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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691681/the-impact-of-the-ryan-white-hiv-aids-medical-case-management-program-on-hiv-clinical-outcomes-a-longitudinal-study
#1
Julia D López, Enbal Shacham, Tawnya Brown
Medical case management (MCM) is a core medical service in The Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program and aims to provide treatment and care for people living with HIV/AIDS by engaging, identifying and eliminating barriers to HIV care. Little research has examined the impact of this intervention; therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the how MCM affects HIV clinical outcomes. The study took place at a midwestern, outpatient infectious diseases clinic. This study utilized a longitudinal, retrospective study design to analyze to the impact of MCM engagement on HIV clinical outcomes (viral loads, CD4 counts) from 2009 to 2015 as a time-varying predictor...
April 24, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691363/detection-of-circulating-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-specific-dna-by-droplet-digital-pcr-for-vaccine-evaluation-in-challenged-monkeys-and-tb-diagnosis
#2
Neng Song, Yang Tan, Lingyun Zhang, Wei Luo, Qing Guan, Ming-Zhe Yan, Ruiqi Zuo, Weixiang Liu, Feng-Ling Luo, Xiao-Lian Zhang
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) is emerging as a more serious pathogen due to the increased multidrug-resistant TB and co-infection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The development of an effective and sensitive detection method is urgently needed for bacterial load evaluation in vaccine development, early TB diagnosis, and TB treatment. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) is a newly developed sensitive PCR method for the absolute quantification of nucleic acid concentrations. Here, we used ddPCR to quantify the circulating virulent M...
April 24, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690783/prevalence-of-depressive-syndrome-and-their-association-with-demographic-and-clinical-characteristics-in-chinese-hiv-patients
#3
Yuan-Yuan Wang, Jin Zhao, Qinge Zhang, Yan Zhang, Baolian Bai, Chee H Ng, Gabor S Ungvari, Fu-Jun Jia, Yu-Tao Xiang
To investigate the prevalence of depressive syndrome and their association with demographic and clinical characteristics in Chinese patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A total of 416 patients with HIV infection were consecutively screened and enrolled in the study. Depressive syndrome was assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). The proportion of depressive syndrome was 36.3%. Patients with depressive syndrome were younger, and were more likely to have severe anxiety symptoms, religious beliefs and psychological treatment...
April 24, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689541/management-of-long-term-complications-of-hiv-disease-focus-on-cardiovascular-disease
#4
Judith S Currier
HIV-infected individuals on effective antiretroviral therapy experience a number of non-AIDS noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, more frequently than uninfected individuals. Common pathways for such diseases are chronic immune activation and inflammation, including the prolonged inflammation associated with lower nadir CD4+ cell count. Prevention and treatment of non-AIDS conditions include treatment of traditional risk factors, lifestyle interventions, earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy, and potentially therapies specifically targeting inflammation and immune activation (eg, statins)...
April 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689540/investigational-antiretroviral-drugs-what-is-coming-down-the-pipeline
#5
Roy M Gulick
Over the past 30 years, antiretroviral drug regimens for treating HIV infection have become more effective, safer, and more convenient. Despite 31 currently approved drugs, the pipeline of investigational HIV drugs remains full. Investigational antiretroviral drugs include the nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase translocation inhibitor (NRTTI) MK-8591, a long-acting compound that could be dosed once weekly. Investigational nonnucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) include doravirine, which is active in vitro against NNRTI-resistant HIV and was potent and well-tolerated when used in combination with a dual-nucleoside analogue RTI (nRTI) backbone in treatment-naive individuals...
April 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689538/opioids-and-hiv-infection-from-pain-management-to-addiction-treatment
#6
Chinazo O Cunningham
HIV-infected persons are more likely to have chronic pain, receive opioid analgesic treatment, receive higher doses of opioids, and to have substance use disorders and mental illness compared with the general population, putting them at increased risk for opioid use disorder. Management of opioid use in HIV-infected individuals can be complex, and the limited data on opioid treatment in this population are conflicting with regard to its effect on HIV outcomes. Buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorder improves HIV outcomes and other outcomes...
