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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067280/increase-in-%C3%AE-tubulin-modifications-in-the-neuronal-processes-of-hippocampal-neurons-in-both-kainic-acid-induced-epileptic-seizure-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Hang Thi Vu, Hiroyasu Akatsu, Yoshio Hashizume, Mitsutoshi Setou, Koji Ikegami
Neurodegeneration includes acute changes and slow-developing alterations, both of which partly involve common cellular machinery. During neurodegeneration, neuronal processes are impaired along with dysregulated post-translational modifications (PTMs) of cytoskeletal proteins. In neuronal processes, tubulin undergoes unique PTMs including a branched form of modification called glutamylation and loss of the C-terminal tyrosine residue and the penultimate glutamic acid residue forming Δ2-tubulin. Here, we investigated the state of two PTMs, glutamylation and Δ2 form, in both acute and slow-developing neurodegenerations, using a newly generated monoclonal antibody, DTE41, which had 2-fold higher affinity to glutamylated Δ2-tubulin, than to unmodified Δ2-tubulin...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063342/linking-genomic-responses-of-gonads-with-reproductive-impairment-in-marine-medaka-oryzias-melastigma-exposed-chronically-to-the-chemopreventive-and-antifouling-agent-3-3-diindolylmethane-dim
#2
Lianguo Chen, Doris W T Au, Chenyan Hu, Weipeng Zhang, Bingsheng Zhou, Lin Cai, John P Giesy, Pei-Yuan Qian
3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) has been promoted as an effective chemopreventive and antifouling additive. However, the concurrent risks or side effects of DIM are not fully understood, especially on tissues responsive to estrogen. Therefore, this study employed marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) as a test model to evaluate relative safety and explore mechanisms of toxic action of DIM on development and function of gonad after chronic (28days) aqueous exposure to relatively low doses (0μg/L or 8.5μg/L). Integration of comprehensive toxicogenomic analysis at the transcriptome and proteome levels with apical endpoints, such as production of eggs and swimming performance of larvae, elucidated the molecular linkage in gonad from bottom up along the reproductive adverse outcome pathway...
December 30, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043194/differential-regulation-of-intestinal-efflux-transporters-by-pregnancy-in-mice
#3
Jamie E Moscovitz, Gabriel Yarmush, Guadalupe Herrera-Garcia, Grace L Guo, Lauren M Aleksunes
1. In the intestines, the nuclear receptors farnesoid X receptor (Fxr) and pregnane X receptor (Pxr) regulate the transcription of metabolizing enzymes and transporters that dictate the absorption of nutrients and xenobiotics. 2. Here, we sought to determine whether Fxr and Pxr signaling pathways are disrupted in response to high-circulating concentrations of steroid hormones late in pregnancy leading to altered transporter expression. To test this, ileum were collected from virgin and pregnant C57BL/6 mice on gestation days 14, 17 and 19...
January 3, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988123/short-communication-inhibition-of-angiotensin-1-converting-enzyme-by-peptides-derived-from-variants-of-bovine-%C3%AE-casein-upon-apical-exposure-to-a-caco-2-cell-monolayer
#4
Bjørn Petrat-Melin, Thao T Le, Hanne S Møller, Lotte B Larsen, Jette F Young
This study investigated the consequence of genetically contingent AA substitutions in bovine β-casein (CN) genetic variants A(1), A(2), B, and I on the structure and bioactive potential of peptides following in vitro digestion. The β-CN variants were digested in vitro using pepsin and pancreatin, and a peptide profile was obtained by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, revealing among others, the β-casomorphin precursor peptides VYPFPGPIHN and VYPFPGPIPN, derived from variant A(1)/B and from A(2)/I, respectively...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939739/characterization-of-a-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-loaded-bioresorbable-delivery-system-for-pulp-regeneration
#5
Mamatha Yadlapati, Claudia Biguetti, Franco Cavalla, Francisco Nieves, Christopher Bessey, Pedram Bohluli, Gustavo Pompermaier Garlet, Ariadne Letra, Walid D Fakhouri, Renato Menezes Silva
INTRODUCTION: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a signal protein that stimulates angiogenesis and vasculogenesis and has been used in tissue regeneration and pulp regeneration experimental models. The purpose of this study was to develop a delivery system composed of a biodegradable fiber and controlled release of VEGF to promote cell viability and secure an adequate blood supply for the survival of human stem cells of the apical papilla (SCAP) favoring endodontic regenerative procedures...
