keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Apical enzyme

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444165/proinflammatory-mediators-related-to-orthodontically-induced-periapical-root-resorption-in-rat-mandibular-molars
#1
Yoshiro Matsumoto, Siripen Sringkarnboriboon, Takashi Ono
Objectives: The early phase of orthodontic tooth movement involves acute inflammatory response that may induce bone resorption. The aim of this study was to localize and quantify cells in the periodontium expressing proinflammatory mediators during orthodontically induced periapical root resorption of the rat mandibular molars. Materials and methods: The levels of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1) α and β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), inflammatory enzymes cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2, and their product prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the root resorption site were compared to those in the corresponding area of the untreated periodontal ligament (PDL) of physiologically drifting teeth...
April 22, 2017: European Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402691/arabidopsis-aspartic-proteases-a36-and-a39-play-roles-in-plant-reproduction
#2
Hui Gao, Rui Li, Yi Guo
Aspartic proteases (Aps, EC3.4.23) are one of the four major mechanistic classes of proteolytic enzymes with the conserved motifs Asp-Thr/Ser-Gly (DT/SG) at the active site and are activated at acidic pH. In Arabidopsis, 69 genes were identified as coding putative aspartic proteinases. However, little is known about most of these enzymes. Recently, we characterized two novel Arabidopsis Aps genes, A36 and A39, which encode two putative GPI-anchored pollen-high-expressed Aps. a36 a39 mutants display significant abortion...
April 12, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389071/high-mobility-group-box-1-is-associated-with-the-inflammatory-infiltration-and-alveolar-bone-destruction-in-rats-experimental-periapical-lesions
#3
Lingshuang Liu, Jing Deng, Qiuxia Ji, Bin Peng
INTRODUCTION: This study was conducted to observe the immunohistochemical localization of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and its receptor, Toll-like receptor 4 (TRL4), in the development of periapical lesions induced in rats. The possible role of these molecules in the pathogenesis of periapical lesions was also explored. METHODS: Periapical lesions developed within 35 days after mandibular first molar pulp exposure in Wistar rats. The animals were randomly killed at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days after pulp exposure...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348258/flower-development-from-morphodynamics-to-morphomechanics
#4
Ursula Abad, Massimiliano Sassi, Jan Traas
The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is a small population of stem cells that continuously generates organs and tissues. We will discuss here flower formation at the SAM, which involves a complex network of regulatory genes and signalling molecules. A major downstream target of this network is the extracellular matrix or cell wall, which is a local determinant for both growth rates and growth directions. We will discuss here a number of recent studies aimed at analysing the link between cell wall structure and molecular regulation...
May 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316376/the-role-of-intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-in-inflammatory-disorders-of-gastrointestinal-tract
#5
REVIEW
Jan Bilski, Agnieszka Mazur-Bialy, Dagmara Wojcik, Janina Zahradnik-Bilska, Bartosz Brzozowski, Marcin Magierowski, Tomasz Mach, Katarzyna Magierowska, Tomasz Brzozowski
Over the past few years, the role of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) as a crucial mucosal defence factor essential for maintaining gut homeostasis has been established. IAP is an important apical brush border enzyme expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and secreted both into the intestinal lumen and into the bloodstream. IAP exerts its effects through dephosphorylation of proinflammatory molecules including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), flagellin, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) released from cells during stressful events...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315467/hce-t-cell-based-permeability-model-a-well-maintained-or-a-highly-variable-barrier-phenotype
#6
Marina Juretić, Bisera Jurišić Dukovski, Iva Krtalić, Stephan Reichl, Biserka Cetina-Čižmek, Jelena Filipović-Grčić, Jasmina Lovrić, Ivan Pepić
The most extensively characterized human-derived cell line used in transcorneal permeability studies, in terms of passive transcellular and paracellular transport, transporter expression and metabolic enzymes, is the immortalized human corneal epithelial cell line (HCE-T). The purpose of this study is to describe the changes in the HCE-T barrier phenotype in vitro when valid cultivation conditions, in accordance with the standardized HCE-T cell-based model protocol, were employed. Evaluation of the structural and functional barrier properties revealed two different HCE-T barrier phenotypes, depending on the polycarbonate membrane pore size...
March 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315445/evaluation-of-pept1-transport-of-food-derived-antihypertensive-peptides-ile-pro-pro-and-leu-lys-pro-using-in-vitro-ex-vivo-and-in-vivo-transport-models
#7
John P Gleeson, David J Brayden, Sinéad M Ryan
Ile-Pro-Pro (IPP) and Leu-Lys-Pro (LKP) are food-derived antihypertensive peptides which inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and may have potential to attenuate hypertension. There is debate over their mechanism of uptake across small intestinal epithelia, but paracellular and PepT1 carrier-mediated uptake are thought to be important routes. The aim of this study was to determine their routes of intestinal permeability using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo intestinal models. The presence of an apical side pH of 6...