April 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689080/beyond-syndromic-management-opportunities-for-diagnosis-based-treatment-of-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#7
Nigel J Garrett, Farzana Osman, Bhavna Maharaj, Nivashnee Naicker, Andrew Gibbs, Emily Norman, Natasha Samsunder, Hope Ngobese, Nireshni Mitchev, Ravesh Singh, Salim S Abdool Karim, Ayesha B M Kharsany, Koleka Mlisana, Anne Rompalo, Adrian Mindel
INTRODUCTION: In light of the limited impact the syndromic management approach has had on the global sexually transmitted infection (STI) epidemic, we assessed a care model comprising point-of-care (POC) STI testing, immediate treatment, and expedited partner therapy (EPT) among a cohort of young women at high HIV risk in South Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: HIV negative women presenting for STI care underwent POC testing for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), and swabs were sent for NG culture and susceptibility testing...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689065/effect-of-monotherapy-with-darunavir-cobicistat-on-viral-load-and-semen-quality-of-hiv-1-patients
#8
Miguel A López-Ruz, Miguel A López-Zúñiga, María Carmen Gonzalvo, Antonio Sampedro, Juan Pasquau, Carmen Hidalgo, Javier Rosario, Jose Antonio Castilla
Many patients previously using darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) (800/100mg) have switched to darunavir/cobicistat (DRV/C) (800/150 mg) either as part of triple therapy (ART) or as monotherapy with DRV (mDRV). The latter approach continues to be used in some countries for patients receiving long-term treatment. However, to date, the behaviour of DRV/C in the seminal compartment has not been analysed. This study explores how the combination behaves in monotherapy, with respect to the control of viral load and seminal quality...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688862/the-cost-effectiveness-of-oral-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-and-early-antiretroviral-therapy-in-the-presence-of-drug-resistance-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-san-francisco
#9
Mingwang Shen, Yanni Xiao, Libin Rong, Lauren Ancel Meyers, Steven E Bellan
BACKGROUND: Poor adherence to either antiretroviral treatment (ART) or pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can promote drug resistance, though this risk is thought to be considerably higher for ART. In the population of men who have sex with men (MSM) in San Francisco, PrEP coverage reached 9.6% in 2014 and has continued to rise. Given the risk of drug resistance and high cost of second-line drugs, the costs and benefits of initiating ART earlier while expanding PrEP coverage remain unclear...
April 24, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688139/a-multi-site-community-randomized-trial-of-community-health-workers-to-provide-counseling-and-support-for-patients-newly-entering-hiv-care-in-rural-ethiopia-study-design-and-baseline-implementation
#10
Alan R Lifson, Sale Workneh, Abera Hailemichael, Richard F MacLehose, Keith J Horvath, Rose Hilk, Lindsey Fabian, Anne Sites, Tibebe Shenie
BACKGROUND: Although HIV therapy is delivered to millions globally, treatment default (especially soon after entering care) remains a challenge. Community health workers (CHWs) can provide many services for people with HIV, including in rural and resource-limited settings. OBJECTIVES: We designed and implemented a 32 site community randomized trial throughout southern Ethiopia to assess an intervention using CHWs to improve retention in HIV care. METHODS: Sixteen district hospital and 16 local health center HIV clinics were randomized 1:1 to be intervention or control sites...
April 24, 2018: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686897/childhood-adversities-and-physical-and-mental-health-outcomes-in-adults-living-with-hiv-findings-from-the-ontario-hiv-treatment-network-cohort-study
#11
Tsegaye Bekele, Evan J Collins, Robert G Maunder, Sandra Gardner, Sergio Rueda, Jason Globerman, Thao Lan Le, Jon Hunter, Anita Benoit, Sean B Rourke, The Ohtn Cohort Study Team
We sought to estimate the prevalence of childhood adversity and examine its relationship with health outcomes among people living with HIV. Study participants included 1409 adults living with HIV and receiving care in Toronto, Canada. Data on childhood adversity, health behaviors, HIV outcome measures, depression, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) were collected through face-to-face interviews and medical records. Statistical analyses included multivariable linear and logistic regression modeling. The prevalence of any childhood adversity was 71% (individual types ranged from 11% to 44%) and higher prevalence was associated with younger age, Indigenous or African/Caribbean/Black ethnicity, lower socioeconomic status, and higher rates of cigarette smoking and nonmedicinal drug use...
