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Apical enzyme

Paz Merelo, Esther Botterweg Paredes, Marcus G Heisler, Stephan Wenkel
Leaves are present in all land plants and are specialized organs for light harvesting. They arise at the flanks of the shoot apical meristem (SAM), and develop into lamina structures that exhibit adaxial/abaxial (upper/lower side of the leaf) polarity. At the molecular level, an intricate regulatory network determines ad-/abaxial polarity in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, where the Class III Homeodomain Leucine Zipper (HD-ZIPIII) and KANADI (KAN) proteins are key mediators. The HD-ZIPIII REVOLUTA (REV) is expressed in the adaxial domain of lateral organs, whereas KAN1 is involved in abaxial differentiation...
December 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Andrea Iurlaro, Monica De Caroli, Erika Sabella, Mariarosaria De Pascali, Patrizia Rampino, Luigi De Bellis, Carla Perrotta, Giuseppe Dalessandro, Gabriella Piro, Stephen C Fry, Marcello S Lenucci
Heat and drought stress have emerged as major constraints for durum wheat production. In the Mediterranean area, their negative effect on crop productivity is expected to be exacerbated by the occurring climate change. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) are chief enzymes in cell wall remodeling, whose relevance in cell expansion and morphogenesis suggests a central role in stress responses. In this work the potential role of XTHs in abiotic stress tolerance was investigated in durum wheat. The separate effects of dehydration and heat exposure on XTH expression and its endotransglucosylase (XET) in vitro activity and in vivo action have been monitored, up to 24 h, in the apical and sub-apical root regions and shoots excised from 3-day-old seedlings of durum wheat cultivars differing in stress susceptibility/tolerance...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jasmin H Shahinian, Hannah Fuellgraf, Stefan Tholen, Justin Mastroianni, Julia Daniela Knopf, Markus Kuehs, Bettina Mayer, Manuel Schlimpert, Birte Kulemann, Simon Kuesters, Jens Hoeppner, Ulrich F Wellner, Martin Werner, Ulrich T Hopt, Robert Zeiser, Peter Bronsert, Oliver Schilling
Proteins of the pregnancy specific β-1 glycoprotein (PSG) family are renowned for their elevated expression during pregnancy. Only few reports have investigated their expression in adenocarcinomas. We studied the expression of PSG1 in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). In a cohort of 104 patient samples, immunohistochemical analysis determined PSG1 expression in every specimen. PSG1 was found at apical and cytoplasmic localization or solely at cytoplasmic localization, with the latter case being correlated to shortened median survival (25 vs 11 months, logrank p-value < 0...
2016: Journal of Cancer
Hui Gao, Ying Hui Zhang, Wan-Lei Wang, Ke Ke Zhao, Chun Mei Liu, Lin Bai, Rui Li, Yi Guo
Aspartic proteases are a class of proteolytic enzymes with conserved aspartic acid residues, which are implicated in protein processing, maturation and degradation. Compared to yeast and animals, plants possess a larger aspartic protease family. However, little is known about most of these enzymes. Here, we characterized two Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) putative GPI-anchored aspartic protease genes, A36 and A39, which are highly expressed in pollen and pollen tubes. a36 and a36 a39 mutants display significantly reduced pollen activity...
November 21, 2016: Plant Physiology
Ya-Qiong Yu, Liu Qu, Li-Hong Qiu, Jia-Jie Guo, Nan Ma, Li Zhu
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of lipopolysaccharides(LPS) extracted from Porphyromonas endodontalis(P.e) on the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) mRNA in MC3T3-E1 cells and the role of NF-κB signaling on the expression of macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) induced by TNF-α in MC3T3-El cells. METHODS: MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with different concentrations of P.e-LPS(0-50 mg/L) and 10 mg/L P.e-LPS for different time (0-24 h). The expression of TNF-α mRNA was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR)...
August 2016: Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue, Shanghai Journal of Stomatology
Lei Dai, Wei Wei Hu, Lu Xia, Mi Xia, Qian Yang
Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a coronavirus that causes villus atrophy, followed by crypt hyperplasia, reduces the activities of intestinal digestive enzymes, and disrupts the absorption of intestinal nutrients. In vivo, TGEV primarily targets and infects intestinal epithelial cells, which play an important role in glucose absorption via the apical and basolateral transporters Na+-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) and facilitative glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), respectively. In this study, we therefore sought to evaluate the effects of TGEV infection on glucose uptake and SGLT1 and GLUT2 expression...
