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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316376/the-role-of-intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-in-inflammatory-disorders-of-gastrointestinal-tract
#1
REVIEW
Jan Bilski, Agnieszka Mazur-Bialy, Dagmara Wojcik, Janina Zahradnik-Bilska, Bartosz Brzozowski, Marcin Magierowski, Tomasz Mach, Katarzyna Magierowska, Tomasz Brzozowski
Over the past few years, the role of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) as a crucial mucosal defence factor essential for maintaining gut homeostasis has been established. IAP is an important apical brush border enzyme expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and secreted both into the intestinal lumen and into the bloodstream. IAP exerts its effects through dephosphorylation of proinflammatory molecules including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), flagellin, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) released from cells during stressful events...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315467/hce-t-cell-based-permeability-model-a-well-maintained-or-a-highly-variable-barrier-phenotype
#2
Marina Juretić, Bisera Jurišić Dukovski, Iva Krtalić, Stephan Reichl, Biserka Cetina-Čižmek, Jelena Filipović-Grčić, Jasmina Lovrić, Ivan Pepić
The most extensively characterized human-derived cell line used in transcorneal permeability studies, in terms of passive transcellular and paracellular transport, transporter expression and metabolic enzymes, is the immortalized human corneal epithelial cell line (HCE-T). The purpose of this study is to describe the changes in the HCE-T barrier phenotype in vitro when valid cultivation conditions, in accordance with the standardized HCE-T cell-based model protocol, were employed. Evaluation of the structural and functional barrier properties revealed two different HCE-T barrier phenotypes, depending on the polycarbonate membrane pore size...
March 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315445/evaluation-of-pept1-transport-of-food-derived-antihypertensive-peptides-ile-pro-pro-and-leu-lys-pro-using-in-vitro-ex-vivo-and-in-vivo-transport-models
#3
John P Gleeson, David J Brayden, Sinéad M Ryan
Ile-Pro-Pro (IPP) and Leu-Lys-Pro (LKP) are food-derived antihypertensive peptides which inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and may have potential to attenuate hypertension. There is debate over their mechanism of uptake across small intestinal epithelia, but paracellular and PepT1 carrier-mediated uptake are thought to be important routes. The aim of this study was to determine their routes of intestinal permeability using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo intestinal models. The presence of an apical side pH of 6...
March 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302729/phagocytosis-dependent-ketogenesis-in-retinal-pigment-epithelium
#4
Juan Reyes-Reveles, Anuradha Dhingra, Desiree Alexander, Alvina Bragin, Nancy J Philp, Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia
Daily, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) ingests a bolus of lipid and protein in the form of phagocytized photoreceptor outer segments (OS). The RPE like the liver expresses enzymes required for fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and ketogenesis. This suggests that these pathways play a role in the disposal of lipids from ingested OS as well as providing a mechanism for recycling metabolic intermediates back to the outer retina. In this study, we examined whether OS phagocytosis was linked to ketogenesis. We found increased levels of β-hydroxy-butyrate (β-HB) in the apical media following ingestion of OS by human fetal RPE and ARPE19 cells cultured on transwell inserts...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296590/transport-of-a-novel-angiotensin-i-converting-enzyme-inhibitory-peptide-ala-his-leu-leu-across-human-intestinal-epithelial-caco-2-cells
#5
Ying Li, Jiangtao Zhao, Xiaoli Liu, Xiudong Xia, Ying Wang, Jianzhong Zhou
The transport behavior and absorption mechanism of Ala-His-Leu-Leu (AHLL) intestinal absorption in Caco-2 cell monolayers were clarified systemically. The safe absorptive concentration of AHLL was 200 μg/mL, which was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay. The permeation of AHLL was concentration dependent in a bidirectional transfer and reached a plateau at 90 min. The efflux ratio was above 0.5, suggesting that AHLL was absorbed by both active transport and passive diffusion...
