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Endocannabinoid system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648984/whole-body-biodistribution-of-the-cannabinoid-type-1-receptor-ligand-18-f-mk-9470-in-the-rat
#1
H G Buchholz, K Uebbing, S Maus, S Pektor, N Afahaene, V Weyer-Elberich, B Lutz, M Schreckenberger, I Miederer
The endocannabinoid system participates in many processes in the body, including memory, reward, pain, motor activity, food intake, energy metabolism, and gastrointestinal functions. [(18)F]MK-9470 is a positron emission tomography (PET) ligand that binds with high affinity and selectivity to the cannabinoid type 1 receptor. In order to fully characterize ligand behavior, tracer uptake measured using in vivo microPET was compared with results from ex vivo tissue dissection. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three subgroups and scanned over time periods of 10min, 30min and 90min using PET...
June 15, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634109/cannabis-associated-psychosis-neural-substrate-and-clinical-impact
#2
REVIEW
R M Murray, A Englund, A Abi-Dargham, D Lewis, M Di Forti, C Davies, M Sherif, P McGuire, C D'Souza
Prospective epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that cannabis use is associated with an increased subsequent risk of both psychotic symptoms and schizophrenia-like psychoses. Early onset of use, daily use of high-potency cannabis, and synthetic cannabinoids carry the greatest risk. The risk-increasing effects are not explained by shared genetic predisposition between schizophrenia and cannabis use. Experimental studies in healthy humans show that cannabis and its active ingredient, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), can produce transient, dose-dependent, psychotic symptoms, as well as an array of psychosis-relevant behavioral, cognitive and psychophysiological effects; the psychotogenic effects can be ameliorated by cannabidiol (CBD)...
June 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633967/the-effects-of-chronic-faah-inhibition-on-myocardial-lipid-metabolism-in-normotensive-and-doca-salt-hypertensive-rats
#3
Agnieszka Polak, Ewa Harasim-Symbor, Barbara Malinowska, Irena Kasacka, Anna Pędzińska-Betiuk, Jolanta Weresa, Adrian Chabowski
AIMS: There is significant evidence that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) takes part in the regulation of the cardiovascular system in hypertension. It is quite well established that hypertension causes several changes in the heart metabolism, but it is still unknown whether the ECS affects this process. Therefore, we investigated the influence of prolonged ECS activation on myocardial lipid metabolism in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats by chronic fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibition...
June 17, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631495/serum-endocannabinoids-in-assessing-pain-in-patients-with-chronic-pancreatitis-and-in-those-with-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#4
Raffaele Pezzilli, Pierangela Ciuffreda, Roberta Ottria, Alessandro Ravelli, Gianvico Melzi d'Eril, Alessandra Barassi
BACKGROUND: The endocannabinoid system plays a substantial role in analgesia. AIM: To analyze N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA), N-oleoylethanolamine (OEA), linoleoyl ethanolamide (LEA), α-linoleoyl ethanolamine (α-LNEA), N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA) and N-stearoyl ethanolamine (SEA) in two groups of patients having chronic pancreatic diseases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients with chronic pancreatitis, 26 patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and 36 healthy subjects were studied...
June 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630452/remote-memories-are-enhanced-by-comt-activity-through-dysregulation-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#5
D Scheggia, E Zamberletti, N Realini, M Mereu, G Contarini, V Ferretti, F Managò, G Margiani, R Brunoro, T Rubino, M A De Luca, D Piomelli, D Parolaro, F Papaleo
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a crucial hub for the flexible modulation of recent memories (executive functions) as well as for the stable organization of remote memories. Dopamine in the PFC is implicated in both these processes and genetic variants affecting its neurotransmission might control the unique balance between cognitive stability and flexibility present in each individual. Functional genetic variants in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene result in a different catabolism of dopamine in the PFC...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625856/nitroglycerin-increases-serotonin-transporter-expression-in-rat-spinal-cord-but-anandamide-modulated-this-effect
#6
Gábor Nagy-Grócz, Zsuzsanna Bohár, Annamária Fejes-Szabó, Klaudia Flóra Laborc, Eleonóra Spekker, Lilla Tar, László Vécsei, Árpád Párdutz
Migraine is one of the most prevalent neurological diseases, which affects 16% of the total population. The exact pathomechanism of this disorder is still not well understood, but it seems that serotonin and its transporter have a crucial role in the pathogenesis. One of the animal models of migraine is the systemic administration of nitroglycerin (NTG), a nitric oxide (NO) donor. NO can initiate a central sensitization process in the trigeminal system, which is also present in migraineurs. Recent studies showed that the endocannabinoid system has a modulatory role on the trigeminal activation and sensitization...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625720/the-cannabinoid-system-and-pain
#7
REVIEW
Stephen G Woodhams, Victoria Chapman, David P Finn, Andrea G Hohmann, Volker Neugebauer
Chronic pain states are highly prevalent and yet poorly controlled by currently available analgesics, representing an enormous clinical, societal, and economic burden. Existing pain medications have significant limitations and adverse effects including tolerance, dependence, gastrointestinal dysfunction, cognitive impairment, and a narrow therapeutic window, making the search for novel analgesics ever more important. In this article, we review the role of an important endogenous pain control system, the endocannabinoid (EC) system, in the sensory, emotional, and cognitive aspects of pain...
