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ultraendurance, performance, athlete

I Martínez-Navarro, O Chiva-Bartoll, B Hernando, E Collado, V Porcar, C Hernando
PURPOSE: The present study aimed to explore whether Blood Pressure (BP) and Heart Rate Variability (HRV) responsiveness to orthostatism, jointly with Executive Function (EF) performance, were diminished following an ultraendurance mountain race. Besides, we wanted to assess whether hydration status was related to either performance or the abovementioned alterations. METHODS: Fifty recreational ultraendurance athletes participating in the Penyagolosa Trails CSP115 race (118 km and a total positive elevation of 5439 m) were evaluated before and after the competition...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Michael S Davis, Katherine K Williamson
Gastritis and gastric ulcers are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in canine athletes. Although the majority of scientific work on this condition has been performed in ultraendurance racing sled dogs, this condition has been identified in other canine athletes, including sled dogs competing in shorter events and dogs performing off-leash explosive detection duties. The cause of the syndrome is unknown, but current hypotheses propose a link between exercise-induced hyperthermia and loss of gastric mucosal barrier function as an early event in the pathogenesis...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Daniel A Judelson, James R Bagley, Jennifer M Schumacher, Lenny D Wiersma
Ultraendurance open water swimming presents unique physiological challenges. This case study aimed to describe cardiovascular and perceptual responses during a successful solo channel swim. Investigators followed a female swimmer's Catalina Channel (32.2 km) crossing, monitoring water temperature (T(water)) and air temperature (T(air)), distance remaining (DR), average velocity, and heart rate (HR(swim)) at regular intervals. Every 24 minutes, the swimmer reported perceived pain (on a scale of 0-10), rating of perceived exertion (RPE [scale of 6-20]), perceived thermal sensation (scale 0-8), and thirst (scale 1-9)...
September 2015: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez
Many studies have researched the psychophysiological response and energy balance of athletes in numerous ultraendurance probes, but none has investigated an ultraendurance mountain running event. The current study aims to analyze changes in blood lactate concentration, rating of perceived exertion, heart rate, heart rate variability, and energy balance after the performance of an ultraendurance mountain running event. The parameters in the 6 participants who finished the event were analyzed (age, 30.8 ± 3...
March 2015: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Günther Neumayr, Hannes Gänzer, Wolfgang Sturm, Rudolf Pfister, Günther Mitterbauer, Helmut Hörtnagl
The physiological effects of ultraendurance exercise are poorly investigated. The present case report describes the exercise intensity of ultraendurance cycling and its physiological impacts on various organ functions in an amateur cyclist performing the Ötztal Radmarathon twice en bloque in a circuit of 2 identical laps (distance 460 km; cumulative altitude difference 11,000 m). In a pre-race laboratory test the athlete's performance capacity was measured as the maximal aerobic power (VO2max= 70
March 2002: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Mohannad Abou Shoak, Beat Knechtle, Patrizia Knechtle, Christoph Alexander Rüst, Thomas Rosemann, Romuald Lepers
BACKGROUND: Participation and performance trends have been investigated in ultramarathons and ultratriathlons but not in ultracycling. The aim of the present study was to investigate (1) participation and performance trends in ultraendurance cyclists, (2) changes in cycling speed over the years, and (3) the age of the fastest male and female ultraendurance cyclists. METHODS: Participation and performance trends in the 5000 km Race Across America (RAAM) and in two RAAM-qualifier races - the 818 km Furnace Creek 508 in the United States and the 715 km Swiss Cycling Marathon in Europe - were investigated using linear regression analyses and analyses of variance...
2013: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
Mohannad Abou Shoak, Beat Knechtle, Christoph Alexander Rüst, Romuald Lepers, Thomas Rosemann
BACKGROUND: Participation and performance trends regarding the nationality of ultraendurance athletes have been investigated in the triathlon, but not in running. The present study aimed to identify the countries in which multistage ultramarathons were held around the world and the nationalities of successful finishers. METHODS: Finisher rates and performance trends of finishers in multistage ultramarathons held worldwide between 1992 and 2010 were investigated...