January 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918939/the-shady-side-of-leaf-development-the-role-of-the-revoluta-kanadi1-module-in-leaf-patterning-and-auxin-mediated-growth-promotion
#6
REVIEW
Paz Merelo, Esther Botterweg Paredes, Marcus G Heisler, Stephan Wenkel
Leaves are present in all land plants and are specialized organs for light harvesting. They arise at the flanks of the shoot apical meristem (SAM), and develop into lamina structures that exhibit adaxial/abaxial (upper/lower side of the leaf) polarity. At the molecular level, an intricate regulatory network determines ad-/abaxial polarity in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, where the Class III Homeodomain Leucine Zipper (HD-ZIPIII) and KANADI (KAN) proteins are key mediators. The HD-ZIPIII REVOLUTA (REV) is expressed in the adaxial domain of lateral organs, whereas KAN1 is involved in abaxial differentiation...
December 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891140/drought-and-heat-differentially-affect-xth-expression-and-xet-activity-and-action-in-3-day-old-seedlings-of-durum-wheat-cultivars-with-different-stress-susceptibility
#7
Andrea Iurlaro, Monica De Caroli, Erika Sabella, Mariarosaria De Pascali, Patrizia Rampino, Luigi De Bellis, Carla Perrotta, Giuseppe Dalessandro, Gabriella Piro, Stephen C Fry, Marcello S Lenucci
Heat and drought stress have emerged as major constraints for durum wheat production. In the Mediterranean area, their negative effect on crop productivity is expected to be exacerbated by the occurring climate change. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) are chief enzymes in cell wall remodeling, whose relevance in cell expansion and morphogenesis suggests a central role in stress responses. In this work the potential role of XTHs in abiotic stress tolerance was investigated in durum wheat. The separate effects of dehydration and heat exposure on XTH expression and its endotransglucosylase (XET) in vitro activity and in vivo action have been monitored, up to 24 h, in the apical and sub-apical root regions and shoots excised from 3-day-old seedlings of durum wheat cultivars differing in stress susceptibility/tolerance...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877217/pregnancy-specific-%C3%AE-1-glycoprotein-1-is-expressed-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-and-its-subcellular-localization-correlates-with-overall-survival
#8
Jasmin H Shahinian, Hannah Fuellgraf, Stefan Tholen, Justin Mastroianni, Julia Daniela Knopf, Markus Kuehs, Bettina Mayer, Manuel Schlimpert, Birte Kulemann, Simon Kuesters, Jens Hoeppner, Ulrich F Wellner, Martin Werner, Ulrich T Hopt, Robert Zeiser, Peter Bronsert, Oliver Schilling
Proteins of the pregnancy specific β-1 glycoprotein (PSG) family are renowned for their elevated expression during pregnancy. Only few reports have investigated their expression in adenocarcinomas. We studied the expression of PSG1 in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). In a cohort of 104 patient samples, immunohistochemical analysis determined PSG1 expression in every specimen. PSG1 was found at apical and cytoplasmic localization or solely at cytoplasmic localization, with the latter case being correlated to shortened median survival (25 vs 11 months, logrank p-value < 0...
2016: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872247/two-membrane-anchored-aspartic-proteases-contribute-to-pollen-and-ovule-development
#9
Hui Gao, Yinghui Zhang, Wanlei Wang, Keke Zhao, Chunmei Liu, Lin Bai, Rui Li, Yi Guo
Aspartic proteases are a class of proteolytic enzymes with conserved aspartate residues, which are implicated in protein processing, maturation, and degradation. Compared with yeast and animals, plants possess a larger aspartic protease family. However, little is known about most of these enzymes. Here, we characterized two Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) putative glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored aspartic protease genes, A36 and A39, which are highly expressed in pollen and pollen tubes. a36 and a36 a39 mutants display significantly reduced pollen activity...
