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Carbohydrate maldigestion

Anam Omer, Eamonn M M Quigley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Péter Varjú, Nelli Farkas, Péter Hegyi, András Garami, Imre Szabó, Anita Illés, Margit Solymár, Áron Vincze, Márta Balaskó, Gabriella Pár, Judit Bajor, Ákos Szűcs, Orsolya Huszár, Dániel Pécsi, József Czimmer
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional digestive tract disorders, e.g. functional bloating, carbohydrate maldigestion and intolerances, are very common disorders frequently causing significant symptoms that challenge health care systems. A low Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides and Polyols (FODMAP) diet is one of the possible therapeutic approaches for decreasing abdominal symptoms and improving quality of life. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to meta-analyze data on the therapeutic effect of a low-FODMAP diet on symptoms of IBS and quality of life and compare its effectiveness to a regular, standard IBS diet with high FODMAP content, using a common scoring system, the IBS Symptom Severity Score (IBS-SSS)...
2017: PloS One
Ali Rezaie, Michelle Buresi, Anthony Lembo, Henry Lin, Richard McCallum, Satish Rao, Max Schmulson, Miguel Valdovinos, Salam Zakko, Mark Pimentel
OBJECTIVES: Breath tests (BTs) are important for the diagnosis of carbohydrate maldigestion syndromes and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). However, standardization is lacking regarding indications for testing, test methodology and interpretation of results. A consensus meeting of experts was convened to develop guidelines for clinicians and research. METHODS: Pre-meeting survey questions encompassing five domains; indications, preparation, performance, interpretation of results, and knowledge gaps, were sent to 17 clinician-scientists, and 10 attended a live meeting...
May 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Rafail I Kushak, Harland S Winter, Timothy M Buie, Stephen B Cox, Caleb D Phillips, Naomi L Ward
OBJECTIVES: There is evidence that symptoms of maldigestion or malabsorption in autistic individuals are related to changes in the indigenous microbiota. Analysis of colonic bacteria has revealed microbial dysbiosis in children with autism; however, characteristics of the duodenal microbiome are not well described. In the present study the microbiome of the duodenal mucosa of subjects with autism was evaluated for dysbiosis, bacteria overgrowth, and microbiota associated with carbohydrate digestion...
May 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Antone R Opekun, Albert M Balesh, Harold T Shelby
Sucrase insufficiency has been observed in children with of functional bowel disorders (FBD) and symptoms of dietary carbohydrate intolerance may be indistinguishable from those of FBD. A two-phase (13)C-sucrose/(13)C-glucose breath test ((13)C-S/GBT) was used to assess sucrase activity because disaccharidase assays are seldom performed in adults. When (13)C-sucrose is hydrolyzed to liberate monosaccharides, oxidation to (13)CO2 is a proportional indicator of sucrase activity. Subsequently, (13)C-glucose oxidation rate was determined after a secondary substrate ingestion (superdose) to adjust for individual habitus effects (Phase II)...
2016: BioMed Research International
Christiane Schäfer
Apart from allergic conditions, carbohydrate malassimiliations (sugar metabolism disorders) are classified within the group of food intolerances. These dose-dependent, yet non-immunological reactions require gastroenterological or internal diagnosis following nutritional therapy. Intolerances to carbohydrates such as lactose (milk sugar) and fructose (fruit sugar) in addition to sugar alcohols (sorbitol, mannitol, lactitol etc.) have been gaining increasing attention in recent decades as they are the cause of a wide range of gastrointestinal symptoms...
June 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Francesco Di Pierro, Alexander Bertuccioli, Eleonora Marini, Leandro Ivaldi
AIM: Lactose and complex carbohydrates maldigestion, common food intolerances due to low gut content of α- and β-galactosidase, lead to abdominal symptoms including pain, diarrhea, bloating, flatulence, and cramping. Commonly, intolerant patients are advised by physicians to avoid the offending foods (dairy foods, cereals, beans, etc). This food-limiting option, however, has possible nutritional risks. We have therefore evaluated the impact of using pure, enteric-coated α- plus β-galactosidase on gut symptoms in intolerant subjects instead of avoidance of the offending foods...
