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Endocannabinoid system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028836/affected-pathways-and-transcriptional-regulators-in-gene-expression-response-to-an-ultra-marathon-trail-global-and-independent-activity-approaches
#1
Maria Maqueda, Emma Roca, Daniel Brotons, Jose Manuel Soria, Alexandre Perera
Gene expression (GE) analyses on blood samples from marathon and half-marathon runners have reported significant impacts on the immune and inflammatory systems. An ultra-marathon trail (UMT) represents a greater effort due to its more testing conditions. For the first time, we report the genome-wide GE profiling in a group of 16 runners participating in an 82 km UMT competition. We quantified their differential GE profile before and after the race using HuGene2.0st microarrays (Affymetrix Inc., California, US)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022083/adolescent-cannabinoid-exposure-effects-on-natural-reward-seeking-and-learning-in-rats
#2
H Schoch, M Y Huerta, C M Ruiz, M R Farrell, K M Jung, J J Huang, R R Campbell, D Piomelli, S V Mahler
RATIONALE: Adolescence is characterized by endocannabinoid (ECB)-dependent refinement of neural circuits underlying emotion, learning, and motivation. As a result, adolescent cannabinoid receptor stimulation (ACRS) with phytocannabinoids or synthetic agonists like "Spice" cause robust and persistent changes in both behavior and circuit architecture in rodents, including in reward-related regions like medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens (NAc). OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: Here, we examine persistent effects of ACRS with the cannabinoid receptor 1/2 specific agonist WIN55-212,2 (WIN; 1...
October 11, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992427/effects-of-cannabinoid-receptor-type-2-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-human-subjects-and-mice
#3
Alireza Tahamtan, Yazdan Samieipoor, Fatemeh Sadat Nayeri, Ali Akbar Rahbarimanesh, Anahita Izadi, Ali Rashidi-Nezhad, Masoumeh Tavakoli-Yaraki, Mohammad Farahmand, Louis Bont, Fazel Shokri, Talat Mokhatri-Azad, Vahid Salimi
An accumulating body of evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system plays a significant role in pathophysiological processes and impacts disease severity. Here we investigate the possible role of a cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) functional variant in determining disease severity and the potential pharmacological therapeutic effects of CB2 activation in viral respiratory infection. The common missense variant (CAA/CGG; Q63R) of the gene-encoding CB2 receptor (CNR2) was evaluated in 90 inpatient and 90 outpatient children with acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI)...
October 9, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990365/endocannabinoid-related-compounds-in-gastrointestinal-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Marcella Pesce, Alessandra D'Alessandro, Osvaldo Borrelli, Stefano Gigli, Luisa Seguella, Rosario Cuomo, Giuseppe Esposito, Giovanni Sarnelli
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is an endogenous signalling pathway involved in the control of several gastrointestinal (GI) functions at both peripheral and central levels. In recent years, it has become apparent that the ECS is pivotal in the regulation of GI motility, secretion and sensitivity, but endocannabinoids (ECs) are also involved in the regulation of intestinal inflammation and mucosal barrier permeability, suggesting their role in the pathophysiology of both functional and organic GI disorders...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981653/cannabinoid-receptor-2-ameliorates-inflammation-in-murine-model-of-crohn-s-disease
#5
Kristina L Leinwand, Ashleigh A Jones, Rick H Huang, Paul Jedlicka, Daniel J Kao, Edwin F de Zoeten, Soumita Ghosh, Ruin Moaddel, Jan Wehkamp, Maureen J Ostaff, Jutta Bader, Carol M Aherne, Colm B Collins
Background and Aims: Cannabinoid receptor stimulation may have positive symptomatic effects on inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] patients through analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. The cannabinoid 2 receptor [CB2R] is expressed primarily on immune cells, including CD4+ T cells, and is induced by active inflammation in both humans and mice. We therefore investigated the effect of targeting CB2R in a preclinical IBD model. Methods: Employing a chronic ileitis model [TNFΔARE/+ mice], we assessed expression of the CB2R receptor in ileal tissue and on CD4+ T cells and evaluated the effect of stimulation with CB2R-selective ligand GP-1a both in vitro and in vivo...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980210/photobiomodulation-therapy-improves-acute-inflammatory-response-in-mice-the-role-of-cannabinoid-receptors-atp-sensitive-k-channel-p38-mapk-signalling-pathway
