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schizophrenia, hiv

Qian Wang, Renato Polimanti, Henry R Kranzler, Lindsay A Farrer, Hongyu Zhao, Joel Gelernter
Schizophrenia (SZ) and HIV infection are serious disorders with a complex phenotypic relationship. Observational studies have described their comorbidity; their genetic correlation is not well studied. We performed extensive analysis in search of common genetic factors for SZ and HIV, and their relationship with risky sexual behavior (RSB). Summary statistics from genome-wide association studies of HIV infection and schizophrenia were obtained and 2379 European Americans were genotyped and assessed for RSB score...
October 17, 2016: Human Genetics
Nicola Wright, Athfah Akhtar, Graeme E Tosh, Andrew V Clifton
BACKGROUND: People with serious mental illness have rates of Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) infection higher than expected in the general population for the same demographic area. Despite this elevated prevalence, UK national strategies around sexual health and HIV prevention do not state that people with serious mental illness are a high risk group. However, a significant proportion in this group are sexually active and engage in HIV-risk behaviours including having multiple sexual partners, infrequent use of condoms and trading sex for money or drugs...
September 9, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Mamneet Manghera, Jennifer Ferguson-Parry, Rongtuan Lin, Renée N Douville
UNLABELLED: Thousands of endogenous retroviruses (ERV), viral fossils of ancient germ line infections, reside within the human genome. Evidence of ERV activity has been observed widely in both health and disease. While this is most often cited as a bystander effect of cell culture or disease states, it is unclear which signals control ERV transcription. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that the viral promoter of endogenous retrovirus K (ERVK) is responsive to inflammatory transcription factors...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
Roghayeh Ershad Sarabi, Farahnaz Sadoughi, Roohangiz Jamshidi Orak, Kambiz Bahaadinbeigy
CONTEXT: Medication non-adherence is a commonly observed problem in the self-administration of treatment, regardless of the disease type. Text messaging reminders, as electronic reminders, provide an opportunity to improve medication adherence. In this study, we aimed to provide evidence addressing the question of whether text message reminders were effective in improving patients' adherence to medication. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We carried out a systematic literature search, using the five electronic bibliographic databases: PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane central register of controlled trials...
May 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
MacKenzie R Peltier, Seandra J Cosgrove, Kelechi Ohayagha, Kathleen A Crapanzano, Glenn N Jones
OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs), are diagnosed more frequently among African-Americans (AAs) than Caucasians. It has been suggested that cultural differences in symptom presentation and endorsement (including reporting spiritual/religious experiences) may influence this disparity. The current study investigated the relationship between endorsement of spiritual auditory and visual hallucinations and subsequent diagnosis of SSD among AA patients. DESIGN: Participants (N = 471 AAs) completed the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Plus (MINI-Plus) Screening Interview as part of their intake to a HIV outpatient clinic...
June 16, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Ramesh Chand Chauhan, Sanjay Kumar Rai, Shashi Kant, Rakesh Lodha, Nand Kumar, Neelima Singh
BACKGROUND: Due to wider access to and free antiretroviral therapy (ART) program, the number of children dying due to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related causes has declined and the nature and duration of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS caregiving has also dramatically altered. The care of children living with HIV/AIDS (CLHA) places a significant additional burden on the caregivers. AIMS: This study was conducted to assess the perceived burden among caregivers of children living with HIV in North India...
March 2016: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
Th van Oeffelt, E J D Prinsen
Patients with schizophrenia are eight times more likely than healthy individuals to become infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). Although in vitro studies provide some data on the interaction between antipsychotics and retroviral agents, there is a lack of in vitro data on this subject. We describe the case of a 35-year-old patient who suffered from schizophrenia, polydrug abuse and an hiv infection and who also had treatment-resistant psychosis. An interaction between the antiretroviral drug ritonavir and the antipsychotic olanzapine turned out to be the cause of the treatment resistance...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Andrew Owen, Steve Rannard
Advances in solid drug nanoparticle technologies have resulted in a number of long-acting (LA) formulations with the potential for once monthly or longer administration. Such formulations offer great utility for chronic diseases, particularly when a lack of medication compliance may be detrimental to treatment response. Two such formulations are in clinical development for HIV but the concept of LA delivery has its origins in indications such as schizophrenia and contraception. Many terms have been utilised to describe the LA approach and standardisation would be beneficial...