2018: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686882/pyosalpinges-after-hysterosalpingography-in-a-patient-with-lower-genital-tract-infection-and-managed-by-laparoscopic-surgery-in-a-resource-low-tertiary-hospital-case-report-and-literature-review
#12
Thomas Obinchemti Egbe, Fidelia Mbi Kobenge, Metogo Mbengono Junette Arlette, Eugene Belley-Priso
Background: Pyosalpinges (a complication of pelvic inflammatory disease) is infection of the fallopian tubes and the morbidity associated with it has major health implications. We are reporting a case of pyosalpinges diagnosed after hysterosalpingography and managed by laparoscopic surgery at the Douala General Hospital, Cameroon. Case presentation: A 29-year-old single woman, an assistant nurse of the Douala tribe in Cameroon. She is G1P0010 and came to our attention because of secondary infertility of three years duration...
2018: Fertility Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686657/naphthoquinone-derivatives-as-scaffold-to-develop-new-drugs-for-tuberculosis-treatment
#13
Priscila C B Halicki, Laís A Ferreira, Kelly C G De Moura, Paula F Carneiro, Karina P Del Rio, Tatiane Dos S C Carvalho, Maria do C F R Pinto, Pedro E A da Silva, Daniela F Ramos
Despite being a curable disease, tuberculosis (TB) remains a public health problem worldwide mainly due to lengthy treatment, as well as its toxic effects, TB/HIV co-infection and the emergence of resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. These barriers reinforcing the need for development of new antimicrobial agents, that ideally should reduce the time of treatment and be active against susceptible and resistant strains. Quinones are compounds found in natural sources and among them, the naphthoquinones show antifungal, antiparasitic, and antimycobacterial activity...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686151/analysis-of-clinical-drug-drug-interaction-data-to-predict-uncharacterized-interaction-magnitudes-between-antiretroviral-drugs-and-co-medications
#14
Felix Stader, Hannah Kinvig, Manuel Battegay, Saye Khoo, Andrew Owen, Marco Siccardi, Catia Marzolini
Despite their high potential for drug-drug-interactions (DDI), clinical DDI studies of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) are often lacking, because the full range of potential interactions cannot feasibly or pragmatically be studied, with some high-risk DDI studies also ethically difficult to undertake. Thus, a robust method to screen and to predict the likelihood of DDIs is required.We developed a method to predict DDIs based on two parameters: the degree of metabolism by specific enzymes such as CYP3A and the strength of an inhibitor or inducer...
April 23, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685863/a-mobile-gaming-intervention-to-increase-adherence-to-antiretroviral-treatment-for-youth-living-with-hiv-development-guided-by-the-information-motivation-and-behavioral-skills-model
#15
Laura Whiteley, Larry Brown, Michelle Lally, Nicholas Heck, Jacob J van den Berg
BACKGROUND: Highly active combination antiretroviral treatment has been shown to markedly improve the health of HIV-infected adolescents and young adults. Adherence to antiretroviral treatment leads to decreased morbidity and mortality and decreases the number of hospitalizations. However, these clinical achievements can only occur when young persons with HIV are adherent to care. Unfortunately, adolescents and young adults have poorer rates of adherence to antiretroviral medications and poorer rates of retention in care than older adults...
April 23, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685693/effect-of-aspirin-treatment-on-abacavir-associated-platelet-hyperreactivity-in-hiv-infected-patients
#16
Emanuela Falcinelli, Daniela Francisci, Elisabetta Schiaroli, Pietro Minuz, Sara Orsini, Lisa Malincarne, Manuela Sebastiano, Anna Maria Mezzasoma, Maria Bruna Pasticci, Giuseppe Guglielmini, Franco Baldelli, Paolo Gresele
BACKGROUND: Ischemic cardiovascular events are a relevant cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients. Use of abacavir (ABC), a nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor, has been associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and with platelet hyperreactivity. We explored whether low-dose aspirin reduces in vivo platelet activation and platelet hyperreactivity induced by ABC in HIV-infected subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study forty HIV-infected patients with ABC-associated platelet hyperreactivity, defined by a score based on laboratory variables reflecting in vivo platelet activation and ex vivo platelet hyperresponsiveness, were randomized to aspirin 100 mg daily for 15 days with subsequent cross-over to placebo for additional 15 days or placebo for 15 days with subsequent cross-over to aspirin for further 15 days...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685329/cohort-study-of-hiv-positive-and-negative-methamphetamine-users
#17
Vladimir W Spolsky, Jason Clague, Vivek Shetty
BACKGROUND: The effects of methamphetamine (MA) on caries have been well documented. Little, however, is known about its effects on the periodontium. The authors conducted this study to determine the prevalence and severity of periodontal disease in an urban population of HIV-positive MA users. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted in one of the most populous urban areas of Los Angeles County, California, beset with high rates of MA use. Participants were recruited by a combination of street outreach methods, referral from drug treatment centers, and word of mouth...
