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Apical enzyme

Junli Yue, Dongzhe Song, Wanlu Lu, Ying Lu, Wei Zhou, Xuelian Tan, Lan Zhang, Dingming Huang
INTRODUCTION: microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified to be closely related to inflammatory diseases. The aim of our study was to identify expression profiles of miRNAs associated with inflammation in apical periodontitis (AP) lesions and human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPDLFs) inflammation. METHODS: Total RNAs were extracted from 10 AP lesions, 6 control tissues, and HPDLFs using lysis buffer. Expressions of miRNAs (miR-29b, 106b, 125b, 143, 155, and 198) were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Endodontics
Yoshiyuki Goto, Satoshi Uematsu, Hiroshi Kiyono
Intestinal epithelial cells apically express glycans, especially α1,2-fucosyl linkages, which work as a biological interface for the host-microbe interaction. Emerging studies have shown that epithelial α1,2-fucosylation is regulated by microbes and by group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s). Dysregulation of the gene (FUT2) encoding fucosyltransferase 2, an enzyme governing epithelial α1,2-fucosylation, is associated with various human disorders, including infection and chronic inflammatory diseases. This suggests a critical role for an interaction between microbes, epithelial cells and ILC3s mediated via glycan residues...
October 19, 2016: Nature Immunology
Shankar Iyer, Subhash Shivtarkar, Ameya Udyavar
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also called transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome or Gebrochenes-Herz-Syndrome, is a rare entity which may masquerade as acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with sudden onset of chest pain and/or dyspnea, transient left ventricle apical akinesia, electrocardiographic changes typical of ACS and mild increase in cardiac enzymes in the background of normal coronary arteries. Here, we present a case of a 45 year old female who presented with acute onset dyspnea and chest pain with severe ischemic changes on the ECG and raised troponin levels...
April 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Michaela Frolikova, Natasa Sebkova, Lukas Ded, Katerina Dvorakova-Hortova
The acrosome reaction (AR) is a process of membrane fusion and lytic enzyme release, which enables sperm to penetrate the egg surroundings. It is widely recognized that specific sperm proteins form an active network prior to fertilization, and their dynamic relocation is crucial for the sperm-egg fusion. The unique presence of the membrane cofactor protein CD46 in the sperm acrosomal membrane was shown, however, its behaviour and connection with other sperm proteins has not been explored further. Using super resolution microscopy, we demonstrated a dynamic CD46 reorganisation over the sperm head during the AR, and its interaction with transmembrane protein integrins, which was confirmed by proximity ligation assay...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Damien R Drew, Danny W Wilson, Salenna R Elliott, Nadia Cross, Ulrich Terheggen, Anthony N Hodder, Peter M Siba, Kiprotich Chelimo, Arlene E Dent, James W Kazura, Ivo Mueller, James G Beeson
BACKGROUND: The polymorphic nature of many malaria vaccine candidates presents major challenges to achieving highly efficacious vaccines. Presently, there is very little knowledge on the prevalence and patterns of functional immune responses to polymorphic vaccine candidates in populations to guide vaccine design. A leading polymorphic vaccine candidate against blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum is apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1), which is essential for erythrocyte invasion. The importance of AMA1 as a target of acquired human inhibitory antibodies, their allele specificity and prevalence in populations is unknown, but crucial for vaccine design...
September 23, 2016: BMC Medicine
Jun Zhang, Jinshan Ella Lin, Chinchu Harris, Fernanda Campos Mastrotti Pereira, Fan Wu, Joshua J Blakeslee, Wendy Ann Peer
Tight homeostatic regulation of the phytohormone auxin [indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)] is essential to plant growth. Auxin biosynthetic pathways and the processes that inactivate auxin by conjugation to amino acids and sugars have been thoroughly characterized. However, the enzyme that catalyzes oxidation of IAA to its primary catabolite 2-oxindole-3-acetic acid (oxIAA) remains uncharacterized. Here, we show that DIOXYGENASE FOR AUXIN OXIDATION 1 (DAO1) catalyzes formation of oxIAA in vitro and in vivo and that this mechanism regulates auxin homeostasis and plant growth...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Rongrong Yu, Weimin Liu, Daqi Li, Xiaoming Zhao, Guowei Ding, Min Zhang, Enbo Ma, Kun Yan Zhu, Sheng Li, Bernard Moussian, Jianzhen Zhang
In the three dimensional extracellular matrix of the insect cuticle, horizontally aligned microfibrils composed of the polysaccharide chitin and associated proteins are stacked either parallel to each other or helicoidally. The underlying molecular mechanisms that implement differential chitin organization are largely unknown. In order to learn more about cuticle organization, we sought to study the role of chitin deacetylases (CDA) in this process. In the body cuticle of nymphs of the migratory locust Locusta migratoria, helicoidal chitin organization is changed to an organization with unidirectional microfibril orientation when LmCDA2 expression is knocked-down by RNA interference...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Zhiping Deng, Zhi-Yong Wang, Ulrich Kutschera
In 2009, the draft genome of the reference inbred line of maize (Zea mays L. spp. mays cv. B73) was published so that, using this specific corn variety, molecular analyses of physiological processes became possible. However, the morphology and developmental patterns of B73 maize, compared with that of the more frequently used hybrid varieties, have not yet been analyzed. Here, we describe organ development in seedlings of B73 maize and in those of six other hybrid cultivars, and document significant morphological as well as quantitative differences between these varieties of Z...