March 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293320/stnf-r-levels-apical-periodontitis-linked-to-coronary-heart-disease
#6
Rajnish K Singhal, Balwant Rai
BACKGROUND: Different studies have implicated the exposure to systemic conditions in the aetiology of cardiovascular diseases like chronic inflammation including chronic periodontitis. AIM: The present study has been conducted to examine whether biomarker sTNF-R was elevated in apical periodontitis as sTNF-R is a systemic marker of inflammation and has been identified as risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: sTNF-R levels were measured in 52 patients with apical periodontitis (M:F::25:27), aged 20-45 years and in 20 control patients without periodontitis (M:F::10:10, aged 20-48 years)...
March 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290237/multiple-nutritional-factors-and-the-risk-of-hashimoto-s-thyroiditis
#7
Shiqian Hu, Margaret P Rayman
Background Hashimoto's Thyroiditis (HT) is considered to be the most common autoimmune disease. It is currently accepted that genetic susceptibility, environmental factors and immune disorders contribute to its development. Regarding nutritional factors, evidence implicates high iodine intake, deficiencies of selenium and iron with a potential relevance of vitamin D status. To elucidate the role of nutritional factors in the risk, pathogenesis and treatment of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis (HT), PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched for publications on iodine, iron, selenium and vitamin D and risk/treatment of HT...
March 14, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287259/adaptation-in-caco-2-human-intestinal-cell-differentiation-and-phenolic-transport-with-chronic-exposure-to-blackberry-rubus-sp-extract
#8
Benjamin W Redan, George P Albaugh, Craig S Charron, Janet A Novotny, Mario G Ferruzzi
As evidence mounts for a health-protective role of dietary phenolics, the importance of understanding factors influencing bioavailability increases. Recent evidence has suggested chronic exposure to phenolics may impact their absorption and metabolism. To explore alterations occurring from chronic dietary exposure to phenolics, Caco-2 cell monolayers were differentiated on Transwell® inserts with 0-10 μM blackberry (Rubus sp.) total phenolics extracts rich in anthocyanins, flavonols, and phenolic acids. Following differentiation, apical to basolateral transport of phenolics was assessed from an acute treatment of 100 μM blackberry phenolics from 0-4 h...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265783/t84-monolayers-are-superior-to-caco-2-as-a-model-system-of-colonocytes
#9
Sarah Devriese, Lien Van den Bossche, Sophie Van Welden, Tom Holvoet, Iris Pinheiro, Pieter Hindryckx, Martine De Vos, Debby Laukens
Colonic adenocarcinoma-derived Caco-2 and T84 epithelial cell lines are frequently used as in vitro model systems of functional epithelial barriers. Both are utilised interchangeably despite evidence that differentiated Caco-2 cells are more reminiscent of small intestinal enterocytes than of colonocytes, whereas differentiated T84 cells are less well characterised. The aim of this study was, therefore, to further characterise and compare differentiated Caco-2 and T84 cells. The objectives were to (1) compare the brush border morphology, (2) measure the expression of enterocyte- and colonocyte-specific genes and (3) compare their response to butyrate, which is dependent on the monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), an apical protein expressed primarily in colonocytes...
March 6, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264818/trafficking-ion-transporters-to-the-apical-membrane-of-polarized-intestinal-enterocytes
#10
Amy Christine Engevik, James R Goldenring
Epithelial cells lining the gastrointestinal tract require distinct apical and basolateral domains to function properly. Trafficking and insertion of enzymes and transporters into the apical brush border of intestinal epithelial cells is essential for effective digestion and absorption of nutrients. Specific critical ion transporters are delivered to the apical brush border to facilitate fluid and electrolyte uptake. Maintenance of these apical transporters requires both targeted delivery and regulated membrane recycling...
March 6, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254379/new-natural-amino-acid-bearing-prodrugs-boost-pterostilbene-s-oral-pharmacokinetic-and-distribution-profile
#11
Michele Azzolini, Andrea Mattarei, Martina La Spina, Michele Fanin, Giacomo Chiodarelli, Matteo Romio, Mario Zoratti, Cristina Paradisi, Lucia Biasutto
The biomedical effects of the natural phenol pterostilbene are of great interest but its bioavailability is negatively affected by the phenolic group in position 4' which is an ideal target for the conjugative enzymes of phase II metabolism. We report the synthesis and characterization of prodrugs in which the hydroxyl moiety is reversibly protected as a carbamate ester linked to the N-terminus of a natural amino acid. Prodrugs comprising amino acids with hydrophobic side chains were readily absorbed after intragastric administration to rats...