June 15, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624572/role-of-beta-catenin-and-endocannabinoids-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-in-extinction-in-rats-exposed-to-shock-and-reminders
#8
Nachshon Korem, Rachel Lange, Cecilia J Hillard, Irit Akirav
The response to a traumatic experience may be rapid recovery or development of psychopathology such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Impaired extinction of fear memories is thought to contribute to the development of the persistent trauma memories and avoidance. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway and the endocannabinoid system appear to play significant roles in anxiety and depressive symptoms. Here we examined the involvement of β-catenin in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in extinction in rats exposed to the shock and reminders model of PTSD...
June 15, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611585/role-of-n-arachidonoyl-serotonin-aa-5-ht-in-sleep-wake-cycle-architecture-sleep-homeostasis-and-neurotransmitters-regulation
#9
Eric Murillo-Rodríguez, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Sergio Machado, Nuno B Rocha, André B Veras, Geraldo A M Neto, Henning Budde, Oscar Arias-Carrión, Gloria Arankowsky-Sandoval
The endocannabinoid system comprises several molecular entities such as endogenous ligands [anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG)], receptors (CB1 and CB2), enzymes such as [fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAHH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL)], as well as the anandamide membrane transporter. Although the role of this complex neurobiological system in the sleep-wake cycle modulation has been studied, the contribution of the blocker of FAAH/transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), N-arachidonoyl-serotonin (AA-5-HT) in sleep has not been investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610718/echinacea-purpurea-derived-alkylamides-exhibit-potent-anti-inflammatory-effects-and-alleviate-clinical-symptoms-of-atopic-eczema
#10
Attila Oláh, Judit Szabó-Papp, Michael Soeberdt, Ulrich Knie, Stephan Dähnhardt-Pfeiffer, Christoph Abels, Tamás Bíró
BACKGROUND: Atopic eczema (AE) is a chronic inflammatory and pruritic skin disease. There is still an unmet need for topical anti-inflammatory and anti-pruritic substances exhibiting an excellent safety profile. The endocannabinoid system is known to regulate various aspects of cutaneous barrier and immune functions, thus targeting it may be a valid approach for alleviating the symptoms of AE. OBJECTIVE: To assess the putative efficacy of Echinacea purpurea-derived alkylamides (Ec...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608560/endocannabinoid-system-in-neurodegenerative-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Balapal S Basavarajappa, Madhu Shivakumar, Vikram Joshi, Shivakumar Subbanna
Most neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs) are characterized by cognitive impairment and other neurological defects. The definite cause of and pathways underlying the progression of these NDDs are not well defined. Several mechanisms have been proposed to contribute to the development of NDDs. These mechanisms may proceed concurrently or successively, and they differ among cell types at different developmental stages in distinct brain regions. The endocannabinoid system, which involves cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1R) and type 2 (CB2R), endogenous cannabinoids and the enzymes that catabolize these compounds, has been shown to contribute to the development of NDDs in several animal models and human studies...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608535/discovery-and-characterization-of-two-novel-cb1-receptor-splice-variants-with-modified-n-termini-in-mouse
#12
Sabine Ruehle, James Wager-Miller, Alex Straiker, Jill Farnsworth, Michelle N Murphy, Sebastian Loch, Krisztina Monory, Ken Mackie, Beat Lutz
Numerous studies have been carried out in the mouse model, investigating the role of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor. However, mouse CB1 (mCB1) receptor differs from human CB1 (hCB1) receptor in 13 amino acid residues. Two splice variants, hCB1a and hCB1b, diverging in their amino-termini, have been reported to be unique for hCB1 and, via different signaling properties, contribute to CB1 receptor physiology and pathophysiology. We hypothesized that splice variants also exist for the mCB1 receptor and have different signaling properties...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593245/a-gpr119-signaling-system-in-the-murine-eye-regulates-intraocular-pressure-in-a-sex-dependent-manner
#13
Sally Miller, Sherry Shu-Jung Hu, Emma Leishman, Dan Morgan, Jim Wager-Miller, Ken Mackie, Heather B Bradshaw, Alex Straiker
Purpose: GPR119 is a G protein-coupled receptor that may be the endogenous target for 2-oleoylglycerol (2-OG), a lipid related to the endocannabinoid family of neuromodulators. Interest in GPR119 has centered on its role in regulating insulin secretion; however, the role of GPR119 has not been examined in the eye. The purpose of this study was to explore a potential GPR119-based signaling system in the murine eye. Methods: We used a combination of RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, lipid measurement, and IOP measurement in a normotensive mouse model, with GPR119 knockout mice as controls...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585678/human-sperm-motility-capacitation-and-acrosome-reaction-are-impaired-by-2-arachidonoylglycerol-endocannabinoid
#14
M M Francou, J L Girlea, A De Juan, J Ten, R Bernabeu, J De Juan
The endocannabinoids are cannabinoids synthesized by mammalian tissues. These compounds are closely related to the regulation of the male reproductive system. However, little is known about the effects produced by 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2AG) on in vitro human sperm functions. This study was undertaken to determine the effects produced by 2AG on fresh human sperm and in the capacitation technique. Semen samples from healthy young men were exposed to different concentrations of 2AG before and during capacitation technique...
