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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209109/resveratrol-modifies-biliary-secretion-of-cholephilic-compounds-in-sham-operated-and-cholestatic-rats
#1
Eva Dolezelova, Alena Prasnicka, Jolana Cermanova, Alejandro Carazo, Lucie Hyrsova, Milos Hroch, Jaroslav Mokry, Michaela Adamcova, Alena Mrkvicova, Petr Pavek, Stanislav Micuda
AIM: To investigate the effect of resveratrol on biliary secretion of cholephilic compounds in healthy and bile duct-obstructed rats. METHODS: Resveratrol (RSV) or saline were administered to rats by daily oral gavage for 28 d after sham operation or reversible bile duct obstruction (BDO). Bile was collected 24 h after the last gavage during an intravenous bolus dose of the Mdr1/Mrp2 substrate azithromycin. Bile acids, glutathione and azithromycin were measured in bile to quantify their level of biliary secretion...
November 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203884/a-homeostatic-apical-microtubule-network-shortens-cells-for-epithelial-folding-via-a-basal-polarity-shift
#2
Michiko Takeda, Mustafa M Sami, Yu-Chiun Wang
Epithelial folding is typically driven by localized actomyosin contractility. However, it remains unclear how epithelia deform when myosin levels are low and uniform. In the Drosophila gastrula, dorsal fold formation occurs despite a lack of localized myosin changes, while the fold-initiating cells reduce cell height following basal shifts of polarity via an unknown mechanism. We show that cell shortening depends on an apical microtubule network organized by the CAMSAP protein Patronin. Prior to gastrulation, microtubule forces generated by the minus-end motor dynein scaffold the apical cell cortex into a dome-like shape, while the severing enzyme Katanin facilitates network remodelling to ensure tissue-wide cell size homeostasis...
December 4, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203545/bordetella-pertussis-adenylate-cyclase-toxin-disrupts-functional-integrity-of-bronchial-epithelial-layers
#3
Shakir Hasan, Nikhil Nitin Kulkarni, Arni Asbjarnarson, Irena Linhartova, Radim Osicka, Peter Sebo, Gudmundur H Gudmundsson
Airway epithelium restricts penetration of inhaled pathogens into the underlying tissue and plays a crucial role in innate immune defense against respiratory infections. The whooping cough agent, Bordetella pertussis, adheres to ciliated cells of human airway epithelium and subverts its defense functions through the action of secreted toxins and other virulence factors. We have examined the impact of B. pertussis infection and of adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) action on the functional integrity of air-liquid interface (ALI)-cultured human bronchial epithelial cells...
December 4, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175367/spatial-heterogeneity-of-glycogen-and-its-metabolizing-enzymes-in-aspergillus-nidulans-hyphal-tip-cells
#4
Shunsuke Masuo, Airi Komatsuzaki, Norio Takeshita, Eriko Ito, Okazoe Takaaki, Shengmin Zhou, Naoki Takaya
Glycogen is a homopolymer of glucose and a ubiquitous cellular-storage carbon. This study investigated which Aspergillus nidulans genes are involved in glycogen metabolism. Gene disruptants of predicted glycogen synthase (gsyA) and glycogenin (glgA) genes accumulated less cellular glycogen than the wild type strain, indicating that GsyA and GlgA synthesize glycogen similarly to other eukaryotes. Meanwhile, gene disruption of gphA encoding glycogen phosphorylase increased the amount of glycogen to a higher degree than wild type during the stationary phase that accompanies carbon-source limitation...
November 22, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159133/integration-of-novel-approaches-demonstrates-simultaneous-metabolic-inactivation-and-car-mediated-hepatocarcinogenesis-of-a-nitrification-inhibitor
#5
Jessica L LaRocca, Reza J Rasoulpour, B Bhaskar Gollapudi, David L Eisenbrandt, Lynea A Murphy, Matthew J LeBaron
Nitrapyrin, a nitrification inhibitor, produces liver tumors in mice at high doses. Several experiments were performed to investigate molecular, cellular, and apical endpoints to define the key events leading to the tumor formation. These data support a mode-of-action (MoA) characterized by constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) nuclear receptor activation, increased hepatocellular proliferation leading to hepatocellular foci and tumor formation. Specifically, nitrapyrin induced a dose-related increase in the Cyp2b10/CAR-associated transcript and protein...