2016: PloS One
Abdullah Y Obaid, Jamal S M Sabir, Ahmed Atef, Xuan Liu, Sherif Edris, Fotouh M El-Domyati, Mohammed Z Mutwakil, Nour O Gadalla, Nahid H Hajrah, Magdy A Al-Kordy, Neil Hall, Ahmed Bahieldin, Robert K Jansen
BACKGROUND: Climate change is predicted to be a serious threat to agriculture due to the need for crops to be able to tolerate increased heat stress. Desert plants have already adapted to high levels of heat stress so they make excellent systems for identifying genes involved in thermotolerance. Rhazya stricta is an evergreen shrub that is native to extremely hot regions across Western and South Asia, making it an excellent system for examining plant responses to heat stress. Transcriptomes of apical and mature leaves of R...
November 14, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Junli Yue, Dongzhe Song, Wanlu Lu, Ying Lu, Wei Zhou, Xuelian Tan, Lan Zhang, Dingming Huang
INTRODUCTION: microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified to be closely related to inflammatory diseases. The aim of our study was to identify expression profiles of miRNAs associated with inflammation in apical periodontitis (AP) lesions and human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPDLFs) inflammation. METHODS: Total RNAs were extracted from 10 AP lesions, 6 control tissues, and HPDLFs using lysis buffer. Expressions of miRNAs (miR-29b, 106b, 125b, 143, 155, and 198) were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Endodontics
Yoshiyuki Goto, Satoshi Uematsu, Hiroshi Kiyono
Intestinal epithelial cells apically express glycans, especially α1,2-fucosyl linkages, which work as a biological interface for the host-microbe interaction. Emerging studies have shown that epithelial α1,2-fucosylation is regulated by microbes and by group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s). Dysregulation of the gene (FUT2) encoding fucosyltransferase 2, an enzyme governing epithelial α1,2-fucosylation, is associated with various human disorders, including infection and chronic inflammatory diseases. This suggests a critical role for an interaction between microbes, epithelial cells and ILC3s mediated via glycan residues...
October 19, 2016: Nature Immunology
Shankar Iyer, Subhash Shivtarkar, Ameya Udyavar
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also called transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome or Gebrochenes-Herz-Syndrome, is a rare entity which may masquerade as acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with sudden onset of chest pain and/or dyspnea, transient left ventricle apical akinesia, electrocardiographic changes typical of ACS and mild increase in cardiac enzymes in the background of normal coronary arteries. Here, we present a case of a 45 year old female who presented with acute onset dyspnea and chest pain with severe ischemic changes on the ECG and raised troponin levels...
April 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Michaela Frolikova, Natasa Sebkova, Lukas Ded, Katerina Dvorakova-Hortova
The acrosome reaction (AR) is a process of membrane fusion and lytic enzyme release, which enables sperm to penetrate the egg surroundings. It is widely recognized that specific sperm proteins form an active network prior to fertilization, and their dynamic relocation is crucial for the sperm-egg fusion. The unique presence of the membrane cofactor protein CD46 in the sperm acrosomal membrane was shown, however, its behaviour and connection with other sperm proteins has not been explored further. Using super resolution microscopy, we demonstrated a dynamic CD46 reorganisation over the sperm head during the AR, and its interaction with transmembrane protein integrins, which was confirmed by proximity ligation assay...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Damien R Drew, Danny W Wilson, Salenna R Elliott, Nadia Cross, Ulrich Terheggen, Anthony N Hodder, Peter M Siba, Kiprotich Chelimo, Arlene E Dent, James W Kazura, Ivo Mueller, James G Beeson
BACKGROUND: The polymorphic nature of many malaria vaccine candidates presents major challenges to achieving highly efficacious vaccines. Presently, there is very little knowledge on the prevalence and patterns of functional immune responses to polymorphic vaccine candidates in populations to guide vaccine design. A leading polymorphic vaccine candidate against blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum is apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1), which is essential for erythrocyte invasion. The importance of AMA1 as a target of acquired human inhibitory antibodies, their allele specificity and prevalence in populations is unknown, but crucial for vaccine design...
