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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032143/effects-of-cr-vi-on-ca-2-atpase-activity-in-the-earthworm-eisenia-andrei
#1
Marta Boeri, Caterina Oliveri, Corrado Camurati, Aldo Viarengo, Susanna Sforzini
The effect of Cr(VI) as a soil contaminant on the edaphic worm Eisenia andrei was studied by evaluating the activity of Ca(2+)-ATPase in the intestinal mucosa. In eukaryotes, Ca(2+)-ATPase is a key mediator of cell signaling although comparatively little is known about its activity in earthworms. Size and anatomical constraints (i.e. small and complex) led us to develop and optimize a cyto-biochemical method to measure Ca(2+)-ATPase activity in earthworms. The principal site of enzyme activity was found to be the post clitellar intestinal tract; immunohistochemistry then identified plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA ATPase) in the apical area of the intestinal epithelium...
October 11, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022073/the-contribution-of-cell-wall-composition-in-the-expansion-of-camellia-sinensis-seedlings-roots-in-response-to-aluminum
#2
Masoumeh Safari, Faezeh Ghanati, Mohammad Reza Safarnejad, Najmeh Ahmadian Chashmi
Treatment with aluminum triggers a unique response in tea seedlings resulting in biochemical modification of the cell wall, regulation of the activity of the loosening agents, and elongation of root. Unlike most terrestrial plants, tea (Camellia sinensis L.) responds to aluminum (Al) through the promotion of its root elongation; but the real mechanism(s) behind this phenomenon is not well understood. A plausible relationship between the modifications of the cell wall and the promotion of root elongation was examined in tea seedlings treated for 8 days with 400 µM Al...
October 11, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992023/garlic-diallyl-disulfide-and-diallyl-trisulfide-mitigates-effects-of-pro-oxidant-induced-cellular-stress-and-has-immune-modulatory-function-in-lps-stimulated-porcine-epithelial-cells
#3
N Horn, G Miller, K M Ajuwon, O Adeola
The objective of the current study was to determine if garlic-derived diallyl disulfide (DADS) and diallyl trisulfide (DATS) could mitigate oxidative and endotoxin stress, using an intestinal porcine epithelial cell (IPEC-J2) model. The experiment was arranged as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial of DADS + DATS (0 or 18 µM), pro-oxidant stressor (hydrogen peroxide at 0 or 100 µM), and endotoxin stressor (lipopolysaccharide [LPS] at 0 or 10 µg/mL) with 8 replicates per treatment. Cells were incubated with DADS + DATS for 18 h, LPS for 6 h, then with hydrogen peroxide for 3 h...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954627/increased-rhamm-expression-relates-to-ovarian-cancer-progression
#4
Stephanie T Buttermore, Mitchel S Hoffman, Ambuj Kumar, Anne Champeaux, Santo V Nicosia, Patricia A Kruk
BACKGROUND: Elevated hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor (RHAMM) has been reported to contribute to disease progression, aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis in multiple cancer types, however, RHAMM's role in ovarian cancer (OC) has not been elucidated. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the role for RHAMM in epithelial OC. RESULTS: Despite little to no expression in normal ovarian surface epithelium, western immunoblotting, immunohistochemical staining and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay showed elevated RHAMM levels in clinical tissue sections, omental metastasis and urine specimens of serous OC patients, as well as in cell lysates...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940493/cytosolic-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenases-play-crucial-roles-in-controlling-cold-induced-sweetening-and-apical-dominance-of-potato-solanum-tuberosum-l-tubers
#5
Tengfei Liu, Hui Fang, Jun Liu, Stephen Reid, Juan Hou, Tingting Zhou, Zhendong Tian, Botao Song, Conghua Xie
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is an important enzyme that functions in producing energy and supplying intermediates for cellular metabolism. Recent researches indicate that GAPDHs have multiple functions beside glycolysis. However, little information is available for functions of GAPDHs in potato. Here we identified four putative cytosolic GAPDH genes in potato genome. The expression analysis demonstrated that the StGAPC1, StGAPC2, and StGAPC3 are constitutively expressed in potato tissues and cold inducible in tubers...