2017: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114258/ethylene-mediates-alkaline-induced-rice-growth-inhibition-by-negatively-regulating-plasma-membrane-h-atpase-activity-in-roots
#6
Haifei Chen, Quan Zhang, Hongmei Cai, Fangsen Xu
pH is an important factor regulating plant growth. Here, we found that rice was better adapted to low pH than alkaline conditions, as its growth was severely inhibited at high pH, with shorter root length and an extreme biomass reduction. Under alkaline stress, the expression of genes for ethylene biosynthesis enzymes in rice roots was strongly induced by high pH and exogenous ethylene precursor ACC and ethylene overproduction in etol1-1 mutant aggravated the alkaline stress-mediated inhibition of rice growth, especially for the root elongation with decreased cell length in root apical regions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103663/takotsubo-cardiomyopathy-precipitated-by-opiate-withdrawal
#7
Peter C Olson, Vratika Agarwal, James C Lafferty, Soad Bekheit
INTRODUCTION: Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy is a transient non-ischemic cardiomyopathy usually characterized by apical ballooning of the left ventricle, with electrocardiographic changes and enzyme release, without evidence of obstructive coronary artery disease. Typically seen in stress induced situations, in post-menopausal females, this condition may have a predilection for patients with dependency disorders. CASE: The following is a case in which Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy was induced by withdrawal from opiate medications...
November 2, 2017: Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079048/cytokine-expression-of-stem-cells-originating-from-the-apical-complex-and-coronal-pulp-of-immature-teeth
#8
Ki Hoon Joo, Je Seon Song, Seunghye Kim, Hyo-Seol Lee, Mijeong Jeon, Seong-Oh Kim, Jae-Ho Lee
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to measure and compare the expression levels of cytokines from developing apical complex cells (DACCs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) of the immature tooth. METHODS: DPSC-conditioned medium (CM) and DACCs-CM were obtained from human young teeth, and 174 cytokines secreted from each CM were identified and compared. A cytokine membrane array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to measure and compare the expression levels of the cytokines...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032143/effects-of-cr-vi-on-ca-2-atpase-activity-in-the-earthworm-eisenia-andrei
#9
Marta Boeri, Caterina Oliveri, Corrado Camurati, Aldo Viarengo, Susanna Sforzini
The effect of Cr(VI) as a soil contaminant on the edaphic worm Eisenia andrei was studied by evaluating the activity of Ca(2+)-ATPase in the intestinal mucosa. In eukaryotes, Ca(2+)-ATPase is a key mediator of cell signaling although comparatively little is known about its activity in earthworms. Size and anatomical constraints (i.e. small and complex) led us to develop and optimize a cyto-biochemical method to measure Ca(2+)-ATPase activity in earthworms. The principal site of enzyme activity was found to be the post clitellar intestinal tract; immunohistochemistry then identified plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA ATPase) in the apical area of the intestinal epithelium...
December 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022073/the-contribution-of-cell-wall-composition-in-the-expansion-of-camellia-sinensis-seedlings-roots-in-response-to-aluminum
#10
Masoumeh Safari, Faezeh Ghanati, Mohammad Reza Safarnejad, Najmeh Ahmadian Chashmi
Treatment with aluminum triggers a unique response in tea seedlings resulting in biochemical modification of the cell wall, regulation of the activity of the loosening agents, and elongation of root. Unlike most terrestrial plants, tea (Camellia sinensis L.) responds to aluminum (Al) through the promotion of its root elongation; but the real mechanism(s) behind this phenomenon is not well understood. A plausible relationship between the modifications of the cell wall and the promotion of root elongation was examined in tea seedlings treated for 8 days with 400 µM Al...