January 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858062/-mechanism-of-tnf-%C3%AE-in-bone-defect-of-chronic-apical-periodontitis
#10
Ya-Qiong Yu, Liu Qu, Li-Hong Qiu, Jia-Jie Guo, Nan Ma, Li Zhu
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of lipopolysaccharides(LPS) extracted from Porphyromonas endodontalis(P.e) on the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) mRNA in MC3T3-E1 cells and the role of NF-κB signaling on the expression of macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) induced by TNF-α in MC3T3-El cells. METHODS: MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with different concentrations of P.e-LPS(0-50 mg/L) and 10 mg/L P.e-LPS for different time (0-24 h). The expression of TNF-α mRNA was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR)...
August 2016: Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue, Shanghai Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851758/transmissible-gastroenteritis-virus-infection-enhances-sglt1-and-glut2-expression-to-increase-glucose-uptake
#11
Lei Dai, Wei Wei Hu, Lu Xia, Mi Xia, Qian Yang
Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a coronavirus that causes villus atrophy, followed by crypt hyperplasia, reduces the activities of intestinal digestive enzymes, and disrupts the absorption of intestinal nutrients. In vivo, TGEV primarily targets and infects intestinal epithelial cells, which play an important role in glucose absorption via the apical and basolateral transporters Na+-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) and facilitative glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), respectively. In this study, we therefore sought to evaluate the effects of TGEV infection on glucose uptake and SGLT1 and GLUT2 expression...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842501/analysis-of-transcriptional-response-to-heat-stress-in-rhazya-stricta
#12
Abdullah Y Obaid, Jamal S M Sabir, Ahmed Atef, Xuan Liu, Sherif Edris, Fotouh M El-Domyati, Mohammed Z Mutwakil, Nour O Gadalla, Nahid H Hajrah, Magdy A Al-Kordy, Neil Hall, Ahmed Bahieldin, Robert K Jansen
BACKGROUND: Climate change is predicted to be a serious threat to agriculture due to the need for crops to be able to tolerate increased heat stress. Desert plants have already adapted to high levels of heat stress so they make excellent systems for identifying genes involved in thermotolerance. Rhazya stricta is an evergreen shrub that is native to extremely hot regions across Western and South Asia, making it an excellent system for examining plant responses to heat stress. Transcriptomes of apical and mature leaves of R...
November 14, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776879/expression-profiles-of-inflammation-associated-micrornas-in-periapical-lesions-and-human-periodontal-ligament-fibroblasts-inflammation
#13
Junli Yue, Dongzhe Song, Wanlu Lu, Ying Lu, Wei Zhou, Xuelian Tan, Lan Zhang, Dingming Huang
INTRODUCTION: microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified to be closely related to inflammatory diseases. The aim of our study was to identify expression profiles of miRNAs associated with inflammation in apical periodontitis (AP) lesions and human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPDLFs) inflammation. METHODS: Total RNAs were extracted from 10 AP lesions, 6 control tissues, and HPDLFs using lysis buffer. Expressions of miRNAs (miR-29b, 106b, 125b, 143, 155, and 198) were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction...
December 2016: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760104/epithelial-glycosylation-in-gut-homeostasis-and-inflammation
#14
Yoshiyuki Goto, Satoshi Uematsu, Hiroshi Kiyono
Intestinal epithelial cells apically express glycans, especially α1,2-fucosyl linkages, which work as a biological interface for the host-microbe interaction. Emerging studies have shown that epithelial α1,2-fucosylation is regulated by microbes and by group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s). Dysregulation of the gene (FUT2) encoding fucosyltransferase 2, an enzyme governing epithelial α1,2-fucosylation, is associated with various human disorders, including infection and chronic inflammatory diseases. This suggests a critical role for an interaction between microbes, epithelial cells and ILC3s mediated via glycan residues...
October 19, 2016: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734652/takotsubo-cardiomyopathy-masquerading-as-acute-coronary-syndrome
#15
Shankar Iyer, Subhash Shivtarkar, Ameya Udyavar
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also called transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome or Gebrochenes-Herz-Syndrome, is a rare entity which may masquerade as acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with sudden onset of chest pain and/or dyspnea, transient left ventricle apical akinesia, electrocardiographic changes typical of ACS and mild increase in cardiac enzymes in the background of normal coronary arteries. Here, we present a case of a 45 year old female who presented with acute onset dyspnea and chest pain with severe ischemic changes on the ECG and raised troponin levels...