February 27, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193569/analysis-of-the-expression-of-nlrp3-and-aim2-in-periapical-lesions-with-apical-periodontitis-and-microbial-analysis-outside-the-apical-segment-of-teeth
#12
Shujun Ran, Bin Liu, Shensheng Gu, Zhe Sun, Jingping Liang
OBJECTIVE: To detect the distribution and expression levels of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) and the absent in Melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasomes in periapical lesions and to analyse the possible microbial stimuli outside of teeth. DESIGN: The distribution of NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasomes in sixteen periapical lesions was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Meanwhile, the relative gene expression levels of NLRP3 and AIM2 in sixteen periapical lesions and three health periodontal tissue were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
February 6, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182666/direct-protein-introduction-into-plant-cells-using-a-multi-gas-plasma-jet
#13
Yuki Yanagawa, Hiroaki Kawano, Tomohiro Kobayashi, Hidekazu Miyahara, Akitoshi Okino, Ichiro Mitsuhara
Protein introduction into cells is more difficult in plants than in mammalian cells, although it was reported that protein introduction was successful in shoot apical meristem and leaves only together with a cell-penetrating peptide. In this study, we tried to introduce superfolder green fluorescent protein (sGFP)-fused to adenylate cyclase as a reporter protein without a cell-penetrating peptide into the cells of tobacco leaves by treatment with atmospheric non-thermal plasmas. For this purpose, CO2 or N2 plasma was generated using a multi-gas plasma jet...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161696/l-carnitine-ameliorates-the-decrease-of-aquaporin-2-levels-in-rats-with-cisplatin-induced-kidney-injury
#14
Jianjun Gao, Zhaoyan Gu, Min Li, Yongxing Xu, Yuehua Gao, Jiamei Wei, Boran Liang, Yu Na
BACKGROUND: It has been found that L-carnitine ameliorated cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. However, the detailed role of L-carnitine in improving the renal urinary concentration function in cisplatin-induced AKI is not fully understood. METHODS: In this study, 30 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 5 groups: control, cisplatin (CIS), L-carnitine (CAR), L-carnitine plus cisplatin (CAR + CIS), and cisplatin plus L-carnitine (CIS + CAR) groups...
February 4, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126001/serology-reveals-heterogeneity-of-plasmodium-falciparum-transmission-in-northeastern-south-africa-implications-for-malaria-elimination
#15
Joseph Biggs, Jaishree Raman, Jackie Cook, Khumbulani Hlongwana, Chris Drakeley, Natashia Morris, Ishen Serocharan, Eunice Agubuzo, Philip Kruger, Aaron Mabuza, Alpheus Zitha, Elliot Machaba, Maureen Coetzee, Immo Kleinschmidt
BACKGROUND: It is widely acknowledged that modifications to existing control interventions are required if South Africa is to achieve malaria elimination. Targeting indoor residual spraying (IRS) to areas where cases have been detected is one strategy currently under investigation in northeastern South Africa. This seroprevalence baseline study, nested within a targeted IRS trial, was undertaken to provide insights into malaria transmission dynamics in South Africa and evaluate whether sero-epidemiological practices have the potential to be routinely incorporated into elimination programmes...
January 26, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103777/role-of-iodine-in-metabolism
#16
Szybiński Zbigniew
The natural resources of iodine are seawater, seaweeds and saltpeter-nitrate deposits in Chile. Over 1/3 of the global population is exposed to iodine deficiency, especially in the mountains. Iodine is a component of the thyroid hormones and a strong antioxidant with electric potential of -0.54 V. Iodine as iodide is taken up by the thyroid gland, gastric mucosa, salivary glands and mammary glands in pregnant and breast-feeding women. The transport of iodine to the thyroid gland is regulated by specific enzymes: Natrium-Iodine Symporter, Na+/K+ATP-ase, Pendrin and Apical Iodine Transporter...