#6
Laís M S Neves, Elaine C D Gonçalves, Juliana Cavalli, Graziela Vieira, Larissa R Laurindo, Róli R Simões, Igor S Coelho, Adair R S Santos, Alexandre M Marcolino, Maíra Cola, Rafael C Dutra
Although photobiomodulation therapy (PBM) has been applied clinically for the treatment of pain and inflammation, wound healing, sports and soft tissue injuries, as well as to repair injured spinal cords and peripheral nerves, it remains unclear which molecular substrates (receptor) are implicated in the cellular mechanisms of PBM. Here, we reported that PBM (660 nm, 30 mW, 0.06 cm(2), 50 J/cm(2), plantar irradiation) significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced paw oedema, but not noxious thermal response, through positive modulation to both CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors...
October 4, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976704/human-serum-albumin-a-modulator-of-cannabinoid-drugs
#7
Loris Leboffe, Alessandra di Masi, Viviana Trezza, Fabio Polticelli, Paolo Ascenzi
The endocannabinoid system is a unique neuromodulatory system that affects a wide range of biological processes and maintains the homeostasis in all mammal body systems. In recent years, several pharmacological tools to target endocannabinoid neurotransmission have been developed, including direct and indirect cannabinoid agonists and cannabinoid antagonists. Due to their hydrophobic nature, cannabinoid agonists and antagonists need to bind specific transporters to allow their distribution in body fluids. Human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant plasma protein, is a key determinant of drug pharmacokinetics...
October 4, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972119/loss-of-fatty-acid-binding-protein-1-alters-the-hepatic-endocannabinoid-system-response-to-a-high-fat-diet
#8
Gregory G Martin, Danilo Landrock, Sarah Chung, Lawrence J Dangott, Avery L McIntosh, John T Mackie, Ann B Kier, Friedhelm Schroeder
Upregulation of hepatic endocannabinoid receptor (CB1) and arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA) is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Male mice fed high fat diet (HFD) ad libitum also exhibit NAFLD, increased hepatic AEA, and obesity. But, preference for HFD complicates interpretation and almost nothing is known about these effects in females. These issues were addressed by pair-feeding HFD. Similarly to ad libitum fed HFD, pair-fed HFD also increased WT male and female mouse fat tissue mass (FTM), but preferentially at the expense of lean tissue mass (LTM)...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970359/investigation-of-diacylglycerol-lipase-alpha-inhibition-in-the-mouse-lipopolysaccharide-inflammatory-pain-model
#9
Jenny L Wilkerson, Giulia Donvito, Travis W Grim, Rehab A Abdullah, Daisuke Ogasawara, Benjamin F Cravatt, Aron H Lichtman
Diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) α and β, the major biosynthetic enzymes of the endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid) 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), are highly expressed in the nervous system and immune system, respectively. Genetic deletion or pharmacological inhibition of DAGL-β protects against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in mouse peritoneal macrophages, and reverses LPS-induced allodynia in mice. In order to gain insight into the contribution of DAGL-α in LPS-induced allodynia, we tested global knockout mice as well as DO34, a dual DAGL-α/-β inhibitor...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963903/fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-inhibitor-urb597-may-protect-against-kainic-acid-induced-damage-to-hippocampal-neurons-dependence-on-the-degree-of-injury
#10
Irina B Mikheeva, Liubov Shubina, Nataliya Matveeva, Luybov L Pavlik, Valentina F Kitchigina
OBJECTIVE: Status epilepticus (SE) provokes changes, which lead to neuronal alterations. Endocannabinoids (eCBs) can affect the neuronal survival during excitotoxicity and brain damage. Using a kainic acid (KA)-induced experimental SE model, we investigated whether cellular changes entail damage to endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mitochondria, and nuclei in hippocampal cells (CA1 field), and whether these alterations can be diminished by treatment with URB597, an inhibitor of eCB enzymatic degradation...