June 6, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583800/analysis-of-natural-product-regulation-of-cannabinoid-receptors-in-the-treatment-of-human-disease
#15
REVIEW
S Badal, K N Smith, R Rajnarayanan
The organized tightly regulated signaling relays engaged by the cannabinoid receptors (CBs) and their ligands, G proteins and other effectors, together constitute the endocannabinoid system (ECS). This system governs many biological functions including cell proliferation, regulation of ion transport and neuronal messaging. This review will firstly examine the physiology of the ECS, briefly discussing some anomalies in the relay of the ECS signaling as these are consequently linked to maladies of global concern including neurological disorders, cardiovascular disease and cancer...
June 2, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583049/n-arachidonoyl-serotonin-a-dual-faah-and-trpv1-blocker-inhibits-the-retrieval-of-contextual-fear-memory-role-of-the-cannabinoid-cb1-receptor-in-the-dorsal-hippocampus
#16
Pedro H Gobira, Isabel V Lima, Luara A Batista, Antônio C de Oliveira, Leonardo B Resstel, Carsten T Wotjak, Daniele C Aguiar, Fabricio A Moreira
Anandamide, an endocannabinoid, inhibits aversive responses by activating the CB1 cannabinoid receptor. At high concentrations, however, anandamide may exert pro-aversive activities mediated by the transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 channel (TRPV1). Accordingly, N-arachidonoyl-serotonin (AA-5-HT), a dual blocker of the anandamide-hydrolysing enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and the TRPV1 channel, induces anxiolytic-like effects. Here we tested the hypothesis that AA-5-HT inhibits the expression of contextual fear conditioning by facilitating CB1 receptor signalling in the dorsal hippocampus of mice...
June 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582498/microorganism-design-for-heterologous-biosynthesis-of-cannabinoids
#17
Carvalho Ângela, Esben Halkjær Hansen, Oliver Kayser, Simon Carlsen, Felix Stehle
During the last decade the use of medical Cannabis has expanded globally and legislation is getting more liberal in many countries, facilitating the research on cannabinoids. The unique interaction of cannabinoids with the human endocannabinoid system make these compounds an interesting target to be studied as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of several medical conditions. However, currently there are important limitations in the study, production and use of cannabinoids as pharmaceutical drugs. Besides the main constituent tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, the structurally related compound cannabidiol is of high interest as drug candidate...
June 4, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579484/acylethanolamides-and-endocannabinoid-signaling-system-in-dorsal-striatum-of-rats-exposed-to-perinatal-asphyxia
#18
Mariana I Holubiec, Juan I Romero, Eduardo Blanco, Tamara Logica Tornatore, Juan Suarez, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, Pablo Galeano, Francisco Capani
Endocannabinoids (eCBs) and acylethanolamides (AEs) have lately received more attention due to their neuroprotective functions in neurological disorders. Here we analyze the alterations induced by perinatal asphyxia (PA) in the main metabolic enzymes and receptors of the eCBs/AEs in the dorsal striatum of rats. To induce PA, we used a model developed by Bjelke et al. (1991). Immunohistochemical techniques were carried out to determine the expression of neuronal and glial markers (NeuN and GFAP), eCBs/AEs synthesis and degradation enzymes (DAGLα, NAPE-PLD and FAAH) and their receptors (CB1 and PPARα)...
June 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579186/endocannabinoid-modulation-of-homeostatic-and-non-homeostatic-feeding-circuits
#19
REVIEW
Benjamin K Lau, Daniela Cota, Luigia Cristino, Stephanie L Borgland
The endocannabinoid system has emerged as a key player in the control of eating. Endocannabinoids, including 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA), modulate neuronal activity via cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB1Rs) in multiple nuclei of the hypothalamus to induce or inhibit food intake depending on nutritional and hormonal status, suggesting that endocannabinoids may act in the hypothalamus to integrate different types of signals informing about the animal's energy needs. In the mesocorticolimbic system, (endo)cannabinoids modulate synaptic transmission to promote dopamine release in response to palatable food...
June 1, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577869/polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-differentially-modulate-cell-proliferation-and-endocannabinoid-system-in-two-human-cancer-lines
#20
Repossi Gastón, Pasqualini María Eugenia, Undurti N Das, Aldo R Eynard
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Evidence suggests that quantity and quality of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play a role in the development of cancer. However, the mechanisms involved in this interaction(s) are not clear. Endocannabinoids are lipid metabolites known to have growth modulatory actions. We studied the effect of supplementation with PUFAs ω-6 and ω-3 (essential fatty acids, EFAs), saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (non-EFAs) on the growth of tumor cells and modifications in their endocannabinoid content...
January 2017: Archives of Medical Research
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