January 19, 2017: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098291/investigation-into-the-bioavailability-of-milk-protein-derived-peptides-with-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-inhibitory-activity-using-caco-2-cell-monolayers
#17
Isabelle M E Lacroix, Xiu-Min Chen, David D Kitts, Eunice C Y Li-Chan
In recent years, peptides derived from a variety of dietary proteins have been reported to exhibit inhibitory activity against the dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP-IV) enzyme, a target in the management of type 2 diabetes. While much attention has been given to the production and identification of peptides with DPP-IV inhibitory activity from food proteins, particularly dairy proteins, little is known on the bioavailability of these molecules. In this study, the stability and transport of five previously identified milk-derived peptides (LKPTPEGDL, LPYPY, IPIQY, IPI and WR) and a whey protein isolate (WPI) digest with DPP-IV-inhibitory activity were investigated using Caco-2 cell monolayers as a model system for human intestinal absorption...
January 18, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067280/increase-in-%C3%AE-tubulin-modifications-in-the-neuronal-processes-of-hippocampal-neurons-in-both-kainic-acid-induced-epileptic-seizure-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Hang Thi Vu, Hiroyasu Akatsu, Yoshio Hashizume, Mitsutoshi Setou, Koji Ikegami
Neurodegeneration includes acute changes and slow-developing alterations, both of which partly involve common cellular machinery. During neurodegeneration, neuronal processes are impaired along with dysregulated post-translational modifications (PTMs) of cytoskeletal proteins. In neuronal processes, tubulin undergoes unique PTMs including a branched form of modification called glutamylation and loss of the C-terminal tyrosine residue and the penultimate glutamic acid residue forming Δ2-tubulin. Here, we investigated the state of two PTMs, glutamylation and Δ2 form, in both acute and slow-developing neurodegenerations, using a newly generated monoclonal antibody, DTE41, which had 2-fold higher affinity to glutamylated Δ2-tubulin, than to unmodified Δ2-tubulin...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063342/linking-genomic-responses-of-gonads-with-reproductive-impairment-in-marine-medaka-oryzias-melastigma-exposed-chronically-to-the-chemopreventive-and-antifouling-agent-3-3-diindolylmethane-dim
#19
Lianguo Chen, Doris W T Au, Chenyan Hu, Weipeng Zhang, Bingsheng Zhou, Lin Cai, John P Giesy, Pei-Yuan Qian
3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) has been promoted as an effective chemopreventive and antifouling additive. However, the concurrent risks or side effects of DIM are not fully understood, especially on tissues responsive to estrogen. Therefore, this study employed marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) as a test model to evaluate relative safety and explore mechanisms of toxic action of DIM on development and function of gonad after chronic (28days) aqueous exposure to relatively low doses (0μg/L or 8.5μg/L). Integration of comprehensive toxicogenomic analysis at the transcriptome and proteome levels with apical endpoints, such as production of eggs and swimming performance of larvae, elucidated the molecular linkage in gonad from bottom up along the reproductive adverse outcome pathway...
February 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043194/differential-regulation-of-intestinal-efflux-transporters-by-pregnancy-in-mice
#20
Jamie E Moscovitz, Gabriel Yarmush, Guadalupe Herrera-Garcia, Grace L Guo, Lauren M Aleksunes
1. In the intestines, the nuclear receptors farnesoid X receptor (Fxr) and pregnane X receptor (Pxr) regulate the transcription of metabolizing enzymes and transporters that dictate the absorption of nutrients and xenobiotics. 2. Here, we sought to determine whether Fxr and Pxr signaling pathways are disrupted in response to high-circulating concentrations of steroid hormones late in pregnancy leading to altered transporter expression. To test this, ileum were collected from virgin and pregnant C57BL/6 mice on gestation days 14, 17 and 19...
January 3, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
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