2013: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
Katrin Sigg, Beat Knechtle, Christoph Alexander Rüst, Patrizia Knechtle, Romuald Lepers, Thomas Rosemann
BACKGROUND: A recent study showed that European triathletes performed faster in Double Iron ultratriathlons than North American athletes. The present study analyzed triathletes participating in Double Iron ultratriathlons to determine the origin of the fastest Double Iron ultratriathletes, focusing on European countries. METHODS: Participation and performance trends of finishers in Double Iron ultratriathlons from 1985-2011 of the different countries were investigated...
2012: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
Shameemah Abrahams, Michael Posthumus, Malcolm Collins
PURPOSE: Endurance-running performance and joint range of motion (ROM) are both multifactorial phenotypes. A single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs172722 (C/T), in the COL5A1 3'-untranslated region (UTR) was shown to independently associate with both phenotypes. Two major functional forms of the COL5A1 3'-UTR have been identified and differ by 7 tightly linked polymorphisms that include rs12722 and a short tandem-repeat polymorphism (STRP rs71746744, -/AGGG). It has been proposed that STRP rs71746744 plays a role in the predicted secondary structures and mRNA stability of the 2 major forms of the COL5A1 3'-UTR, therefore implying a regulatory role...
May 2014: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Uwe Teutsch, Beat Knechtle, Christoph Alexander Rüst, Thomas Rosemann, Romuald Lepers
BACKGROUND: Participation and performance trends in age group athletes have been investigated in endurance and ultraendurance races in swimming, cycling, running, and triathlon, but not in long-distance inline skating. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in participation, age, and performance in the longest inline race in Europe, the Inline One-Eleven over 111 km, held between 1998 and 2009. METHODS: The total number, age distribution, age at the time of the competition, and race times of male and female finishers at the Inline One-Eleven were analyzed...
2013: International Journal of General Medicine
Samuel Haupt, Beat Knechtle, Patrizia Knechtle, Christoph Alexander Rüst, Thomas Rosemann, Romuald Lepers
The age-related changes in ultraendurance performance have been previously examined for running and triathlon but not mountain biking. The aims of this study were (i) to describe the performance trends and (ii) to analyze the age-related performance decline in ultraendurance mountain biking in a 120-km ultraendurance mountain bike race the "Swiss Bike Masters" from 1995 to 2009 in 9,325 male athletes. The mean (±SD) race time decreased from 590 ± 80 min to 529 ± 88 min for overall finishers and from 415 ± 8 min to 359 ± 16 min for the top 10 finishers, respectively...
2013: Research in Sports Medicine
Alain Marcel Bernheim, Christine Helena Attenhofer Jost, Michel Zuber, Monica Pfyffer, Burkhardt Seifert, Gabriella De Pasquale, Andre Linka, Anja Faeh-Gunz, Argelia Medeiros-Domingo, Beat Knechtle
PURPOSE: The ironman (IM) triathlon is a popular ultraendurance competition, consisting of 3.8 km of swimming, 180.2 km of cycling, and 42.2 km of running. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictors of IM race time, comparing echocardiographic findings, anthropometric measures, and training characteristics. METHODS: Amateur IM athletes (ATHL) participating in the Zurich IM race in 2010 were included. Participants were examined the day before the race by a comprehensive echocardiographic examination...
August 2013: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Christoph Alexander Rüst, Beat Knechtle, Thomas Rosemann, Romuald Lepers
PURPOSE: The sex difference in ultraendurance performance has been investigated in swimmers, runners, and triathletes but not in cyclists. The purpose of this study was to examine the sex difference in the longest ultra-cycling race in the world, the Race Across America (RAAM). METHODS: Cycling speed of female and male finishers in the RAAM between 1982 and 2012 was compared. RESULTS: A total of 452 athletes including 404 men (89.4%) and 48 women (10...
