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Apical enzyme

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656462/kdm1a-regulated-the-osteo-dentinogenic-differentiation-process-of-the-stem-cells-of-the-apical-papilla-via-binding-with-plod2
#1
Lijun Wang, Haoqing Yang, Xiao Lin, Yangyang Cao, Peipei Gao, Ying Zheng, Zhipeng Fan
OBJECTIVES: Dental tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-mediated pulp-dentin regeneration is considered a potential approach for the regeneration of damaged teeth. Enhancing MSC-mediated pulp-dentin regeneration is based on an understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying directed cell differentiation process. Histone demethylation enzyme, lysine demethylase 1A (KDM1A) can regulate the differentiation of some MSCs, but its role in dental tissue-derived MSCs is unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We obtained SCAPs from immature teeth...
April 15, 2018: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628427/external-apical-root-resorption-diagnosis-by-using-fii-human-dentine-fraction-and-salivary-igg
#2
Tânia Maris Pedrini Soares Da-Costa, Mirian Marubayashi Hidalgo, Alberto Consolaro, Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Lima, Evelise Ono Tanaka, Eiko Nakagawa Itano
BACKGROUND: External apical root resorption as a consequence of orthodontic treatment is an inflammatory pathological process that results in permanent loss of tooth structure from the root apex. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic potential of human dentine fractions and salivary IgG in external apical root resorption. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Saliva samples were collected from 10 patients before (T0) and after 3 (T3), 6 (T6) and 12 (T12) months of orthodontic treatment...
April 5, 2018: International Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619606/the-role-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-pollen-germination-in-picea-pungens-blue-spruce
#3
Nikita Maksimov, Anastasia Evmenyeva, Maria Breygina, Igor Yermakov
Endogenous ROS, including those produced by NADPH oxidase, are required for spruce pollen germination and regulate membrane potential in pollen tubes; [Formula: see text] and H2 O2 are unevenly distributed along the tube. Recently, the key role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant reproduction has been decisively demonstrated for angiosperms. This paper is dedicated to the involvement of ROS in pollen germination of gymnosperms, which remained largely unknown. We found that ROS are secreted from pollen grains of blue spruce during the early stage of activation...
April 4, 2018: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608571/endocytic-recycling-via-the-tgn-underlies-the-polarized-hyphal-mode-of-life
#4
Miguel Hernández-González, Ignacio Bravo-Plaza, Mario Pinar, Vivian de Los Ríos, Herbert N Arst, Miguel A Peñalva
Intracellular traffic in Aspergillus nidulans hyphae must cope with the challenges that the high rates of apical extension (1μm/min) and the long intracellular distances (>100 μm) impose. Understanding the ways in which the hyphal tip cell coordinates traffic to meet these challenges is of basic importance, but is also of considerable applied interest, as fungal invasiveness of animals and plants depends critically upon maintaining these high rates of growth. Rapid apical extension requires localization of cell-wall-modifying enzymes to hyphal tips...
April 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593539/optimization-of-cholinesterase-based-catalytic-bioscavengers-against-organophosphorus-agents
#5
Sofya V Lushchekina, Lawrence M Schopfer, Bella L Grigorenko, Alexander V Nemukhin, Sergei D Varfolomeev, Oksana Lockridge, Patrick Masson
Organophosphorus agents (OPs) are irreversible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). OP poisoning causes major cholinergic syndrome. Current medical counter-measures mitigate the acute effects but have limited action against OP-induced brain damage. Bioscavengers are appealing alternative therapeutic approach because they neutralize OPs in bloodstream before they reach physiological targets. First generation bioscavengers are stoichiometric bioscavengers. However, stoichiometric neutralization requires administration of huge doses of enzyme...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570654/immunomolecular-characterization-of-mic-1-a-novel-antigen-in-babesia-bigemina-which-contains-conserved-and-immunodominant-b-cell-epitopes-that-induce-neutralizing-antibodies
#6
Diego Josimar Hernández-Silva, Uriel Mauricio Valdez-Espinoza, Miguel Angel Mercado-Uriostegui, Gabriela Aguilar-Tipacamú, Juan Alberto Ramos-Aragón, Ruben Hernández-Ortiz, Massaro Ueti, Juan Mosqueda
Babesia bigemina is one of the most prevalent species causing bovine babesiosis around the world. Antigens involved in host cell invasion are vaccine targets for this disease but are largely unknown in this species. The invasion process of Babesia spp. into erythrocytes involves membrane proteins from the apical complex. A protein stored in the micronemes, called Micronemal Protein 1 (MIC-1), contains a sialic acid binding domain that participates in the invasion process of host cells and is a vaccine candidate in other apicomplexan parasites...