March 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302729/phagocytosis-dependent-ketogenesis-in-retinal-pigment-epithelium
#8
Juan Reyes-Reveles, Anuradha Dhingra, Desiree Alexander, Alvina Bragin, Nancy J Philp, Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia
Daily, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) ingests a bolus of lipid and protein in the form of phagocytized photoreceptor outer segments (OS). The RPE like the liver expresses enzymes required for fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and ketogenesis. This suggests that these pathways play a role in the disposal of lipids from ingested OS as well as providing a mechanism for recycling metabolic intermediates back to the outer retina. In this study, we examined whether OS phagocytosis was linked to ketogenesis. We found increased levels of β-hydroxy-butyrate (β-HB) in the apical media following ingestion of OS by human fetal RPE and ARPE19 cells cultured on transwell inserts...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296590/transport-of-a-novel-angiotensin-i-converting-enzyme-inhibitory-peptide-ala-his-leu-leu-across-human-intestinal-epithelial-caco-2-cells
#9
Ying Li, Jiangtao Zhao, Xiaoli Liu, Xiudong Xia, Ying Wang, Jianzhong Zhou
The transport behavior and absorption mechanism of Ala-His-Leu-Leu (AHLL) intestinal absorption in Caco-2 cell monolayers were clarified systemically. The safe absorptive concentration of AHLL was 200 μg/mL, which was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay. The permeation of AHLL was concentration dependent in a bidirectional transfer and reached a plateau at 90 min. The efflux ratio was above 0.5, suggesting that AHLL was absorbed by both active transport and passive diffusion...
March 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293320/stnf-r-levels-apical-periodontitis-linked-to-coronary-heart-disease
#10
Rajnish K Singhal, Balwant Rai
BACKGROUND: Different studies have implicated the exposure to systemic conditions in the aetiology of cardiovascular diseases like chronic inflammation including chronic periodontitis. AIM: The present study has been conducted to examine whether biomarker sTNF-R was elevated in apical periodontitis as sTNF-R is a systemic marker of inflammation and has been identified as risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: sTNF-R levels were measured in 52 patients with apical periodontitis (M:F::25:27), aged 20-45 years and in 20 control patients without periodontitis (M:F::10:10, aged 20-48 years)...
March 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290237/multiple-nutritional-factors-and-the-risk-of-hashimoto-s-thyroiditis
#11
Shiqian Hu, Margaret P Rayman
BACKGROUND: Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is considered to be the most common autoimmune disease. It is currently accepted that genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, and immune disorders contribute to its development. With regard to nutritional factors, evidence implicates high iodine intake and deficiencies of selenium and iron with a potential relevance of vitamin D status. To elucidate the role of nutritional factors in the risk, pathogenesis, and treatment of HT, PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched for publications on iodine, iron, selenium, and vitamin D and risk/treatment of HT...
April 6, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287259/adaptation-in-caco-2-human-intestinal-cell-differentiation-and-phenolic-transport-with-chronic-exposure-to-blackberry-rubus-sp-extract
#12
Benjamin W Redan, George P Albaugh, Craig S Charron, Janet A Novotny, Mario G Ferruzzi
As evidence mounts for a health-protective role of dietary phenolics, the importance of understanding factors influencing bioavailability increases. Recent evidence has suggested chronic exposure to phenolics may impact their absorption and metabolism. To explore alterations occurring from chronic dietary exposure to phenolics, Caco-2 cell monolayers were differentiated on Transwell inserts with 0-10 μM blackberry (Rubus sp.) total phenolics extracts rich in anthocyanins, flavonols, and phenolic acids. Following differentiation, apical to basolateral transport of phenolics was assessed from an acute treatment of 100 μM blackberry phenolics from 0 to 4 h...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265783/t84-monolayers-are-superior-to-caco-2-as-a-model-system-of-colonocytes
#13
Sarah Devriese, Lien Van den Bossche, Sophie Van Welden, Tom Holvoet, Iris Pinheiro, Pieter Hindryckx, Martine De Vos, Debby Laukens
Colonic adenocarcinoma-derived Caco-2 and T84 epithelial cell lines are frequently used as in vitro model systems of functional epithelial barriers. Both are utilised interchangeably despite evidence that differentiated Caco-2 cells are more reminiscent of small intestinal enterocytes than of colonocytes, whereas differentiated T84 cells are less well characterised. The aim of this study was, therefore, to further characterise and compare differentiated Caco-2 and T84 cells. The objectives were to (1) compare the brush border morphology, (2) measure the expression of enterocyte- and colonocyte-specific genes and (3) compare their response to butyrate, which is dependent on the monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), an apical protein expressed primarily in colonocytes...
March 6, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264818/trafficking-ion-transporters-to-the-apical-membrane-of-polarized-intestinal-enterocytes
#14
Amy Christine Engevik, James R Goldenring
Epithelial cells lining the gastrointestinal tract require distinct apical and basolateral domains to function properly. Trafficking and insertion of enzymes and transporters into the apical brush border of intestinal epithelial cells is essential for effective digestion and absorption of nutrients. Specific critical ion transporters are delivered to the apical brush border to facilitate fluid and electrolyte uptake. Maintenance of these apical transporters requires both targeted delivery and regulated membrane recycling...