August 1, 2016: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Jessica Y Breland, Christine Pal Chee, Donna M Zulman
PURPOSE: African-Americans are disproportionally represented among high-risk, high-utilizing patients. To inform program development for this vulnerable population, the current study describes racial variation in chronic conditions and sociodemographic characteristics among high-utilizing patients in the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System (VA). METHODS: We identified the 5 % most costly Veterans who used inpatient or outpatient care at the VA during fiscal year 2010 (N = 237,691) based on costs of inpatient and outpatient care, pharmacy services, and VA-sponsored contract care...
June 2015: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Tove Christensen
Endogenous retroviruses are pathogenic - in other species than the human. Disease associations for Human Endogenous RetroViruses (HERVs) are emerging, but so far an unequivocal pathogenetic cause-effect relationship has not been established. A role for HERVs has been proposed in neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases as diverse as multiple sclerosis (MS) and schizophrenia (SCZ). Particularly for MS, many aspects of the activation and involvement of specific HERV families (HERV-H/F and HERV-W/MSRV) have been reported, both for cells in the circulation and in the central nervous system...
January 2016: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Christina N Cordeiro, Michael Tsimis, Irina Burd
Several different bodies of evidence support a link between infection and altered brain development. Maternal infections, such as influenza and human immunodeficiency virus, have been linked to the development of autism spectrum disorders, differences in cognitive test scores, and bipolar disorder; an association that has been shown in both epidemiologic and retrospective studies. Several viral, bacterial, and parasitic illnesses are associated with alterations in fetal brain structural anomalies including brain calcifications and hydrocephalus...
October 2015: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
D A Polyanskiy, V V Kalinin, A Ya Olshanskiy, A V Naryschkin, E Yu Kholodov
AIM: To predict the immunological status in HIV-infected patients with schizophrenia based on a set of clinical and psychopathological characteristics of the endogenous process. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 28 patients with confirmed diagnosis of schizophrenia and HIV status. Authors used psychopathological method, along with psychometric scales (PANSS), in patients with schizophrenia and an immunological method for the determination of HIV-associated status and viral load...
2015: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Emma E McGinty, Julia Baller, Susan T Azrin, Denise Juliano-Bult, Gail L Daumit
People with serious mental illness (SMI) have mortality rates 2 to 3 times higher than the overall US population, largely due to cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity and diabetes mellitus and other conditions, such as HIV/AIDS, is heightened in this group. Based on the recommendations of a National Institute of Mental Health stakeholder meeting, we conducted a comprehensive review examining the strength of the evidence surrounding interventions to address major medical conditions and health-risk behaviors among persons with SMI...
January 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Alan S Karstaedt, Sadhna Kooverjee, Lucille Singh, Yasmien Jeenah, Gregory Jonsson
A retrospective cohort analysis was performed to describe outcomes and retention in care on antiretroviral therapy (ART) of 53 patients with severe mental illness (SMI). Diagnoses were psychosis secondary to HIV (24 patients), psychosis not otherwise specified (12), mania with or without psychosis (9), depression with psychotic features (4), and schizophrenia and bipolar mood disorder (2 each). The median baseline CD4 count was 66/mm(3) and viral load was 5.4 log10 copies/mL. Thirteen (25%) patients were lost to follow-up (10 within 6 months), 3 were transferred out, and 3 died...