September 15, 2016: Protoplasma
Janett Müller, Markus Keiser, Marek Drozdzik, Stefan Oswald
Although oral drug administration is nowadays the favourable route of administration, intestinal drug absorption is challenged by several highly variable and poorly predictable processes such as gastrointestinal motility, intestinal drug solubility and intestinal metabolism. One further determinant that have been identified and characterized during the last two decades is the intestinal drug transport that is mediated by several transmembrane proteins such as P-gp, BCRP, PEPT1 and OATP2B1. It is so far well-established that intestinal transporters can affect oral absorption of many drugs in a significant manner either by facilitating their cellular uptake or by pumping them back to gut lumen which limits their oral bioavailability...
September 9, 2016: Biological Chemistry
Xun Yue, Xing Guo Li, Xin-Qi Gao, Xiang Yu Zhao, Yu Xiu Dong, Chao Zhou
BACKGROUND: Phytohormone synergies and signaling interdependency are important topics in plant developmental biology. Physiological and genetic experimental evidence for phytohormone crosstalk has been accumulating and a genome-scale enzyme correlation model representing the Arabidopsis metabolic pathway has been published. However, an integrated molecular characterization of phytohormone crosstalk is still not available. RESULTS: A novel modeling methodology and advanced computational approaches were used to construct an enzyme-based Arabidopsis phytohormone crosstalk network (EAPCN) at the biosynthesis level...
2016: BMC Systems Biology
Jaroslav Michalko, Tanya Renner, Patrik Mészáros, Peter Socha, Jana Moravčíková, Alžbeta Blehová, Jana Libantová, Zuzana Polóniová, Ildikó Matušíková
A gene for β-1,3-glucanase was isolated from carnivorous sundew. It is active in leaves and roots, but not in digestive glands. Analyses in transgenic tobacco suggest its function in germination. Ancestral plant β-1,3-glucanases (EC played a role in cell division and cell wall remodelling, but divergent evolution has extended their roles in plant defense against stresses to decomposition of prey in carnivorous plants. As available gene sequences from carnivorous plants are rare, we isolated a glucanase gene from roundleaf sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L...
August 31, 2016: Planta
Martin Schuster, Magdalena Martin-Urdiroz, Yujiro Higuchi, Christian Hacker, Sreedhar Kilaru, Sarah J Gurr, Gero Steinberg
Fungal cells are surrounded by an extracellular cell wall. This complex matrix of proteins and polysaccharides protects against adverse stresses and determines the shape of fungal cells. The polysaccharides of the fungal wall include 1,3-β-glucan and chitin, which are synthesized by membrane-bound synthases at the growing cell tip. A hallmark of filamentous fungi is the class V chitin synthase, which carries a myosin-motor domain. In the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis, the myosin-chitin synthase Mcs1 moves to the plasma membrane in secretory vesicles, being delivered by kinesin-1 and myosin-5...
2016: Nature Microbiology
Chih-Pin Chiang, Won C Yim, Ying-Hsuan Sun, Miwa Ohnishi, Tetsuro Mimura, John C Cushman, Hungchen E Yen
The halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (common or crystalline ice plant) is a useful model for studying molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance. The morphology, physiology, metabolism, and gene expression of ice plant have been studied and large-scale analyses of gene expression profiling have drawn an outline of salt tolerance in ice plant. A rapid root growth to a sudden increase in salinity was observed in ice plant seedlings. Using a fluorescent dye to detect Na(+), we found that ice plant roots respond to an increased flux of Na(+) by either secreting or storing Na(+) in specialized cells...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Alessia Para, DurreShahwar Muhammad, Danielle A Orozco-Nunnelly, Ramis Memishi, Sophie Alvarez, Michael J Naldrett, Katherine M Warpeha
During the transition from seed to seedling, emerging embryos strategically balance available resources between building up defenses against environmental threats and initiating the developmental program that promotes the switch to autotrophy. We present evidence of a critical role for the phenylalanine (Phe) biosynthetic activity of AROGENATE DEHYDRATASE3 (ADT3) in coordinating reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis and cotyledon development in etiolated Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings. We show that ADT3 is expressed in the cotyledon and shoot apical meristem, mainly in the cytosol, and that the epidermis of adt3 cotyledons contains higher levels of ROS Genome-wide proteomics of the adt3 mutant revealed a general down-regulation of plastidic proteins and ROS-scavenging enzymes, corroborating the hypothesis that the ADT3 supply of Phe is required to control ROS concentration and distribution to protect cellular components...