April 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666019/characterization-of-cd46-and-%C3%AE-1-integrin-dynamics-during-sperm-acrosome-reaction
#16
Michaela Frolikova, Natasa Sebkova, Lukas Ded, Katerina Dvorakova-Hortova
The acrosome reaction (AR) is a process of membrane fusion and lytic enzyme release, which enables sperm to penetrate the egg surroundings. It is widely recognized that specific sperm proteins form an active network prior to fertilization, and their dynamic relocation is crucial for the sperm-egg fusion. The unique presence of the membrane cofactor protein CD46 in the sperm acrosomal membrane was shown, however, its behaviour and connection with other sperm proteins has not been explored further. Using super resolution microscopy, we demonstrated a dynamic CD46 reorganisation over the sperm head during the AR, and its interaction with transmembrane protein integrins, which was confirmed by proximity ligation assay...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658419/a-novel-approach-to-identifying-patterns-of-human-invasion-inhibitory-antibodies-guides-the-design-of-malaria-vaccines-incorporating-polymorphic-antigens
#17
Damien R Drew, Danny W Wilson, Salenna R Elliott, Nadia Cross, Ulrich Terheggen, Anthony N Hodder, Peter M Siba, Kiprotich Chelimo, Arlene E Dent, James W Kazura, Ivo Mueller, James G Beeson
BACKGROUND: The polymorphic nature of many malaria vaccine candidates presents major challenges to achieving highly efficacious vaccines. Presently, there is very little knowledge on the prevalence and patterns of functional immune responses to polymorphic vaccine candidates in populations to guide vaccine design. A leading polymorphic vaccine candidate against blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum is apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1), which is essential for erythrocyte invasion. The importance of AMA1 as a target of acquired human inhibitory antibodies, their allele specificity and prevalence in populations is unknown, but crucial for vaccine design...
September 23, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651492/dao1-catalyzes-temporal-and-tissue-specific-oxidative-inactivation-of-auxin-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#18
Jun Zhang, Jinshan Ella Lin, Chinchu Harris, Fernanda Campos Mastrotti Pereira, Fan Wu, Joshua J Blakeslee, Wendy Ann Peer
Tight homeostatic regulation of the phytohormone auxin [indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)] is essential to plant growth. Auxin biosynthetic pathways and the processes that inactivate auxin by conjugation to amino acids and sugars have been thoroughly characterized. However, the enzyme that catalyzes oxidation of IAA to its primary catabolite 2-oxindole-3-acetic acid (oxIAA) remains uncharacterized. Here, we show that DIOXYGENASE FOR AUXIN OXIDATION 1 (DAO1) catalyzes formation of oxIAA in vitro and in vivo and that this mechanism regulates auxin homeostasis and plant growth...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637332/helicoidal-organization-of-chitin-in-the-cuticle-of-the-migratory-locust-requires-the-function-of-the-chitin-deacetylase2-enzyme-lmcda2
#19
Rongrong Yu, Weimin Liu, Daqi Li, Xiaoming Zhao, Guowei Ding, Min Zhang, Enbo Ma, KunYan Zhu, Sheng Li, Bernard Moussian, Jianzhen Zhang
In the three-dimensional extracellular matrix of the insect cuticle, horizontally aligned microfibrils composed of the polysaccharide chitin and associated proteins are stacked either parallel to each other or helicoidally. The underlying molecular mechanisms that implement differential chitin organization are largely unknown. To learn more about cuticle organization, we sought to study the role of chitin deacetylases (CDA) in this process. In the body cuticle of nymphs of the migratory locust Locusta migratoria, helicoidal chitin organization is changed to an organization with unidirectional microfibril orientation when LmCDA2 expression is knocked down by RNA interference...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631339/seedling-development-in-maize-cv-b73-and-blue-light-mediated-proteomic-changes-in-the-tip-vs-stem-of-the-coleoptile
#20
Zhiping Deng, Zhi-Yong Wang, Ulrich Kutschera
In 2009, the draft genome of the reference inbred line of maize (Zea mays L. spp. mays cv. B73) was published so that, using this specific corn variety, molecular analyses of physiological processes became possible. However, the morphology and developmental patterns of B73 maize, compared with that of the more frequently used hybrid varieties, have not yet been analyzed. Here, we describe organ development in seedlings of B73 maize and in those of six other hybrid cultivars, and document significant morphological as well as quantitative differences between these varieties of Z...
September 15, 2016: Protoplasma
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