March 23, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550006/ovariectomy-exacerbates-apical-periodontitis-in-rats-with-an-increase-in-expression-of-proinflammatory-cytokines-and-matrix-metalloproteinases
#7
Priscilla Coutinho Romualdo, Marília P Lucisano, Francisco Wanderley G Paula-Silva, Graziela B Leoni, Manoel D Sousa-Neto, Raquel Assed B Silva, Lea Assed B Silva, Paulo Nelson-Filho
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and cathepsin K in apical periodontitis (AP) and the volume of lesions in ovariectomized and sham-operated rats. METHODS: Twenty 12-week-old female Wistar rats were subjected to ovariectomy (OVX) or sham surgery. After 9 weeks, access cavities were prepared in the maxillary and mandibular first molars, pulp tissue was removed, and canals were exposed to the oral environment during 21 days for the induction of AP...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545352/genome-wide-association-studies-of-metabolites-in-patients-with-ckd-identify-multiple-loci-and-illuminate-tubular-transport-mechanisms
#8
Yong Li, Peggy Sekula, Matthias Wuttke, Judith Wahrheit, Birgit Hausknecht, Ulla T Schultheiss, Wolfram Gronwald, Pascal Schlosser, Sara Tucci, Arif B Ekici, Ute Spiekerkoetter, Florian Kronenberg, Kai-Uwe Eckardt, Peter J Oefner, Anna Köttgen
Background The kidneys have a central role in the generation, turnover, transport, and excretion of metabolites, and these functions can be altered in CKD. Genetic studies of metabolite concentrations can identify proteins performing these functions. Methods We conducted genome-wide association studies and aggregate rare variant tests of the concentrations of 139 serum metabolites and 41 urine metabolites, as well as their pairwise ratios and fractional excretions in up to 1168 patients with CKD. Results After correction for multiple testing, genome-wide significant associations were detected for 25 serum metabolites, two urine metabolites, and 259 serum and 14 urinary metabolite ratios...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540787/microvillar-and-ciliary-defects-in-zebrafish-lacking-an-actin-binding-bioactive-peptide-amidating-enzyme
#9
Dhivya Kumar, Rebecca T Thomason, Maya Yankova, Jonathan D Gitlin, Richard E Mains, Betty A Eipper, Stephen M King
The assembly of membranous extensions such as microvilli and cilia in polarized cells is a tightly regulated, yet poorly understood, process. Peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), a membrane enzyme essential for the synthesis of amidated bioactive peptides, was recently identified in motile and non-motile (primary) cilia and has an essential role in ciliogenesis in Chlamydomonas, Schmidtea and mouse. In mammalian cells, changes in PAM levels alter secretion and organization of the actin cytoskeleton...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486174/antibody-responses-to-p-falciparum-apical-membrane-antigen-1-ama-1-in-relation-to-haemoglobin-s-hbs-hbc-g6pd-and-abo-blood-groups-among-fulani-and-masaleit-living-in-western-sudan
#10
Amre Nasr, Ayman M Saleh, Muna Eltoum, Amir Abushouk, Anhar Hamza, Ahmad Aljada, Mohamed E El-Toum, Yousif A Abu-Zeid, Gamal Allam, Gehad ElGhazali
Fulani and Masaleit are two sympatric ethnic groups in western Sudan who are characterised by marked differences in susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum malaria. It has been demonstrated that Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and Sickle cell trait HbAS carriers are protected from the most severe forms of malaria. This study aimed to investigate a set of specific IgG subclasses against P. falciparum Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA-1 3D7), haemoglobin variants and (G6PD) in association with malaria susceptibility among Fulani ethnic group compared to sympatric ethnic group living in Western Sudan...
