi Gatta, Dino Vaira
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multistep process that involves adenoma-carcinoma sequence. CRC can be prevented by routine screening, which can detect precancerous lesions. The aim of this study is to clarify whether faecal occult blood test (i-FOBT), tumor M2 pyruvate kinase (t-M2-PK), and endocannabinoid system molecules (cannabinoid receptors type 1-CB1, type 2-CB2, and fatty acid amide hydrolase-FAAH) might represent better diagnostic tools, alone or in combination, for an early diagnosis of CRC. An immunochemical FOB test (i-FOBT) and quantitative ELISA stool test for t-M2-PK were performed in 127 consecutive patients during a 12 month period...
February 2, 2017: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150397/severity-of-alcohol-dependence-is-associated-with-the-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-pro129thr-missense-variant
#17
Matthew E Sloan, Joshua L Gowin, Jia Yan, Melanie L Schwandt, Primavera A Spagnolo, Hui Sun, Colin A Hodgkinson, David Goldman, Vijay A Ramchandani
The endocannabinoid system plays an important role in reward and addiction. One of the two main endocannabinoid neurotransmitters, anandamide, is metabolized by fatty acid amide hydrolase, an enzyme with a functional genetic polymorphism (FAAH Pro129Thr, rs324420). The Thr129 allele has been linked to problem drug and alcohol use, but the association has not been widely replicated and may be stronger for clinical measures of severity rather than categorical diagnosis. In the present study, we sought to determine whether the Thr129 allele was associated with both alcohol dependence (AD) diagnosis and severity in a sample of 1434 European American and African American individuals, 952 of whom were diagnosed with lifetime AD...
February 1, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147243/song-associated-reward-correlates-with-endocannabinoid-related-gene-expression-in-male-european-starlings-sturnus-vulgaris
#18
Allison H Hahn, Devin P Merullo, Jeremy A Spool, Caroline S Angyal, Sharon A Stevenson, Lauren V Riters
Vocal communication is required for successful social interactions in numerous species. During the breeding season, songbirds produce songs that are reinforced by behavioral consequences (e.g., copulation). However, some songbirds also produce songs not obviously directed at other individuals. The consequences maintaining or reinforcing these songs are less obvious and the neural mechanisms associated with undirected communication are not well-understood. Previous studies indicate that undirected singing is intrinsically rewarding and mediated by opioid or dopaminergic systems; however, endocannabinoids are also involved in regulating reward and singing behavior...
January 29, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144625/activation-of-both-cb1-and-cb2-endocannabinoid-receptors-is-critical-for-masculinization-of-the-developing-medial-amygdala-and-juvenile-social-play-behavior
#19
Kathryn J Argue, Jonathan W VanRyzin, David J Falvo, Allison R Whitaker, Stacey J Yu, Margaret M McCarthy
Juvenile social play behavior is a shared trait across a wide variety of mammalian species. When play is characterized by the frequency or duration of physical contact, males usually display more play relative to females. The endocannabinoid system contributes to the development of the sex difference in social play behavior in rats. Treating newborn pups with a nonspecific endocannabinoid agonist, WIN55,212-2, masculinizes subsequent juvenile rough-and-tumble play behavior by females. Here we use specific drugs to target signaling through either the CB1 or CB2 endocannabinoid receptor (CB1R or CB2R) to determine which modulates the development of sex differences in play...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138895/the-impact-of-cb2-receptor-ligands-on-the-mk-801-induced-hyperactivity-in-mice
#20
Marta Kruk-Slomka, Izabela Banaszkiewicz, Grazyna Biala
It has been known that there is a relationship between cannabis use and schizophrenia-related symptoms; however, it can be a subject of controversy. The involvement of CB1 receptor ligands in the schizophrenia has already been revealed and confirmed. However, there is still lack of information concerning the role of CB2 receptors in the psychosis-like effects in mice and the further studies are needed.The aim of the present research was to study the role of the CB2 receptor ligands in the symptoms typical for schizophrenia...
January 30, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
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