2015: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
Satya Vati Rana, Aastha Malik
Hydrogen breath tests are widely used to explore pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and carbohydrate malabsorption are disorders detected by these tests that have been proposed to be of great importance for symptoms of GI diseases. Glucose hydrogen breath test is more acceptable for diagnosis of SIBO whereas lactose and fructose hydrogen breath tests are used for detection of lactose and fructose maldigestion respectively. Lactulose hydrogen breath test is also used widely to measure the orocecal transit time for GI motility...
October 2014: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
Mahdi Amiri, Hassan Y Naim
Miglustat is an oral medication for treatment of lysosomal storage diseases such as Gaucher disease type I and Niemann Pick disease type C. In many cases application of Miglustat is associated with symptoms similar to those observed in intestinal carbohydrate malabsorption. Previously, we have demonstrated that intestinal disaccharidases are inhibited immediately by Miglustat in the intestinal lumen. Nevertheless, the multiple functions of Miglustat hypothesize long term effects of Miglustat on intracellular mechanisms, including glycosylation, maturation and trafficking of the intestinal disaccharidases...
November 2014: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Elham Afghani, Amitasha Sinha, Vikesh K Singh
Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by long-standing inflammation of the pancreas, which results in fibrosis and the gradual loss of pancreatic function. The loss of islets and acinar cells results in diabetes and exocrine insufficiency, respectively. Exocrine insufficiency can result in maldigestion of fat, protein, and carbohydrate as well as vitamins and minerals. Patients may present with variable severity of disease, from mild to severe. The diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis can be challenging, especially in patients with early or mild disease who have few to no morphologic abnormalities on standard abdominal imaging studies...
June 2014: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Luis A Moreno Aznar, Pilar Cervera Ral, Rosa M Ortega Anta, Juan José Díaz Martín, Eduard Baladia, Julio Basulto, Silvia Bel Serrat, Iris Iglesia Altaba, Ana M López-Sobaler, María Manera, Elena Rodríguez Rodríguez, Alba M Santaliestra Pasías, Nancy Babio, Jordi Salas-Salvadó
Milk products contain proteins of high biologic value and digestibility; they also contain fat, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals, specially calcium and phosphorus. Diversification of milk products consumption allows a high consumptiom of the above mentioned products, optimizing nutrient intake. In Spain, food consumption of milk products lower than the recommended amounts was observed in 20 to 40 % of the children and 30 to 45 % of the adults. Milk products represent 44 to 70 % of calcium intake in the Spanish population...
November 2013: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Dominika Kolodziejczak, Britta Spanier, Ramona Pais, Judith Kraiczy, Tamara Stelzl, Kurt Gedrich, Christian Scherling, Tamara Zietek, Hannelore Daniel
The intestinal transporter PEPT1 mediates the absorption of di- and tripeptides originating from breakdown of dietary proteins. Whereas mice lacking PEPT1 did not display any obvious changes in phenotype on a high-carbohydrate control diet (HCD), Pept1(-/-) mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) showed a markedly reduced weight gain and reduced body fat stores. They were additionally protected from hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. Energy balance studies revealed that Pept1(-/-) mice on HFD have a reduced caloric intake, no changes in energy expenditure, but increased energy content in feces...
May 15, 2013: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Mahdi Amiri, Hassan Y Naim
Miglustat is an oral medication that has approved indication for type I Gaucher disease and Niemann pick disease type C. Usually treatment with Miglustat is associated with occurrence of gastrointestinal side effects similar to carbohydrate maldigestion symptoms. Here, we studied the direct influence of Miglustat on the enzymatic function of the major disaccharidases of the intestinal epithelium. Our findings show that an immediate effect of Miglustat is its interference with carbohydrate digestion in the intestinal lumen via reversible inhibition of disaccharidases that cleave α-glycosidically linked carbohydrates...
November 2012: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Christopher D Knudsen, Jack A Di Palma
OBJECTIVE: Breath tests that measure hydrogen (H2) have been judged reliable for the detection of lactose maldigestion (LM) and fructose malabsorption (FM). Recently, methane (CH4) testing has been advocated and measurement of CH4 in addition to H2 has been shown to increase the diagnostic accuracy for LM. PURPOSE: This study was designed to consider the additional yield from CH4 measurement in patients tested for LM and FM. METHODS: Patients reported for testing after an overnight fast, not smoking and with their prior evening meal carbohydrate restricted...