September 20, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939687/rna-seq-profiling-of-intestinal-expression-of-xenobiotic-processing-genes-in-germ-free-mice
#6
Zidong Donna Fu, Felcy P Selwyn, Julia Yue Cui, Curtis D Klaassen
Intestinal bacteria can affect xenobiotic metabolism through both direct bacterial enzyme-catalyzed modification of the xenobiotics and indirect alterations of the expression of host genes. In order to determine the effect of the lack of intestinal bacteria on the expression of xenobiotic-processing genes (XPGs) of the host intestine, the mRNA profiles of 303 XPGs were characterized by high-throughput RNA-sequencing in four sections of the intestine and compared to that in the liver from adult male conventional (CV) and germ-free (GF) mice...
September 22, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919500/hydrogen-and-oxygen-trapping-at-the-h-cluster-of-fefe-%C3%A2-hydrogenase-revealed-by-site-selective-spectroscopy-and-qm-mm-calculations
#7
Stefan Mebs, Ramona Kositzki, Jifu Duan, Moritz Senger, Florian Wittkamp, Ulf-Peter Apfel, Thomas Happe, Sven T Stripp, Martin Winkler, Michael Haumann
[FeFe]‑hydrogenases are superior hydrogen conversion catalysts. They bind a cofactor (H-cluster) comprising a four‑iron and a diiron unit with three carbon monoxide (CO) and two cyanide (CN(-)) ligands. Hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2) binding at the H-cluster was studied in the C169A variant of [FeFe]‑hydrogenase HYDA1, in comparison to the active oxidized (Hox) and CO-inhibited (Hox-CO) species in wildtype enzyme. (57)Fe labeling of the diiron site was achieved by in vitro maturation with a synthetic cofactor analogue...
September 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917145/cell-wall-pectin-methyl-esterification-and-organic-acids-of-root-tips-involve-in-aluminum-tolerance-in-camellia-sinensis
#8
Dongqin Li, Zaifa Shu, Xiaoli Ye, Jiaojiao Zhu, Junting Pan, Weidong Wang, Pinpin Chang, Chuanlei Cui, Jiazhi Shen, Wanping Fang, Xujun Zhu, Yuhua Wang
Tea plant (Camellia sinensis (O.) Kuntze) can survive from high levels of aluminum (Al) in strongly acidic soils. However, the mechanism driving its tolerance to Al, the predominant factor limiting plant growth in acid condition, is still not fully understood. Here, two-year-old rooted cuttings of C. sinensis cultivar 'Longjingchangye' were used for Al resistance experiments. We found that the tea plants grew better in the presence of 0.4 mM Al than those grew under lower concentration of Al treatments (0 and 0...
September 7, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861731/adaptation-of-intestinal-and-bile-acid-physiology-accompany-the-metabolic-benefits-following-ileal-interposition-in-the-rat
#9
Ping Zhao, Donna Wendt, Sean Z Goodin, Shwetha Ravichandran, Tara E Chouinard, April D Strader
PURPOSE: Ileal interposition recapitulates many of the metabolic improvements similar to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. We aimed to determine whether the metabolic improvements seen following ileal interposition were conferred solely by the interposed segment by examining changes in neighboring intestinal segments as well as the composition of the bile acid pool. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male rats were treated with either sham or ileal interposition surgeries. Glucose tolerance tests, body composition analysis, polymer chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and mass spectrometry were done after the surgeries...
August 31, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860154/etiolated-stem-branching-is-a-result-of-systemic-signaling-associated-with-sucrose-level
#10
Bolaji Babajide Salam, Siva Kumar Malka, Xiaobiao Zhu, Huiling Gong, Carmit Ziv, Paula Teper-Bamnolker, Naomi Ori, Jiming Jiang, Dani Eshel
The potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber is a swollen stem. Sprouts growing from the tuber nodes represent loss of apical dominance and branching. Long cold storage induces loss of tuber apical dominance and results in secondary branching. Here, we show that a similar branching pattern can be induced by short heat treatment of the tubers. Detached sprouts were induced to branch by the heat treatment only when attached to a parenchyma cylinder. Grafting experiments showed that the scion branches only when grafted onto heat- or cold-treated tuber parenchyma, suggesting that the branching signal is transmitted systemically from the bud-base parenchyma to the grafted stem...