March 6, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254379/new-natural-amino-acid-bearing-prodrugs-boost-pterostilbene-s-oral-pharmacokinetic-and-distribution-profile
#15
Michele Azzolini, Andrea Mattarei, Martina La Spina, Michele Fanin, Giacomo Chiodarelli, Matteo Romio, Mario Zoratti, Cristina Paradisi, Lucia Biasutto
The biomedical effects of the natural phenol pterostilbene are of great interest but its bioavailability is negatively affected by the phenolic group in position 4' which is an ideal target for the conjugative enzymes of phase II metabolism. We report the synthesis and characterization of prodrugs in which the hydroxyl moiety is reversibly protected as a carbamate ester linked to the N-terminus of a natural amino acid. Prodrugs comprising amino acids with hydrophobic side chains were readily absorbed after intragastric administration to rats...
February 27, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193569/analysis-of-the-expression-of-nlrp3-and-aim2-in-periapical-lesions-with-apical-periodontitis-and-microbial-analysis-outside-the-apical-segment-of-teeth
#16
Shujun Ran, Bin Liu, Shensheng Gu, Zhe Sun, Jingping Liang
OBJECTIVE: To detect the distribution and expression levels of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) and the absent in Melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasomes in periapical lesions and to analyse the possible microbial stimuli outside of teeth. DESIGN: The distribution of NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasomes in sixteen periapical lesions was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Meanwhile, the relative gene expression levels of NLRP3 and AIM2 in sixteen periapical lesions and three health periodontal tissue were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
February 6, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182666/direct-protein-introduction-into-plant-cells-using-a-multi-gas-plasma-jet
#17
Yuki Yanagawa, Hiroaki Kawano, Tomohiro Kobayashi, Hidekazu Miyahara, Akitoshi Okino, Ichiro Mitsuhara
Protein introduction into cells is more difficult in plants than in mammalian cells, although it was reported that protein introduction was successful in shoot apical meristem and leaves only together with a cell-penetrating peptide. In this study, we tried to introduce superfolder green fluorescent protein (sGFP)-fused to adenylate cyclase as a reporter protein without a cell-penetrating peptide into the cells of tobacco leaves by treatment with atmospheric non-thermal plasmas. For this purpose, CO2 or N2 plasma was generated using a multi-gas plasma jet...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161696/l-carnitine-ameliorates-the-decrease-of-aquaporin-2-levels-in-rats-with-cisplatin-induced-kidney-injury
#18
Jianjun Gao, Zhaoyan Gu, Min Li, Yongxing Xu, Yuehua Gao, Jiamei Wei, Boran Liang, Yu Na
BACKGROUND: It has been found that L-carnitine ameliorated cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. However, the detailed role of L-carnitine in improving the renal urinary concentration function in cisplatin-induced AKI is not fully understood. METHODS: In this study, 30 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 5 groups: control, cisplatin (CIS), L-carnitine (CAR), L-carnitine plus cisplatin (CAR + CIS), and cisplatin plus L-carnitine (CIS + CAR) groups...
2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126001/serology-reveals-heterogeneity-of-plasmodium-falciparum-transmission-in-northeastern-south-africa-implications-for-malaria-elimination
#19
Joseph Biggs, Jaishree Raman, Jackie Cook, Khumbulani Hlongwana, Chris Drakeley, Natashia Morris, Ishen Serocharan, Eunice Agubuzo, Philip Kruger, Aaron Mabuza, Alpheus Zitha, Elliot Machaba, Maureen Coetzee, Immo Kleinschmidt
BACKGROUND: It is widely acknowledged that modifications to existing control interventions are required if South Africa is to achieve malaria elimination. Targeting indoor residual spraying (IRS) to areas where cases have been detected is one strategy currently under investigation in northeastern South Africa. This seroprevalence baseline study, nested within a targeted IRS trial, was undertaken to provide insights into malaria transmission dynamics in South Africa and evaluate whether sero-epidemiological practices have the potential to be routinely incorporated into elimination programmes...
January 26, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103777/role-of-iodine-in-metabolism
#20
Szybiński Zbigniew
The natural resources of iodine are seawater, seaweeds and saltpeter-nitrate deposits in Chile. Over 1/3 of the global population is exposed to iodine deficiency, especially in the mountains. Iodine is a component of the thyroid hormones and a strong antioxidant with electric potential of -0.54 V. Iodine as iodide is taken up by the thyroid gland, gastric mucosa, salivary glands and mammary glands in pregnant and breast-feeding women. The transport of iodine to the thyroid gland is regulated by specific enzymes: Natrium-Iodine Symporter, Na+/K+ATP-ase, Pendrin and Apical Iodine Transporter...
January 19, 2017: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
keyword
keyword
39844
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"