September 22, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947487/cannabinoid-cb1-discrimination-effects-of-endocannabinoids-and-catabolic-enzyme-inhibitors
#11
Michael Z Leonard, Shakiru O Alapafuja, Lipin Ji, Vidyanand G Shukla, Yingpeng Liu, Spyros P Nikas, Alexandros Makriyannis, Jack Bergman, Brian D Kangas
An improved understanding of the endocannabinoid system has provided new avenues of drug discovery and development toward the management of pain and other behavioral maladies. Exogenous cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptor agonists such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol are increasingly utilized for their medicinal actions; however, their utility is constrained by concern regarding abuse-related subjective effects. This has led to growing interest in the clinical benefit of indirectly enhancing the activity of the highly labile endocannabinoids N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide; AEA) and/or 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) via catabolic enzyme inhibition...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938452/dose-specific-effects-of-di-isononyl-phthalate-on-the-endocannabinoid-system-and-on-liver-of-female-zebrafish
#12
Isabel Forner-Piquer, Francesca Maradonna, Giorgia Gioacchini, Stefania Santangeli, Marco Allarà, Fabiana Piscitelli, Hamid R Habibi, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Oliana Carnevali
Phthalates, used as plasticizers, have become a ubiquitous contaminant and have been reported for their potential to induce toxicity in living organisms. Among them, di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP) has been recently used to replace di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Nowadays, there is evidence that DiNP is an endocrine-disrupting chemical; however, little is known about its effects on the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and lipid metabolism. Hence, the aim of our study was to investigate the effects of DiNP on the ECS in zebrafish liver and brain and on hepatic lipid storage...
October 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936880/development-of-terphenyl-2-methyloxazol-5-4h-one-derivatives-as-selective-reversible-magl-inhibitors
#13
Carlotta Granchi, Isabella Caligiuri, Eleonora Bertelli, Giulio Poli, Flavio Rizzolio, Marco Macchia, Adriano Martinelli, Filippo Minutolo, Tiziano Tuccinardi
Monoacylglycerol lipase is a serine hydrolase that plays a major role in the degradation of the endocannabinoid neurotransmitter 2-arachidonoylglycerol. A wide number of MAGL inhibitors are reported in literature; however, many of them are characterised by an irreversible mechanism of action and this behavior determines an unwanted chronic MAGL inactivation, which acquires a functional antagonism of the endocannabinoid system. The possible use of reversible MAGL inhibitors has only recently been explored, due to the lack of known compounds possessing efficient reversible inhibitory activities...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933060/the-role-of-brain-in-energy-balance
#14
Paulo Matafome, Raquel Seiça
Energy homeostasis is regulated by homeostatic and nonhomeostatic reward circuits which are closely integrated and interrelated. Before, during, and after meals, peripheral nutritional signals, through hormonal and neuronal pathways, are conveyed to selective brain areas, namely the hypothalamic nuclei and the brainstem, the main brain areas for energy balance regulation. These orexigenic and anorexigenic centers are held responsible for the integration of those signals and for an adequate output to peripheral organs involved in metabolism and energy homeostasis...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917977/the-role-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-the-antihyperalgesic-effect-of-cedrus-atlantica-essential-oil-inhalation-in-a-mouse-model-of-postoperative-pain
#15
Aline Armiliato Emer, Nathalia Nahas Donatello, Ana Paula Batisti, Luiz Augusto Oliveira Belmonte, Adair R S Santos, Daniel F Martins
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cedar is part of the phylum of conifers, and it's essential oil has been used for therapeutic purposes since ancient times. In our previous study, we have demonstrated that the inhalation of the Cedrus atlantica essential oil (CaEO) induces an antihyperalgesic effect in a model of postoperative pain. But the mechanism that underlies this effect is not yet fully known. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study investigates the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the antihyperalgesic effect produced by the inhalation of CaEO in a post operative pain model...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913816/re-visiting-the-endocannabinoid-system-and-its-therapeutic-potential-in-obesity-and-associated-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Joyce M Richey, Orison Woolcott
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the review was to revisit the possibility of the endocannabinoid system being a therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity by focusing on the peripheral roles in regulating appetite and energy metabolism. RECENT FINDINGS: Previous studies with the global cannabinoid receptor blocker rimonabant, which has both central and peripheral properties, showed that this drug has beneficial effects on cardiometabolic function but severe adverse psychiatric side effects...