October 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840273/a-kinetic-characterization-of-the-gill-na-k-atpase-from-the-semi-terrestrial-mangrove-crab-cardisoma-guanhumi-latreille-1825-decapoda-brachyura
#11
Daniel L Farias, Malson N Lucena, Daniela P Garçon, Fernando L Mantelatto, John C McNamara, Francisco A Leone
We provide a kinetic characterization of (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity in a posterior gill microsomal fraction from the semi-terrestrial mangrove crab Cardisoma guanhumi. Sucrose density gradient centrifugation reveals two distinct membrane fractions showing considerable (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity, but also containing other microsomal ATPases. The (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase, notably immuno-localized to the apical region of the epithelial pillar cells, and throughout the pillar cell bodies, has an M r of around 110 kDa and hydrolyzes ATP with V M = 146...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810288/overexpression-of-demeter-a-dna-demethylase-promotes-early-apical-bud-maturation-in-poplar
#12
Daniel Conde, Alicia Moreno-Cortés, Christopher Dervinis, José M Ramos-Sánchez, Matias Kirst, Mariano Perales, Pablo González-Melendi, Isabel Allona
The transition from active growth to dormancy is critical for the survival of perennial plants. We identified a DEMETER-like (CsDML) cDNA from a winter-enriched cDNA subtractive library in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.), an economically and ecologically important species. Next, we characterized this DNA demethylase and its putative ortholog in the more experimentally tractable hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × alba), under the signals that trigger bud dormancy in trees. We performed phylogenetic and protein sequence analysis, gene expression profiling, and 5-methyl-cytosine methylation immunodetection studies to evaluate the role of CsDML and its homolog in poplar, PtaDML6...
August 15, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808228/loss-of-usp9x-disrupts-cell-adhesion-and-components-of-the-wnt-and-notch-signaling-pathways-in-neural-progenitors
#13
Susitha Premarathne, Mariyam Murtaza, Nicholas Matigian, Lachlan A Jolly, Stephen A Wood
Development of neural progenitors depends upon the coordination of appropriate intrinsic responses to extrinsic signalling pathways. Here we show the deubiquitylating enzyme, Usp9x regulates components of both intrinsic and extrinsic fate determinants. Nestin-cre mediated ablation of Usp9x from embryonic neural progenitors in vivo resulted in a transient disruption of cell adhesion and apical-basal polarity and, an increased number and ectopic localisation of intermediate neural progenitors. In contrast to other adhesion and polarity proteins, levels of β-catenin protein, especially S33/S37/T41 phospho-β-catenin, were markedly increased in Usp9x (-/Y) embryonic cortices...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763706/variation-in-relative-water-content-proline-accumulation-and-stress-gene-expression-in-two-cowpea-landraces-under-drought
#14
Zahia Zegaoui, Séverine Planchais, Cécile Cabassa, Reda Djebbar, Ouzna Abrous Belbachir, Pierre Carol
Many landraces of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] are adapted to particular geographical and climatic conditions. Here we describe two landraces grown respectively in arid and temperate areas of Algeria and assess their physiological and molecular responses to drought stress. As expected, when deprived of water cowpea plants lose water over time with a gradual reduction in transpiration rate. The landraces differed in their relative water content (RWC) and whole plant transpiration rate. The landrace from Menia, an arid area, retained more water in adult leaves...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755442/vacuolar-processing-enzyme-activates-programmed-cell-death-in-the-apical-meristem-inducing-loss-of-apical-dominance
#15
Paula Teper-Bamnolker, Yossi Buskila, Eduard Belausov, Dalia Wolf, Adi Doron-Faigenboim, Shifra Ben-Dor, Renier A L Van der Hoorn, Amnon Lers, Dani Eshel
The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber is a swollen underground stem that can sprout in an apical dominance (AD) pattern. Bromoethane (BE) induces loss of AD and the accumulation of vegetative vacuolar processing enzyme (S. tuberosum vacuolar processing enzyme [StVPE]) in the tuber apical meristem (TAM). Vacuolar processing enzyme activity, induced by BE, is followed by programmed cell death in the TAM. In this study, we found that the mature StVPE1 (mVPE) protein exhibits specific activity for caspase 1, but not caspase 3 substrates...