October 11, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992023/garlic-diallyl-disulfide-and-diallyl-trisulfide-mitigates-effects-of-pro-oxidant-induced-cellular-stress-and-has-immune-modulatory-function-in-lps-stimulated-porcine-epithelial-cells
#11
N Horn, G Miller, K M Ajuwon, O Adeola
The objective of the current study was to determine if garlic-derived diallyl disulfide (DADS) and diallyl trisulfide (DATS) could mitigate oxidative and endotoxin stress, using an intestinal porcine epithelial cell (IPEC-J2) model. The experiment was arranged as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial of DADS + DATS (0 or 18 µM), pro-oxidant stressor (hydrogen peroxide at 0 or 100 µM), and endotoxin stressor (lipopolysaccharide [LPS] at 0 or 10 µg/mL) with 8 replicates per treatment. Cells were incubated with DADS + DATS for 18 h, LPS for 6 h, then with hydrogen peroxide for 3 h...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954627/increased-rhamm-expression-relates-to-ovarian-cancer-progression
#12
Stephanie T Buttermore, Mitchel S Hoffman, Ambuj Kumar, Anne Champeaux, Santo V Nicosia, Patricia A Kruk
BACKGROUND: Elevated hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor (RHAMM) has been reported to contribute to disease progression, aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis in multiple cancer types, however, RHAMM's role in ovarian cancer (OC) has not been elucidated. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the role for RHAMM in epithelial OC. RESULTS: Despite little to no expression in normal ovarian surface epithelium, western immunoblotting, immunohistochemical staining and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay showed elevated RHAMM levels in clinical tissue sections, omental metastasis and urine specimens of serous OC patients, as well as in cell lysates...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940493/cytosolic-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenases-play-crucial-roles-in-controlling-cold-induced-sweetening-and-apical-dominance-of-potato-solanum-tuberosum-l-tubers
#13
Tengfei Liu, Hui Fang, Jun Liu, Stephen Reid, Juan Hou, Tingting Zhou, Zhendong Tian, Botao Song, Conghua Xie
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is an important enzyme that functions in producing energy and supplying intermediates for cellular metabolism. Recent researches indicate that GAPDHs have multiple functions beside glycolysis. However, little information is available for functions of GAPDHs in potato. Here, we identified 4 putative cytosolic GAPDH genes in potato genome and demonstrated that the StGAPC1, StGAPC2, and StGAPC3, which are constitutively expressed in potato tissues and cold inducible in tubers, encode active cytosolic GAPDHs...
September 20, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939687/rna-seq-profiling-of-intestinal-expression-of-xenobiotic-processing-genes-in-germ-free-mice
#14
Zidong Donna Fu, Felcy P Selwyn, Julia Yue Cui, Curtis D Klaassen
Intestinal bacteria can affect xenobiotic metabolism through both direct bacterial enzyme-catalyzed modification of the xenobiotics and indirect alterations of the expression of host genes. To determine how intestinal bacteria affect the expression of host xenobiotic-processing genes (XPGs), the mRNA profiles of 303 XPGs were characterized by RNA sequencing in four intestinal sections and compared with that in the liver from adult male conventional (CV) and germ-free (GF) mice. Fifty-four XPGs were not expressed in the intestine of either CV or GF mice...
December 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919500/hydrogen-and-oxygen-trapping-at-the-h-cluster-of-fefe-hydrogenase-revealed-by-site-selective-spectroscopy-and-qm-mm-calculations
#15
Stefan Mebs, Ramona Kositzki, Jifu Duan, Leonie Kertess, Moritz Senger, Florian Wittkamp, Ulf-Peter Apfel, Thomas Happe, Sven T Stripp, Martin Winkler, Michael Haumann
[FeFe]-hydrogenases are superior hydrogen conversion catalysts. They bind a cofactor (H-cluster) comprising a four-iron and a diiron unit with three carbon monoxide (CO) and two cyanide (CN(-)) ligands. Hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2) binding at the H-cluster was studied in the C169A variant of [FeFe]-hydrogenase HYDA1, in comparison to the active oxidized (Hox) and CO-inhibited (Hox-CO) species in wildtype enzyme. (57)Fe labeling of the diiron site was achieved by in vitro maturation with a synthetic cofactor analogue...