April 20, 2018: Journal of the American Dental Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685284/hiv-prospective-memory-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-concentrations-of-quinolinic-acid-and-phosphorylated-tau
#18
Albert M Anderson, David Croteau, Ronald J Ellis, Debra Rosario, Michael Potter, Gilles J Guillemin, Bruce J Brew, Steven Paul Woods, Scott L Letendre
There is mounting evidence that prospective memory (PM) is impaired during HIV infection despite treatment. In this prospective study, 66 adults (43 HIV+ and 23 HIV negative) underwent PM assessment and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination. HIV+ participants had significantly lower PM but significantly higher CSF concentrations of CXCL10 and quinolinic acid (QUIN). Higher CSF phosphorylated Tau (pTau) was associated with worse PM. In a secondary analysis excluding outliers, higher QUIN correlated with higher pTau...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685113/differences-in-response-to-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-positive-patients-being-treated-for-tuberculosis-in-eastern-europe-western-europe-and-latin-america
#19
Yanink Caro-Vega, Anna Schultze, Anne Marie W Efsen, Frank A Post, Alexander Panteleev, Aliaksandr Skrahin, Jose M Miro, Enrico Girardi, Daria N Podlekareva, Jens D Lundgren, Juan Sierra-Madero, Javier Toibaro, Jaime Andrade-Villanueva, Simona Tetradov, Jan Fehr, Joan Caylà, Marcelo H Losso, Robert F Miller, Amanda Mocroft, Ole Kirk, Brenda Crabtree-Ramírez
BACKGROUND: Efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens are preferred for treatment of adult HIV-positive patients co-infected with tuberculosis (HIV/TB). Few studies have compared outcomes among HIV/TB patients treated with efavirenz or non-efavirenz containing regimens. METHODS: HIV-positive patients aged ≥16 years with a diagnosis of tuberculosis recruited to the TB:HIV study between Jan 1, 2011, and Dec 31, 2013 in 19 countries in Eastern Europe (EE), Western Europe (WE), and Latin America (LA) who received ART concomitantly with TB treatment were included...
April 23, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684092/weekends-off-efavirenz-based-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-infected-children-adolescents-and-young-adults-breather-extended-follow-up-results-of-a-randomised-open-label-non-inferiority-trial
#20
Anna Turkova, Cecilia L Moore, Karina Butler, Alexandra Compagnucci, Yacine Saïdi, Victor Musiime, Annet Nanduudu, Elizabeth Kaudha, Tim R Cressey, Suwalai Chalermpantmetagul, Karen Scott, Lynda Harper, Samuel Montero, Yoann Riault, Torsak Bunupuradah, Alla Volokha, Patricia M Flynn, Rosa Bologna, Jose T Ramos Amador, Steven B Welch, Eleni Nastouli, Nigel Klein, Carlo Giaquinto, Deborah Ford, Abdel Babiker, Diana M Gibb
BACKGROUND: Weekends off antiretroviral therapy (ART) may help engage HIV-1-infected young people facing lifelong treatment. BREATHER showed short cycle therapy (SCT; 5 days on, 2 days off ART) was non-inferior to continuous therapy (CT) over 48 weeks. Planned follow-up was extended to 144 weeks, maintaining original randomisation. METHODS: BREATHER was an open-label, non-inferiority trial. Participants aged 8-24yrs with virological suppression on efavirenz-based first-line ART were randomised 1:1, stratified by age and African/non-African sites, to remain on CT or change to SCT...
2018: PloS One
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