November 2013: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Evelyn Eichenberger, Beat Knechtle, Christoph Alexander Rüst, Alexander Rüst Christoph, Patrizia Knechtle, Romuald Lepers, Thomas Rosemann
The aims of the study were to [1] investigate the performance trends at the 'Zurich 12-h Swim' in Switzerland from 1996 to 2010; and [2] determine the gender difference in peak performance in ultraendurance swimming. In total, 113 male and 53 female swimmers competed in this indoor ultraendurance event while swimming in a heated pool. The number of male participants significantly increased (r² = 0.36, P = 0.04) over time while the participation of females remained unchanged (r² = 0.12, P = 0.26). In the age group < 19 years, the male swimmers achieved a significantly greater distance than the females (32...
October 31, 2012: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Eugene Sun Yim, Gianmichael Corrado
The applications of ultrasound in managing the clinical care of athletes have been expanding over the past decade. This review provides an analysis of the research that has been published regarding the use of ultrasound in athletes and focuses on how these emerging techniques can impact the clinical management of athletes by sports medicine physicians. Electronic database literature searches were performed using the subject terms 'ultrasound' and 'athletes' from the years 2003 to 2012. The following databases were searched: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus™...
August 1, 2012: Sports Medicine
Katherine Elizabeth Black, Paula Skidmore, Rachel Clare Brown
Food intolerance is becoming increasingly prevalent, and increasing numbers of athletes have celiac disease. This poses challenges as dietary recommendations for exercise are largely based on gluten-containing carbohydrate-rich foods. The K4 cycle race covers 384 km around the Coromandel Peninsula, New Zealand. Lack of sleep, darkness, and temperature variations pose a number of nutritional challenges. Limited food choices present those with celiac disease with even greater challenges. This case study describes the intakes of one such athlete during training and competing in the K4...
August 2012: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Christoph A Rüst, Beat Knechtle, Patrizia Knechtle, Andrea Wirth, Thomas Rosemann
We investigated, in 50 recreational male ultrarunners, the changes in body mass, selected hematological and urine parameters, and fluid intake during a 100-km ultramarathon. The athletes lost (mean and SD) 2.6 (1.8) % in body mass (p < 0.0001). Running speed was significantly and negatively related to the change in body mass (p < 0.05). Serum sodium concentration ([Na⁺]) and the concentration of aldosterone increased with increasing loss in body mass (p < 0.05). Urine-specific gravity increased (p < 0...
June 2012: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
B Knechtle, N P Hernández Morales, E Ruvalcaba González, A A Aguirre Gutierrez, J Noriega Sevilla, R Amézquita Gómez, A R Estrada Robledo, A L Marroquín Rodríguez, O Salas Fraire, J L Andonie, L C Lopez, G Kohler, T Rosemann
Prolonged endurance exercise over several days induces increase in extracellular water (ECW). We aimed to investigate an association between the increase in ECW and the change in aldosterone and vasopressin in a multistage ultraendurance triathlon, the 'World Challenge Deca Iron Triathlon' with 10 Ironman triathlons within 10 days. Before and after each Ironman, body mass, ECW, urinary [Na(+)], urinary [K(+)], urinary specific gravity, urinary osmolality and aldosterone and vasopressin in plasma were measured...
February 2012: Scottish Medical Journal
Katherine E Black, Paula M L Skidmore, Rachel C Brown
Endurance events>10 hr are becoming increasingly popular but provide numerous physiological challenges, several of which can be attenuated with optimal nutritional intakes. Previous studies in ultraendurance races have reported large energy deficits during events. The authors therefore aimed to assess nutritional intakes in relation to performance among ultraendurance cyclists. This observational study included 18 cyclists in a 384-km cycle race. At race registration each cyclist's support crew was provided with a food diary for their cyclist...
February 2012: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Beat Knechtle, Patrizia Knechtle, Christoph A Rüst, Thomas Rosemann, Romuald Lepers
Knechtle, B, Knechtle, P, Rüst, CA, Rosemann, T, and Lepers, R. Finishers and nonfinishers in the 'Swiss Cycling Marathon' to qualify for the 'Race across America.' J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3257-3263, 2011-We compared the characteristics of prerace anthropometry, previous experience, and training and support during the race in 39 finishers and 37 nonfinishers in the 'Swiss Cycling Marathon,' over 720 km. In this race, the cyclists intended to qualify for the 'Race across America,' the longest nonstop cycling race in the World from the West to the East of the USA...
December 2011: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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