February 24, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483157/mechanism-of-hyperkalemia-induced-metabolic-acidosis
#11
Autumn N Harris, P Richard Grimm, Hyun-Wook Lee, Eric Delpire, Lijuan Fang, Jill W Verlander, Paul A Welling, I David Weiner
Background Hyperkalemia in association with metabolic acidosis that are out of proportion to changes in glomerular filtration rate defines type 4 renal tubular acidosis (RTA), the most common RTA observed, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the associated metabolic acidosis are incompletely understood. We sought to determine whether hyperkalemia directly causes metabolic acidosis and, if so, the mechanisms through which this occurs. Methods We studied a genetic model of hyperkalemia that results from early distal convoluted tubule (DCT)-specific overexpression of constitutively active Ste20/SPS1-related proline-alanine-rich kinase (DCT-CA-SPAK)...
February 26, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462338/nh4-intensifies-cam-photosynthesis-and-counteracts-drought-effects-in-guzmania-monostachia-by-increasing-malate-transport-and-antioxidant-capacity
#12
Paula Natália Pereira, Marília Gaspar, J Andrew C Smith, Helenice Mercier
Guzmania monostachia (Bromeliaceae) is a tropical epiphyte capable of upregulating crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in its photosynthetic tissues in response to changing nutrient and water availability. Previous studies have shown that under drought there is a gradient of increasing CAM expression from the basal (youngest) to apical (oldest) portion of the leaves, and additionally that nitrogen deficiency can further increase CAM intensity in the leaf apex of this bromeliad. The present study investigated the interrelationships between nitrogen source (nitrate and/or ammonium) and water deficit in regulating CAM expression in G...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422862/geraniol-pharmacokinetics-bioavailability-and-its-multiple-effects-on-the-liver-antioxidant-and-xenobiotic-metabolizing-enzymes
#13
Barbara Pavan, Alessandro Dalpiaz, Luca Marani, Sarah Beggiato, Luca Ferraro, Donatella Canistro, Moreno Paolini, Fabio Vivarelli, Maria C Valerii, Antonietta Comparone, Luigia De Fazio, Enzo Spisni
Geraniol is a natural monoterpene showing anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective and anticancer effects. No pharmacokinetic and bioavailability data on geraniol are currently available. We therefore performed a systematic study to identify the permeation properties of geraniol across intestinal cells, and its pharmacokinetics and bioavailability after intravenous and oral administration to rats. In addition, we systematically investigated the potential hepatotoxic effects of high doses of geraniol on hepatic phase I, phase II and antioxidant enzymatic activities and undertook a hematochemical analysis on mice...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392401/ddm1-guards-against-telomere-truncation-in-arabidopsis
#14
Xiaoyuan Xie, Dorothy E Shippen
Prolonged hypomethylation of DNA leads to telomere truncation correlated with increased telomere recombination, transposon mobilization and stem cell death. Epigenetic pathways, including DNA methylation, are crucial for telomere maintenance. Deficient in DNA Methylation 1 (DDM1) encodes a nucleosome remodeling protein, required to maintain DNA methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants lacking DDM1 can be self-propagated, but in the sixth generation (G6) hypomethylation leads to rampant transposon activation and infertility...
March 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381782/pathway-of-maternal-serotonin-to-the-human-embryo-and-fetus
#15
Harvey J Kliman, Sarah B Quaratella, Alessandra C Setaro, Erin C Siegman, Zarrin T Subha, Reshef Tal, Kristin M Milano, Theodore L Steck
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is essential to intrauterine development, but its source is debated. We used immunocytochemistry to gauge 5-HT; its biosynthetic enzyme (tryptophan hydroxylase 1, TPH1); an importer (serotonin transporter, 5-HTT/SERT/SLC6A); other transporters (P-glycoprotein 1 [P-gp/ABCB1], OCT3/SLC22A3 and gap junction connexin-43); and the 5-HT degradative enzyme (monoamine oxidase A, MAOA) in sections of placentas. In humans, 5-HT was faintly stained only in first trimester trophoblasts, while TPH1 was not seen at any stage...