October 2016: Plant Physiology
Qing-Fei Li, Jing Zhao, Jing Zhang, Zi-Hui Dai, Lu-Gang Zhang
Malate dehydrogenases (MDHs) are key metabolic enzymes that play important roles in plant growth and development. In the present study, we isolated the full-length and coding sequences of BraMDH from Chinese cabbage [Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis (Lour) Olsson]. We conducted bioinformatics analysis and a subcellular localization assay, which revealed that the BraMDH gene sequence contained no introns and that BraMDH is localized to the chloroplast. In addition, the expression pattern of BraMDH in Chinese cabbage was investigated, which revealed that BraMDH was heavily expressed in inflorescence apical meristems, as well as the effect of BraMDH overexpression in two homozygous transgenic Arabidopsis lines, which resulted in early bolting and taller inflorescence stems...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Gat Krieger, Doron Shkolnik, Gad Miller, Hillel Fromm
The default growth pattern of primary roots of land plants is directed by gravity. However, roots possess the ability to sense and respond directionally to other chemical and physical stimuli, separately and in combination. Therefore, these root tropic responses must be antagonistic to gravitropism. The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in gravitropism of maize and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots has been previously described. However, which cellular signals underlie the integration of the different environmental stimuli, which lead to an appropriate root tropic response, is currently unknown...
October 2016: Plant Physiology
Sachin Suresh Tiwari, Keiko Mizuno, Anshua Ghosh, Wajeeha Aziz, Claire Troakes, Jason Daoud, Vidushi Golash, Wendy Noble, Tibor Hortobágyi, Karl Peter Giese
Characteristic features of Alzheimer's disease are memory loss, plaques resulting from abnormal processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP), and presence of neurofibrillary tangles and dystrophic neurites containing hyperphosphorylated tau. Currently, it is not known what links these abnormalities together. Cytoplasmic FMR1 interacting protein 2 (CYFIP2) has been suggested to regulate mRNA translation at synapses and this may include local synthesis of APP and alpha-calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II, a kinase that can phosphorylate tau...
October 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
K Pitynski, T Ozimek, N Galuszka, T Banas, K Milian-Ciesielska, M Pietrus, K Okon, M Mikos, G Juszczyk, A Sinczak-Kuta, A Stoj
Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) is a membrane enzyme present not only in the liver but also in healthy endometrial epithelium. Its overexpression has been demonstrated in numerous malignancies, where it exerts an anti-apoptotic effect and causes drug resistance in response to oxidation stress. Aim of the study was investigation of GGT expression in postmenopausal patients with endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterus (EAC). The material comprised 98 paraffin-embedded post-operative tumour samples of EAC from postmenopausal patients and a control group of 60 normal human postmenopausal endometrium samples...
June 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Claudemir Kuhn Faccioli, Renata Alari Chedid, Ricardo Hideo Mori, Antônio Carlos do Amaral, Irene Bastos Franceschini-Vicentini, Carlos Alberto Vicentini
This cytochemical study investigated the acid and alkaline phosphatase of the digestive tract of Hemisorubim platyrhynchos. Acid phosphatase was detected in the lining epithelium throughout the digestive tract, whereas alkaline phosphatase was only observed in the intestine. In the esophagus, an acid phosphatase reaction occurred in the apical cytoplasm of the epithelial cells and was related to epithelial protection and freeing of superficial cells for sloughing. Similar results were also observed in epithelial cells of gastric epithelium...
August 7, 2016: Acta Histochemica
Zeina Soayfane, François Tercé, Michela Cantiello, Horst Robenek, Michel Nauze, Valérie Bézirard, Sophie Allart, Bruno Payré, Florence Capilla, Christel Cartier, Christine Peres, Talal Al Saati, Vassilia Théodorou, David W Nelson, Chi-Liang Eric Yen, Xavier Collet, Christine Coméra
BACKGROUND: Intestinal absorption of dietary lipids involves their hydrolysis in the lumen of proximal intestine as well as uptake, intracellular transport and re-assembly of hydrolyzed lipids in enterocytes, leading to the formation and secretion of the lipoproteins chylomicrons and HDL. In this study, we examined the potential involvement of cytosolic lipid droplets (CLD) whose function in the process of lipid absorption is poorly understood. METHODS: Intestinal lipid absorption was studied in mouse after gavage...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
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