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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422862/geraniol-pharmacokinetics-bioavailability-and-its-multiple-effects-on-the-liver-antioxidant-and-xenobiotic-metabolizing-enzymes
#1
Barbara Pavan, Alessandro Dalpiaz, Luca Marani, Sarah Beggiato, Luca Ferraro, Donatella Canistro, Moreno Paolini, Fabio Vivarelli, Maria C Valerii, Antonietta Comparone, Luigia De Fazio, Enzo Spisni
Geraniol is a natural monoterpene showing anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective and anticancer effects. No pharmacokinetic and bioavailability data on geraniol are currently available. We therefore performed a systematic study to identify the permeation properties of geraniol across intestinal cells, and its pharmacokinetics and bioavailability after intravenous and oral administration to rats. In addition, we systematically investigated the potential hepatotoxic effects of high doses of geraniol on hepatic phase I, phase II and antioxidant enzymatic activities and undertook a hematochemical analysis on mice...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392401/ddm1-guards-against-telomere-truncation-in-arabidopsis
#2
Xiaoyuan Xie, Dorothy E Shippen
Prolonged hypomethylation of DNA leads to telomere truncation correlated with increased telomere recombination, transposon mobilization and stem cell death. Epigenetic pathways, including DNA methylation, are crucial for telomere maintenance. Deficient in DNA Methylation 1 (DDM1) encodes a nucleosome remodeling protein, required to maintain DNA methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants lacking DDM1 can be self-propagated, but in the sixth generation (G6) hypomethylation leads to rampant transposon activation and infertility...
February 1, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381782/pathway-of-maternal-serotonin-to-the-human-embryo-and-fetus
#3
Harvey J Kliman, Sarah B Quaratella, Alessandra C Setaro, Erin C Siegman, Zarrin T Subha, Reshef Tal, Kristin M Milano, Theodore L Steck
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is essential to intrauterine development, but its source is debated. We used immunocytochemistry to gauge 5-HT; its biosynthetic enzyme (tryptophan hydroxylase 1, TPH1); an importer (serotonin transporter, 5-HTT/SERT/SLC6A); other transporters (P-glycoprotein 1 [P-gp/ABCB1], OCT3/SLC22A3 and gap junction connexin-43); and the 5-HT degradative enzyme (monoamine oxidase A, MAOA) in sections of placentas. In humans, 5-HT was faintly stained only in first trimester trophoblasts, while TPH1 was not seen at any stage...
January 26, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381405/the-influences-of-cholecystectomy-on-the-circadian-rhythms-of-bile-acids-as-well-as-the-enterohepatic-transporters-and-enzymes-systems-in-mice
#4
Fan Zhang, Yingting Duan, Lili Xi, Mengmeng Wei, Axi Shi, Yan Zhou, Yuhui Wei, Xinan Wu
Bile acids (BAs), the most important endogenous and signaling molecules regulate the target transporters and enzymes at transcriptional level, participate in a wide variety of processes throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract to orchestrate homeostasis in vivo. BAs and their metabolism and transportation appear to follow the clear circadian rhythms, and they are recently proposed also as the potential chronobiological signals that can affect the molecular clock mechanism. Cholecystectomy are believed to affect the circadian rhythms of BAs and the relevant enterohepatic transporters and enzymes systems and their regulatory signaling pathways, for the reason that the circadian cycle of gallbladder filling and emptying play a pivotal role in controlling the flow of bile into the intestine and the enterohepatic circulation of BAs...
January 30, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373702/tissue-specific-changes-in-apoplastic-proteins-and-cell-wall-structure-during-cold-acclimation-of-winter-wheat-crowns
#5
Ian R Willick, Daisuke Takahashi, D Brian Fowler, Matsuo Uemura, Karen K Tanino
The wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crown is the critical organ of low temperature stress survival over winter. In cold-acclimated crowns, ice formation in the apoplast causes severe tissue disruption as it grows at the expense of intracellular water. While previous crown studies have shown the vascular transition zone (VTZ) to have a higher freezing sensitivity than the shoot apical meristem (SAM), the mechanism behind the differential freezing response is not fully understood. Cooling cold-acclimated crowns to -10 °C resulted in an absence of VTZ tetrazolium chloride staining, whereas the temperatures at which 50% of the SAM stained positive and 50% of plants recovered (LT50) were similar after cold acclimation for 21 (-16 °C) and 42 d (-20 °C) at 4 °C...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373068/upregulation-and-nuclear-location-of-mmp28-in-alveolar-epithelium-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#6
Mariel Maldonado, Alfonso Salgado-Aguayo, Iliana Herrera, Sandra Cabrera, Blanca Ortíz-Quintero, Claudia A Staab-Weijnitz, Oliver Eickelberg, Remedios Ramírez, Anne M Manicone, Moisés Selman, Annie Pardo
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and progressive aging-associated disease of unknown etiology. Growing body of evidence indicates that aberrant activated alveolar epithelial cells induce the expansion and activation of the fibroblast population leading to the destruction of the lung architecture. Some Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) are upregulated in IPF, indicating that they may be important in the pathogenesis and/or progression of IPF. Here, we studied the expression of MMP28 in this disease and evaluated its functional effects in two alveolar epithelial cell lines and in human primary bronchial epithelial cells...