September 2015: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
Maria Suntsova, Andrew Garazha, Alena Ivanova, Dmitry Kaminsky, Alex Zhavoronkov, Anton Buzdin
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) and related genetic elements form 504 distinct families and occupy ~8% of human genome. Recent success of high-throughput experimental technologies facilitated understanding functional impact of HERVs for molecular machinery of human cells. HERVs encode active retroviral proteins, which may exert important physiological functions in the body, but also may be involved in the progression of cancer and numerous human autoimmune, neurological and infectious diseases. The spectrum of related malignancies includes, but not limits to, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, lupus, schizophrenia, multiple cancer types and HIV...
October 2015: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Paul H Lysaker, Giancarlo Dimaggio, Amanda Wickett-Curtis, Marina Kukla, Brandi Luedtke, Jenifer Vohs, Bethany L Leonhardt, Alison V James, Kelly D Buck, Louanne W Davis
Among persons with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the severity of symptoms and concurrent distress are not fully explained by trauma severity. Interest has consequently arisen in the psychological processes that cause distress and heighten PTSD symptoms. This study accordingly sought to examine whether differences in metacognitive capacity are related to levels of emotional distress, avoidance/numbing, and hyperarousal. Participants were 48 adults with a confirmed diagnosis of PTSD. Comparison groups included 51 adults with HIV and 183 with schizophrenia...
2015: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
V de Menil, M Knapp, D McDaid, S Raja, J Kingori, M Waruguru, S K Wood, S Mannarath, C Lund
BACKGROUND: The treatment gap for serious mental disorders across low-income countries is estimated to be 89%. The model for Mental Health and Development (MHD) offers community-based care for people with mental disorders in 11 low- and middle-income countries. METHOD: In Kenya, using a pre-post design, 117 consecutively enrolled participants with schizophrenia-spectrum and bipolar disorders were followed-up at 10 and 20 months. Comparison outcomes were drawn from the literature...
October 2015: Psychological Medicine
Jane Paik Kim, Laura Weiss Roberts
BACKGROUND: Empirical ethics inquiry works from the notion that stakeholder perspectives are necessary for gauging the ethical acceptability of human studies and assuring that research aligns with societal expectations. Although common, studies involving different populations often entail comparisons of trends that problematize the interpretation of results. Using graphical model selection - a technique aimed at transcending limitations of conventional methods - this report presents data on the ethics of clinical research with two objectives: (1) to display the patterns of views held by ill and healthy individuals in clinical research as a test of the study's original hypothesis and (2) to introduce graphical model selection as a key analytic tool for ethics research...
2015: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
Emma E McGinty, Julia Baller, Susan T Azrin, Denise Juliano-Bult, Gail L Daumit
OBJECTIVES: Prior studies suggest variation in the quality of medical care for somatic conditions such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes provided to persons with SMI, but to date no comprehensive review of the literature has been conducted. The goals of this review were to summarize the prior research on quality of medical care for the United States population with SMI; identify potential sources of variation in quality of care; and identify priorities for future research. METHODS: Peer-reviewed studies were identified by searching four major research databases and subsequent reference searches of retrieved articles...
July 2015: Schizophrenia Research
Wenchi Zhang, Jing Wu, Matthew D Ward, Sunggu Yang, Yang-An Chuang, Meifang Xiao, Ruojing Li, Daniel J Leahy, Paul F Worley
Arc is a cellular immediate-early gene (IEG) that functions at excitatory synapses and is required for learning and memory. We report crystal structures of Arc subdomains that form a bi-lobar architecture remarkably similar to the capsid domain of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gag protein. Analysis indicates Arc originated from the Ty3/Gypsy retrotransposon family and was "domesticated" in higher vertebrates for synaptic functions. The Arc N-terminal lobe evolved a unique hydrophobic pocket that mediates intermolecular binding with synaptic proteins as resolved in complexes with TARPγ2 (Stargazin) and CaMKII peptides and is essential for Arc's synaptic function...
April 22, 2015: Neuron
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