January 26, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381405/the-influences-of-cholecystectomy-on-the-circadian-rhythms-of-bile-acids-as-well-as-the-enterohepatic-transporters-and-enzymes-systems-in-mice
#16
Fan Zhang, Yingting Duan, Lili Xi, Mengmeng Wei, Axi Shi, Yan Zhou, Yuhui Wei, Xinan Wu
Bile acids (BAs), the most important endogenous and signaling molecules regulate the target transporters and enzymes at transcriptional level, participate in a wide variety of processes throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract to orchestrate homeostasis in vivo. BAs and their metabolism and transportation appear to follow the clear circadian rhythms, and they are recently proposed also as the potential chronobiological signals that can affect the molecular clock mechanism. Cholecystectomy are believed to affect the circadian rhythms of BAs and the relevant enterohepatic transporters and enzymes systems and their regulatory signaling pathways, for the reason that the circadian cycle of gallbladder filling and emptying play a pivotal role in controlling the flow of bile into the intestine and the enterohepatic circulation of BAs...
January 30, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373702/tissue-specific-changes-in-apoplastic-proteins-and-cell-wall-structure-during-cold-acclimation-of-winter-wheat-crowns
#17
Ian R Willick, Daisuke Takahashi, D Brian Fowler, Matsuo Uemura, Karen K Tanino
The wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crown is the critical organ of low temperature stress survival over winter. In cold-acclimated crowns, ice formation in the apoplast causes severe tissue disruption as it grows at the expense of intracellular water. While previous crown studies have shown the vascular transition zone (VTZ) to have a higher freezing sensitivity than the shoot apical meristem (SAM), the mechanism behind the differential freezing response is not fully understood. Cooling cold-acclimated crowns to -10 °C resulted in an absence of VTZ tetrazolium chloride staining, whereas the temperatures at which 50% of the SAM stained positive and 50% of plants recovered (LT50) were similar after cold acclimation for 21 (-16 °C) and 42 d (-20 °C) at 4 °C...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373068/upregulation-and-nuclear-location-of-mmp28-in-alveolar-epithelium-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#18
Mariel Maldonado, Alfonso Salgado-Aguayo, Iliana Herrera, Sandra Cabrera, Blanca Ortíz-Quintero, Claudia A Staab-Weijnitz, Oliver Eickelberg, Remedios Ramírez, Anne M Manicone, Moisés Selman, Annie Pardo
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and progressive aging-associated disease of unknown etiology. Growing body of evidence indicates that aberrant activated alveolar epithelial cells induce the expansion and activation of the fibroblast population leading to the destruction of the lung architecture. Some Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) are upregulated in IPF, indicating that they may be important in the pathogenesis and/or progression of IPF. Here, we studied the expression of MMP28 in this disease and evaluated its functional effects in two alveolar epithelial cell lines and in human primary bronchial epithelial cells...
January 26, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360461/pancreatitis-induced-depletion-of-syntaxin-2-promotes-autophagy-and-increases-basolateral-exocytosis
#19
Subhankar Dolai, Tao Liang, Abrahim I Orabi, Douglas Holmyard, Li Xie, Dafna Greitzer-Antes, Youhou Kang, Huanli Xie, Tanveer A Javed, Patrick P Lam, Deborah C Rubin, Peter Thorn, Herbert Y Gaisano
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Pancreatic acinar cells are polarized epithelial cells that store enzymes required for digestion as inactive zymogens, tightly packed at the cell apex. Stimulation of acinar cells causes the zymogen granules to fuse with the apical membrane, and the cells undergo exocytosis to release proteases into the intestinal lumen. Autophagy maintains homeostasis of pancreatic acini. Syntaxin 2 (STX2), an abundant soluble N-ethyl maleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptor in pancreatic acini, has been reported to mediate apical exocytosis...
January 31, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358152/how-proteolytic-inhibitors-interact-with-dentin-on-glass-fiber-post-luting-over-6-months
#20
Larissa Pinceli Chaves, Thales Lippi Ciantelli, Diana F G Araújo, Marina Ciccone Giacomini, Leo Tjäderhane, Polliana Mendes Candia Scaffa, Heitor Marques Honório, Linda Wang
OBJECTIVES: Enzyme inhibitors minimize the degradation of unprotected collagen of dentin promoted by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins (CCs). As the evidence of their effect on the root canal is limited, this study aimed to evaluate the role of EDTA, chlorhexidine and E-64 as antiproteolytic agents on the bond strength (BS) of glass-fiber posts in root canals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-six bovine roots were distributed in groups for each time point (n = 8)...
January 11, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
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