January 26, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360461/pancreatitis-induced-depletion-of-syntaxin-2-promotes-autophagy-and-increases-basolateral-exocytosis
#7
Subhankar Dolai, Tao Liang, Abrahim I Orabi, Douglas Holmyard, Li Xie, Dafna Greitzer-Antes, Youhou Kang, Huanli Xie, Tanveer A Javed, Patrick P Lam, Deborah C Rubin, Peter Thorn, Herbert Y Gaisano
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Pancreatic acinar cells are polarized epithelial cells that store enzymes required for digestion as inactive zymogens, tightly packed at the cell apex. Stimulation of acinar cells causes the zymogen granules to fuse with the apical membrane, and the cells undergo exocytosis to release proteases into the intestinal lumen. Autophagy maintains homeostasis of pancreatic acini. Syntaxin 2 (STX2), an abundant SNARE protein in pancreatic acini, has been reported to mediate apical exocytosis...
January 19, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358152/how-proteolytic-inhibitors-interact-with-dentin-on-glass-fiber-post-luting-over-6-months
#8
Larissa Pinceli Chaves, Thales Lippi Ciantelli, Diana F G Araújo, Marina Ciccone Giacomini, Leo Tjäderhane, Polliana Mendes Candia Scaffa, Heitor Marques Honório, Linda Wang
OBJECTIVES: Enzyme inhibitors minimize the degradation of unprotected collagen of dentin promoted by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins (CCs). As the evidence of their effect on the root canal is limited, this study aimed to evaluate the role of EDTA, chlorhexidine and E-64 as antiproteolytic agents on the bond strength (BS) of glass-fiber posts in root canals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-six bovine roots were distributed in groups for each time point (n = 8)...
January 11, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324356/inflammation-induced-er-stress-affects-absorptive-intestinal-epithelial-cells-function-and-integrity
#9
Sucheera Chotikatum, Hassan Y Naim, Nahed El-Najjar
Recent studies have linked impairment of intestinal epithelial function in inflammatory bowel disease to the disturbance of endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis (ER) in response to stress. Most studies are on goblet and Paneth cells, which are considered more susceptible to stress due to their role in the protection of intestinal epithelium against microbes and harmful substances. However, studies on the role of inflammation-induced ER stress in absorptive intestinal cells are scarce. In this study, we show, using Caco-2 cells as a model of intestinal epithelial barrier, that inducing ER stress using a cocktail mixture of pro-inflammatory mediators [TNFα (50ng/ml), MCP1 (50ng/ml), and IL-1β (25ng/ml)] as observed in IBD patients induces ER stress and leads to significant changes in key proteins of the apical (sucrase-isomaltase (SI), dipeptidyl-peptidase (DPPIV), and ezrin) and basolateral (E-cadherin, zonula occludens (ZO-1), and connexin-43) membranes...
January 8, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315650/levels-of-oxidative-stress-biomarkers-and-bone-resorption-regulators-in-apical-periodontitis-lesions-infected-by-epstein-barr-virus
#10
A Jakovljevic, M Andric, N Nikolic, V Coric, S Krezovic, J Carkic, A Knezevic, K Beljic-Ivanovic, M Plješa-Ercegovac, M Miletić, I Soldatovic, T Radosavljevic, T Jovanovic, T Simic, V Ivanovic, J Milasin
AIM: To investigate whether apical periodontitis lesions infected by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) exhibit higher levels of oxidative stress biomarkers (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG)) and bone resorption regulators (receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG)) compared to EBV negative periapical lesions and healthy pulp tissues. METHODOLOGY: The experimental group consisted of 30 EBV positive and 30 EBV negative periapical lesions collected in conjunction with apicoectomy...