May 2012: Southern Medical Journal
Kwong Ming Fock
BACKGROUND: Functional dyspepsia has been defined by Rome III as the presence of one or more chronic dyspepsia symptoms in the absence of any organic, systemic, or metabolic disease that is likely to explain the symptoms. Delayed gastric emptying, antral hypomotility and altered intestinal motility, decreased gastric accommodation, H.pylori infection, enhanced visceral sensitivity, abnormal duodenal sensitivity to acid, carbohydrate maldigestion and psychological factors have all been identified in subgroups of patients with functional dyspepsia...
April 2011: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Nedeljko Radlović
Disaccharide intolerance presents a pathogenic heterogeneous and most complex clinical entity. It usually occurs due to primary or secondary deficit of disaccharide activity, and rarely because of disorders of absorption or monomer metabolism. Symptomatology of disaccharide maldigestion and/or malabsorption depends on the severity of the basic disorder, the level of its overload and the patient's age. In the youngest children, due to a rapid gastrointestinal transit and a low compensatory capacity of the colon, osmotic-fermentative diarrhoea forms the basis of clinical features...
November 2010: Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo
Abelardo Aguilera, Liliana Gonzalez-Espinoza, Rosa Codoceo, Maria del Carmen Jara, Mario Pavone, Maria Auxiliadora Bajo, Gloria Del Peso, Olga Celadilla, Maria Victoria Martínez, Manuel López-Cabrera, Rafael Selgas
Bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome (BBOS) is an important cause of gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities. Proinflammatory cytokines (PICs) are excessively produced and accumulate because of kidney failure in dialysis patients who experience chronic infections such as BBOS. We explored the association between GL function, BBOS, and the malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis (MIA) syndrome. We studied GI malabsorption and maldigestion by analyzing fecal starch, sugar, fat, and nitrogen; intestinal protein permeability (alpha1-antitrypsin fecal clearance); and fecal chymotrypsin...
2010: Advances in Peritoneal Dialysis
Andrew Szilagyi, Ian Shrier, George Chong, Jung Sung Je, Sunghoon Park, Debra Heilpern, Catherine Lalonde, Louis-Francois Cote, Byong Lee
BACKGROUND: The genetics of intestinal lactase divide the world's population into two phenotypes: the ability (a dominant trait) or inability (a recessive trait) to digest lactose. A prebiotic effect of lactose may impact the colonic flora of these phenotypes differently. OBJECTIVE: To detect and evaluate the effects of lactose on subjects divided according to their ability to digest lactose. METHODS: A total of 57 healthy maldigesters (n=30) and digesters (n=27) completed diet questionnaires, genetic and breath hydrogen testing, and quantitative stool analysis for species of bacteria...
November 2009: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, Journal Canadien de Gastroenterologie
Thomas Thymann, Hanne K Møller, Barbara Stoll, Ann Cathrine F Støy, Randal K Buddington, Stine B Bering, Bent B Jensen, Oluyinka O Olutoye, Richard H Siggers, Lars Mølbak, Per T Sangild, Douglas G Burrin
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains the most severe gastrointestinal disorder in preterm infants. It is associated with the initiation of enteral nutrition and may be related to immature carbohydrate digestive capacity. We tested the hypothesis that a formula containing maltodextrin vs. a formula containing lactose as the principal source of carbohydrate would predispose preterm pigs to a higher NEC incidence. Cesarean-derived preterm pigs were given total parenteral nutrition for 48 h followed by total enteral nutrition with a lactose-based (n = 11) or maltodextrin-based (n = 11) formula for 36 h...
December 2009: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Meredith Corlew-Roath, Jack A Di Palma
BACKGROUND: The role of carbohydrate maldigestion or malabsorption remains unclear in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of identifying lactose maldigestion (LM) and fructose malabsorption (FM) on patients with and without IBS. METHODS: Patients who received lactose and fructose challenge testing formed the study group. Carbohydrate challenge testing was performed with 50 g lactose and 25 g fructose...
October 2009: Southern Medical Journal
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