September 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917145/cell-wall-pectin-methyl-esterification-and-organic-acids-of-root-tips-involve-in-aluminum-tolerance-in-camellia-sinensis
#16
Dongqin Li, Zaifa Shu, Xiaoli Ye, Jiaojiao Zhu, Junting Pan, Weidong Wang, Pinpin Chang, Chuanlei Cui, Jiazhi Shen, Wanping Fang, Xujun Zhu, Yuhua Wang
Tea plant (Camellia sinensis (O.) Kuntze) can survive from high levels of aluminum (Al) in strongly acidic soils. However, the mechanism driving its tolerance to Al, the predominant factor limiting plant growth in acid condition, is still not fully understood. Here, two-year-old rooted cuttings of C. sinensis cultivar 'Longjingchangye' were used for Al resistance experiments. We found that the tea plants grew better in the presence of 0.4 mM Al than those grew under lower concentration of Al treatments (0 and 0...
September 7, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861731/adaptation-of-intestinal-and-bile-acid-physiology-accompany-the-metabolic-benefits-following-ileal-interposition-in-the-rat
#17
Ping Zhao, Donna Wendt, Sean Z Goodin, Shwetha Ravichandran, Tara E Chouinard, April D Strader
PURPOSE: Ileal interposition recapitulates many of the metabolic improvements similar to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. We aimed to determine whether the metabolic improvements seen following ileal interposition were conferred solely by the interposed segment by examining changes in neighboring intestinal segments as well as the composition of the bile acid pool. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male rats were treated with either sham or ileal interposition surgeries. Glucose tolerance tests, body composition analysis, polymer chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and mass spectrometry were done after the surgeries...
August 31, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860154/etiolated-stem-branching-is-a-result-of-systemic-signaling-associated-with-sucrose-level
#18
Bolaji Babajide Salam, Siva Kumar Malka, Xiaobiao Zhu, Huiling Gong, Carmit Ziv, Paula Teper-Bamnolker, Naomi Ori, Jiming Jiang, Dani Eshel
The potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber is a swollen stem. Sprouts growing from the tuber nodes represent loss of apical dominance and branching. Long cold storage induces loss of tuber apical dominance and results in secondary branching. Here, we show that a similar branching pattern can be induced by short heat treatment of the tubers. Detached sprouts were induced to branch by the heat treatment only when attached to a parenchyma cylinder. Grafting experiments showed that the scion branches only when grafted onto heat- or cold-treated tuber parenchyma, suggesting that the branching signal is transmitted systemically from the bud-base parenchyma to the grafted stem...
October 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840273/a-kinetic-characterization-of-the-gill-na-k-atpase-from-the-semi-terrestrial-mangrove-crab-cardisoma-guanhumi-latreille-1825-decapoda-brachyura
#19
Daniel L Farias, Malson N Lucena, Daniela P Garçon, Fernando L Mantelatto, John C McNamara, Francisco A Leone
We provide a kinetic characterization of (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity in a posterior gill microsomal fraction from the semi-terrestrial mangrove crab Cardisoma guanhumi. Sucrose density gradient centrifugation reveals two distinct membrane fractions showing considerable (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity, but also containing other microsomal ATPases. The (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase, notably immuno-localized to the apical region of the epithelial pillar cells, and throughout the pillar cell bodies, has an M r of around 110 kDa and hydrolyzes ATP with V M = 146...
October 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810288/overexpression-of-demeter-a-dna-demethylase-promotes-early-apical-bud-maturation-in-poplar
#20
Daniel Conde, Alicia Moreno-Cortés, Christopher Dervinis, José M Ramos-Sánchez, Matias Kirst, Mariano Perales, Pablo González-Melendi, Isabel Allona
The transition from active growth to dormancy is critical for the survival of perennial plants. We identified a DEMETER-like (CsDML) cDNA from a winter-enriched cDNA subtractive library in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.), an economically and ecologically important species. Next, we characterized this DNA demethylase and its putative ortholog in the more experimentally tractable hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × alba), under the signals that trigger bud dormancy in trees. We performed phylogenetic and protein sequence analysis, gene expression profiling, and 5-methyl-cytosine methylation immunodetection studies to evaluate the role of CsDML and its homolog in poplar, PtaDML6...
August 15, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
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