January 9, 2018: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313885/interferon-%C3%AE-treatment-increases-endocannabinoid-and-related-n-acylethanolamine-levels-in-t84-human-colon-carcinoma-cells
#11
Mireille Alhouayek, Linda Rankin, Sandra Gouveia-Figueira, Christopher J Fowler
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Endocannabinoids and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) are involved in regulation of gut function, but relatively little is known as to whether inflammatory cytokines such as interferon γ (IFNγ) affect their levels. We have investigated this in vitro using T84 colon cancer cells, which when cultured in monolayers differentiate to form adult colonic crypt-like cells with excellent permeability barrier properties. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: NAE levels were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric analysis...
January 3, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303613/cellular-differentiation-of-non-transformed-intestinal-epithelial-cells-is-regulated-by-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-and-l-casei-strains
#12
J Kolinska, M Zakostelecka, Z Zemanova, V Lisa, J Golias, H Kozakova, B Dvorak
The aim of this study was to characterize an in vitro modulating effect of three commensal Lactobacillus strains on cellular differentiation of non-transformed crypt-like rat small intestinal cell line IEC-18. IEC-18 was grown on extracellular matrix (ECM), with or without presence of Lactobacillus strains. Gene expression of IEC-18 bacterial detection system - such as Toll-like receptors TLR-2, TLR-4, signal adapter MyD88, cytoplasmic NOD2 receptor, inflammatory cytokines IL-18, IL-1beta, chemokine IL-8 and enzyme caspase-1 - was evaluated using real-time PCR...
January 5, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284677/munc18c-depletion-attenuates-caerulein-hyperstimulation-induced-pancreatitis
#13
Subhankar Dolai, Tao Liang, Abrahim I Orabi, Li Xie, Douglas Holmyard, Tanveer A Javed, Nestor A Fernandez, Huanli Xie, Mark S Cattral, Debbie C Thurmond, Peter Thorn, Herbert Y Gaisano
Epithelial pancreatic acinar cells perform crucial functions in food digestion, and acinar cell homoeostasis required for secretion of digestive enzymes relies on SNARE-mediated exocytosis. The ubiquitously expressed Sec1/Munc18 protein mammalian uncoordinated-18c (Munc18c) regulates membrane fusion by activating syntaxin-4 (STX-4) to bind cognate SNARE proteins to form a SNARE complex that mediates exocytosis in many cell types. However, in the acinar cell, Munc18c's functions in exocytosis and homeostasis remain inconclusive...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273916/characterization-of-ecto-nucleotidases-in-human-oviducts-with-an-improved-approach-simultaneously-identifying-protein-expression-and-in-situ-enzyme-activity
#14
María Lina Villamonte, Benjamín Torrejón-Escribano, Aitor Rodríguez-Martínez, Carla Trapero, August Vidal, Inmaculada Gómez de Aranda, Jean Sévigny, Xavier Matías-Guiu, Mireia Martín-Satué
Extracellular ATP and its hydrolysis product adenosine modulate various reproductive functions such as those taking place in oviducts, including contraction, beating of cilia, and maintenance of fluid composition that, in turn, influences sperm capacitation and hyperactivation, as well as oocyte and embryo nourishing. Ecto-nucleotidases are the enzymes that regulate extracellular ATP and adenosine levels, thus playing a role in reproduction. We have optimized a convenient method for characterizing ecto-nucleotidases that simultaneously localizes the protein and its associated enzyme activity in the same tissue slice and characterizes ecto-nucleotidases in human oviducts...
December 22, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209109/resveratrol-modifies-biliary-secretion-of-cholephilic-compounds-in-sham-operated-and-cholestatic-rats
#15
Eva Dolezelova, Alena Prasnicka, Jolana Cermanova, Alejandro Carazo, Lucie Hyrsova, Milos Hroch, Jaroslav Mokry, Michaela Adamcova, Alena Mrkvicova, Petr Pavek, Stanislav Micuda
AIM: To investigate the effect of resveratrol on biliary secretion of cholephilic compounds in healthy and bile duct-obstructed rats. METHODS: Resveratrol (RSV) or saline were administered to rats by daily oral gavage for 28 d after sham operation or reversible bile duct obstruction (BDO). Bile was collected 24 h after the last gavage during an intravenous bolus dose of the Mdr1/Mrp2 substrate azithromycin. Bile acids, glutathione and azithromycin were measured in bile to quantify their level of biliary secretion...