September 23, 2016: BMC Medicine
Jun Zhang, Jinshan Ella Lin, Chinchu Harris, Fernanda Campos Mastrotti Pereira, Fan Wu, Joshua J Blakeslee, Wendy Ann Peer
Tight homeostatic regulation of the phytohormone auxin [indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)] is essential to plant growth. Auxin biosynthetic pathways and the processes that inactivate auxin by conjugation to amino acids and sugars have been thoroughly characterized. However, the enzyme that catalyzes oxidation of IAA to its primary catabolite 2-oxindole-3-acetic acid (oxIAA) remains uncharacterized. Here, we show that DIOXYGENASE FOR AUXIN OXIDATION 1 (DAO1) catalyzes formation of oxIAA in vitro and in vivo and that this mechanism regulates auxin homeostasis and plant growth...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Rongrong Yu, Weimin Liu, Daqi Li, Xiaoming Zhao, Guowei Ding, Min Zhang, Enbo Ma, KunYan Zhu, Sheng Li, Bernard Moussian, Jianzhen Zhang
In the three-dimensional extracellular matrix of the insect cuticle, horizontally aligned microfibrils composed of the polysaccharide chitin and associated proteins are stacked either parallel to each other or helicoidally. The underlying molecular mechanisms that implement differential chitin organization are largely unknown. To learn more about cuticle organization, we sought to study the role of chitin deacetylases (CDA) in this process. In the body cuticle of nymphs of the migratory locust Locusta migratoria, helicoidal chitin organization is changed to an organization with unidirectional microfibril orientation when LmCDA2 expression is knocked down by RNA interference...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Zhiping Deng, Zhi-Yong Wang, Ulrich Kutschera
In 2009, the draft genome of the reference inbred line of maize (Zea mays L. spp. mays cv. B73) was published so that, using this specific corn variety, molecular analyses of physiological processes became possible. However, the morphology and developmental patterns of B73 maize, compared with that of the more frequently used hybrid varieties, have not yet been analyzed. Here, we describe organ development in seedlings of B73 maize and in those of six other hybrid cultivars, and document significant morphological as well as quantitative differences between these varieties of Z...
September 15, 2016: Protoplasma
Janett Müller, Markus Keiser, Marek Drozdzik, Stefan Oswald
Although oral drug administration is nowadays the favourable route of administration, intestinal drug absorption is challenged by several highly variable and poorly predictable processes such as gastrointestinal motility, intestinal drug solubility and intestinal metabolism. One further determinant that have been identified and characterized during the last two decades is the intestinal drug transport that is mediated by several transmembrane proteins such as P-gp, BCRP, PEPT1 and OATP2B1. It is so far well-established that intestinal transporters can affect oral absorption of many drugs in a significant manner either by facilitating their cellular uptake or by pumping them back to gut lumen which limits their oral bioavailability...
September 9, 2016: Biological Chemistry
Xun Yue, Xing Guo Li, Xin-Qi Gao, Xiang Yu Zhao, Yu Xiu Dong, Chao Zhou
BACKGROUND: Phytohormone synergies and signaling interdependency are important topics in plant developmental biology. Physiological and genetic experimental evidence for phytohormone crosstalk has been accumulating and a genome-scale enzyme correlation model representing the Arabidopsis metabolic pathway has been published. However, an integrated molecular characterization of phytohormone crosstalk is still not available. RESULTS: A novel modeling methodology and advanced computational approaches were used to construct an enzyme-based Arabidopsis phytohormone crosstalk network (EAPCN) at the biosynthesis level...
2016: BMC Systems Biology
Jaroslav Michalko, Tanya Renner, Patrik Mészáros, Peter Socha, Jana Moravčíková, Alžbeta Blehová, Jana Libantová, Zuzana Polóniová, Ildikó Matušíková
A gene for β-1,3-glucanase was isolated from carnivorous sundew. It is active in leaves and roots, but not in digestive glands. Analyses in transgenic tobacco suggest its function in germination. Ancestral plant β-1,3-glucanases (EC played a role in cell division and cell wall remodelling, but divergent evolution has extended their roles in plant defense against stresses to decomposition of prey in carnivorous plants. As available gene sequences from carnivorous plants are rare, we isolated a glucanase gene from roundleaf sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L...
August 31, 2016: Planta
Martin Schuster, Magdalena Martin-Urdiroz, Yujiro Higuchi, Christian Hacker, Sreedhar Kilaru, Sarah J Gurr, Gero Steinberg
Fungal cells are surrounded by an extracellular cell wall. This complex matrix of proteins and polysaccharides protects against adverse stresses and determines the shape of fungal cells. The polysaccharides of the fungal wall include 1,3-β-glucan and chitin, which are synthesized by membrane-bound synthases at the growing cell tip. A hallmark of filamentous fungi is the class V chitin synthase, which carries a myosin-motor domain. In the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis, the myosin-chitin synthase Mcs1 moves to the plasma membrane in secretory vesicles, being delivered by kinesin-1 and myosin-5...
2016: Nature Microbiology
Chih-Pin Chiang, Won C Yim, Ying-Hsuan Sun, Miwa Ohnishi, Tetsuro Mimura, John C Cushman, Hungchen E Yen
The halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (common or crystalline ice plant) is a useful model for studying molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance. The morphology, physiology, metabolism, and gene expression of ice plant have been studied and large-scale analyses of gene expression profiling have drawn an outline of salt tolerance in ice plant. A rapid root growth to a sudden increase in salinity was observed in ice plant seedlings. Using a fluorescent dye to detect Na(+), we found that ice plant roots respond to an increased flux of Na(+) by either secreting or storing Na(+) in specialized cells...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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