July 28, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717030/intestinal-epithelial-ecto-5-nucleotidase-cd73-regulates-intestinal-colonization-and-infection-by-nontyphoidal-salmonella
#16
Daniel J Kao, Bejan J Saeedi, David Kitzenberg, Krista M Burney, Evgenia Dobrinskikh, Kayla D Battista, Andrés Vázquez-Torres, Sean P Colgan, Douglas J Kominsky
Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) is expressed abundantly on the apical surface of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and functions as the terminal enzyme in the generation of extracellular adenosine. Previous work demonstrated that adenosine signaling in IECs results in a number of tissue-protective effects during inflammation; however, a rationale for its apical expression has been lacking. We hypothesized that the highly polarized expression of CD73 is indicative of an important role for extracellular adenosine as a mediator of host-microbe interactions...
October 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714880/upregulation-of-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-pi3k-enhances-ethylene-biosynthesis-and-accelerates-flower-senescence-in-transgenic-nicotiana-tabacum-l
#17
Mohd Sabri Pak Dek, Priya Padmanabhan, Sherif Sherif, Jayasankar Subramanian, And Gopinadhan Paliyath
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is a key enzyme that phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol at 3'-hydroxyl position of the inositol head group initiating the generation of several phosphorylated phosphatidylinositols, collectively referred to as phosphoinositides. The function of PI3K in plant senescence and ethylene signal transduction process was studied by expression of Solanum lycopersicum PI3K in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum, and delineating its effect on flower senescence. Detached flowers of transgenic tobacco plants with overexpressed Sl-PI3K (OX) displayed accelerated senescence and reduced longevity, when compared to the flowers of wild type plants...
July 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677664/allergenic-proteases-cleave-the-chemokine-cx3cl1-directly-from-the-surface-of-airway-epithelium-and-augment-the-effect-of-rhinovirus
#18
M Loxham, D E Smart, N J Bedke, N P Smithers, I Filippi, C Blume, E J Swindle, K Tariq, P H Howarth, S T Holgate, D E Davies
CX3CL1 has been implicated in allergen-induced airway CD4(+) T-lymphocyte recruitment in asthma. As epidemiological evidence supports a viral infection-allergen synergy in asthma exacerbations, we postulated that rhinovirus (RV) infection in the presence of allergen augments epithelial CX3CL1 release. Fully differentiated primary bronchial epithelial cultures were pretreated apically with house dust mite (HDM) extract and infected with rhinovirus-16 (RV16). CX3CL1 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting, and shedding mechanisms assessed using inhibitors, protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) agonist, and recombinant CX3CL1-expressing HEK293T cells...
July 5, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624121/leptin-like-immunoreactivity-in-the-central-nervous-system-digestive-organs-and-gonads-of-the-giant-freshwater-prawn-macrobrachium-rosenbergii
#19
Jaruwan Poljaroen, Yotsawan Tinikul, Ruchanok Tinikul, Panat Anurucpreeda, Prasert Sobhon
Leptin, a highly conserved adipocyte-derived hormone, plays important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including the control of fat storage and metabolic status which are linked to food intake, energy homeostasis, and reproduction in all vertebrates. In the present study, we hypothesize that leptin is also present in various organs of the fresh water prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The existence and distribution of a leptin-like peptide in prawn tissues were verified by using Western blotting (WB) and immunohistochemical detection (ID) using primary antibody against human leptin...
June 14, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600910/dried-human-skin-fibroblasts-as-a-new-substratum-for-functional-culture-of-hepatic-cells
#20
Agnieszka Wencel, Karolina Ewa Zakrzewska, Anna Samluk, Bartłomiej Henryk Noszczyk, Dorota Genowefa Pijanowska, Krzysztof Dariusz Pluta
The primary hepatocytes culture is still one of the main challenges in toxicology studies in the drug discovery process, development of in vitro models to study liver function, and cell-based therapies. Isolated hepatocytes display a rapid decline in viability and liver-specific functions including albumin production, conversion of ammonia to urea, and activity of the drug metabolizing enzymes. A number of methods have been developed in order to maintain hepatocytes in their highly differentiated state in vitro...
2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
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