September 14, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912087/endocannabinoid-mechanism-in-amphetamine-type-stimulant-use-disorders-a-short-review
#17
REVIEW
Hang Su, Min Zhao
Recent evidence shows that the endocannabinoid system is involved in amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) use disorders. To elucidate the role of the endocannabinoid system in ATS addiction, we reviewed results of studies using cannabinoid receptor agonists, antagonists as well as knockout model. The endocannabinoid system seems to play a role in reinstatement and relapse of ATS addiction and ATS-induced psychiatric symptoms. The molecular mechanisms of this system remains unclear, the association with dopamine system in nucleus accumbens is most likely involved...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910408/effects-of-tumour-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-upon-the-metabolism-of-the-endocannabinoid-anandamide-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#18
Jessica Karlsson, Sandra Gouveia-Figueira, Mireille Alhouayek, Christopher J Fowler
Tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) is involved in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer, a disease where disturbances in the endocannabinoid system are seen. In the present study we have investigated whether treatment of DU145 human prostate cancer cells affects anandamide (AEA) catabolic pathways. Additionally, we have investigated whether cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) can regulate the uptake of AEA into cells. Levels of AEA synthetic and catabolic enzymes were determined by qPCR. AEA uptake and hydrolysis in DU145 and RAW264...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905873/cardiovascular-effects-of-marijuana-and-synthetic-cannabinoids-the-good-the-bad-and-the-ugly
#19
REVIEW
Pal Pacher, Sabine Steffens, György Haskó, Thomas H Schindler, George Kunos
Dysregulation of the endogenous lipid mediators endocannabinoids and their G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1R and CB2R) has been implicated in a variety of cardiovascular pathologies. Activation of CB1R facilitates the development of cardiometabolic disease, whereas activation of CB2R (expressed primarily in immune cells) exerts anti-inflammatory effects. The psychoactive constituent of marijuana, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is an agonist of both CB1R and CB2R, and exerts its psychoactive and adverse cardiovascular effects through the activation of CB1R in the central nervous and cardiovascular systems...
September 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903355/anti-proliferative-pro-apoptotic-and-anti-invasive-effect-of-ec-ev-system-in-human-osteosarcoma
#20
Francesca Punzo, Chiara Tortora, Daniela Di Pinto, Iolanda Manzo, Giulia Bellini, Fiorina Casale, Francesca Rossi
Osteosarcoma is the most common and aggressive bone tumor in children. The Endocannabinoid/Endovanilloid system has been proposed as anticancer target in tumor of different origins. This system is composed of two receptors (CB1 and CB2), the Transient Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel and their ligands and enzymes. CB1 is expressed mainly in central nervous system while CB2 predominantly on immune and peripheral cells. We investigated the effects of JWH-133 (CB2 agonist) and RTX (TRPV1 agonist) in six human Osteosarcoma cell lines: MG-63, U-2OS, MNNG/HOS, Saos-2, KHOS/NP, Hs888Lu, by Apoptosis and Migration-Assay...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
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