November 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203884/a-homeostatic-apical-microtubule-network-shortens-cells-for-epithelial-folding-via-a-basal-polarity-shift
#16
Michiko Takeda, Mustafa M Sami, Yu-Chiun Wang
Epithelial folding is typically driven by localized actomyosin contractility. However, it remains unclear how epithelia deform when myosin levels are low and uniform. In the Drosophila gastrula, dorsal fold formation occurs despite a lack of localized myosin changes, while the fold-initiating cells reduce cell height following basal shifts of polarity via an unknown mechanism. We show that cell shortening depends on an apical microtubule network organized by the CAMSAP protein Patronin. Prior to gastrulation, microtubule forces generated by the minus-end motor dynein scaffold the apical cell cortex into a dome-like shape, while the severing enzyme Katanin facilitates network remodelling to ensure tissue-wide cell size homeostasis...
December 4, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203545/bordetella-pertussis-adenylate-cyclase-toxin-disrupts-functional-integrity-of-bronchial-epithelial-layers
#17
Shakir Hasan, Nikhil Nitin Kulkarni, Arni Asbjarnarson, Irena Linhartova, Radim Osicka, Peter Sebo, Gudmundur H Gudmundsson
Airway epithelium restricts penetration of inhaled pathogens into the underlying tissue and plays a crucial role in innate immune defense against respiratory infections. The whooping cough agent, Bordetella pertussis, adheres to ciliated cells of human airway epithelium and subverts its defense functions through the action of secreted toxins and other virulence factors. We have examined the impact of B. pertussis infection and of adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) action on the functional integrity of air-liquid interface (ALI)-cultured human bronchial epithelial cells...
December 4, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175367/spatial-heterogeneity-of-glycogen-and-its-metabolizing-enzymes-in-aspergillus-nidulans-hyphal-tip-cells
#18
Shunsuke Masuo, Airi Komatsuzaki, Norio Takeshita, Eriko Ito, Okazoe Takaaki, Shengmin Zhou, Naoki Takaya
Glycogen is a homopolymer of glucose and a ubiquitous cellular-storage carbon. This study investigated which Aspergillus nidulans genes are involved in glycogen metabolism. Gene disruptants of predicted glycogen synthase (gsyA) and glycogenin (glgA) genes accumulated less cellular glycogen than the wild type strain, indicating that GsyA and GlgA synthesize glycogen similarly to other eukaryotes. Meanwhile, gene disruption of gphA encoding glycogen phosphorylase increased the amount of glycogen to a higher degree than wild type during the stationary phase that accompanies carbon-source limitation...
November 22, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159133/integration-of-novel-approaches-demonstrates-simultaneous-metabolic-inactivation-and-car-mediated-hepatocarcinogenesis-of-a-nitrification-inhibitor
#19
Jessica L LaRocca, Reza J Rasoulpour, B Bhaskar Gollapudi, David L Eisenbrandt, Lynea A Murphy, Matthew J LeBaron
Nitrapyrin, a nitrification inhibitor, produces liver tumors in mice at high doses. Several experiments were performed to investigate molecular, cellular, and apical endpoints to define the key events leading to the tumor formation. These data support a mode-of-action (MoA) characterized by constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) nuclear receptor activation, increased hepatocellular proliferation leading to hepatocellular foci and tumor formation. Specifically, nitrapyrin induced a dose-related increase in the Cyp2b10/CAR-associated transcript and protein...
2017: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114258/ethylene-mediates-alkaline-induced-rice-growth-inhibition-by-negatively-regulating-plasma-membrane-h-atpase-activity-in-roots
#20
Haifei Chen, Quan Zhang, Hongmei Cai, Fangsen Xu
pH is an important factor regulating plant growth. Here, we found that rice was better adapted to low pH than alkaline conditions, as its growth was severely inhibited at high pH, with shorter root length and an extreme biomass reduction. Under alkaline stress, the expression of genes for ethylene biosynthesis enzymes in rice roots was strongly induced by high pH and exogenous ethylene precursor ACC and ethylene overproduction in etol1-1 mutant aggravated the alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of rice growth, especially for the root elongation with decreased cell length in root apical regions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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