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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918666/quantification-of-training-and-competition-loads-in-endurance-sports-methods-and-applications
#1
Iñigo Mujika
Training quantification is basic to evaluate an endurance athlete's responses to the training loads, ensure adequate stress/recovery balance and determine the relationship between training and performance. Quantifying both external and internal workload is important, because the external workload does not measure the biological stress imposed by the exercise sessions. Generally used quantification methods include retrospective questionnaires, diaries, direct observation and physiological monitoring, often based on the measurement of oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate concentration...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913948/branched-chain-amino-acids-administration-suppresses-endurance-exercise-related-activation-of-ubiquitin-proteasome-signaling-in-trained-human-skeletal-muscle
#2
Evgeny A Lysenko, Tatiana F Vepkhvadze, Egor M Lednev, Olga L Vinogradova, Daniil V Popov
We tested whether post exercise ingestion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA < 10 g) is sufficient to activate signaling associated with muscle protein synthesis and suppress exercise-induced activation of mechanisms associated with proteolysis in endurance-trained human skeletal muscle. Nine endurance-trained athletes performed a cycling bout with and without BCAA ingestion (0.1 g/kg). Post exercise ACC(Ser79/222) phosphorylation (endogenous marker of AMPK activity) was increased (~3-fold, P < 0...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895900/nutritional-implications-for-ultra-endurance-walking-and-running-events
#3
REVIEW
Eric Williamson
This paper examines the various nutritional challenges which athletes encounter in preparing for and participating in ultra-endurance walking and running events. Special attention is paid to energy level, performance, and recovery within the context of athletes' intake of carbohydrate, protein, fat, and various vitamins and minerals. It outlines, by way of a review of literature, those factors which promote optimal performance for the ultra-endurance athlete and provides recommendations from multiple researchers concerned with the nutrition and performance of ultra-endurance athletes...
2016: Extreme Physiology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895662/muscle-enriched-micrornas-isolated-from-whole-blood-are-regulated-by-exercise-and-are-potential-biomarkers-of-cardiorespiratory-fitness
#4
Joshua Denham, Priscilla R Prestes
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. Evidence indicating miRNAs influence exercise-induced health and performance adaptations is mounting. Circulating miRNAs are responsible for intercellular communication and could serve as biomarkers for disease and exercise-related traits. Such biomarkers would contribute to exercise screening, monitoring, and the development of personalized exercise prescription. Accordingly, we investigated the impact of long-term strenuous aerobic exercise training and a single bout of maximal aerobic exercise on five muscle-enriched miRNAs implicated in exercise adaptations (miR-1, miR-133a, miR-181a, miR-486, and miR-494)...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895542/effect-of-tart-cherry-juice-on-recovery-and-next-day-performance-in-well-trained-water-polo-players
#5
Rachel McCormick, Peter Peeling, Martyn Binnie, Brian Dawson, Marc Sim
BACKGROUND: Tart Montmorency cherries contain high concentrations of phytochemicals and anthocyanins, which have recently been linked to improved athletic recovery and subsequent performance. To date however, previous work reporting promising results has focused on land-based endurance sports, with any potential benefits to team sports remaining unknown. As such, this investigation set-out to examine the effect of supplemental tart cherry juice (CJ) on recovery and next day athletic performance in highly-trained water-based team sport athletes over seven days...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888580/biology-of-vo2-max-looking-under-the-physiology-lamp
#6
REVIEW
C Lundby, D Montero, M Joyner
In this review, we argue that several key features of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) should underpin discussions about the biological and reductionist determinants of its interindividual variability: (i) training-induced increases in VO2 max are largely facilitated by expansion of red blood cell volume and an associated improvement in stroke volume, which also adapts independent of changes in red blood cell volume. These general concepts are also informed by cross-sectional studies in athletes that have very high values for VO2 max...
November 7, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879166/sex-differences-in-release-of-cardiac-troponin-t-after-endurance-exercise
#7
Zhaowei Kong, Jinlei Nie, Hua Lin, Keith George, Gang Zhao, Haifeng Zhang, Tomas K Tong, Qingde Shi
CONTEXT: Post-exercise cardiac troponin release has been extensively described in athletic groups but little attention has been given to any role of sex in mediating this phenomnenon. OBJECTIVE: We compared the release of cardiac troponin T (cTnT) after endurance running in training-experience, biological-age and maturity-matched young male and female runners. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen male (training history: 2.3±1.0 yr; mean age: 16...
November 23, 2016: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863188/the-use-of-2-conditioning-programs-and-the-fitness-characteristics-of-police-academy-cadets
#8
Charles Cocke, Jay Dawes, Robin Marc Orr
CONTEXT:  Police academy training must physically prepare cadets for the rigors of their occupational tasks to prevent injury and allow them to adequately perform their duties. OBJECTIVE:  To compare the effects of 2 physical training programs on multiple fitness measures in police cadets. DESIGN:  Cohort study. SETTING:  Police training academy. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS:  We collected data from 70 male (age = 27...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858306/menthol-a-fresh-ergogenic-aid-for-athletic-performance
#9
Christopher J Stevens, Russ Best
The application of menthol has recently been researched as a performance-enhancing aid for various aspects of athletic performance including endurance, speed, strength and joint range of motion. A range of application methods has been used including a mouth rinse, ingestion of a beverage containing menthol or external application to the skin or clothing via a gel or spray. The majority of research has focussed on the use of menthol to impart a cooling sensation on athletes performing endurance exercise in the heat...
November 17, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854281/cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-peak-torque-differences-between-vegetarian-and-omnivore-endurance-athletes-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Heidi M Lynch, Christopher M Wharton, Carol S Johnston
In spite of well-documented health benefits of vegetarian diets, less is known regarding the effects of these diets on athletic performance. In this cross-sectional study, we compared elite vegetarian and omnivore adult endurance athletes for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and strength. Twenty-seven vegetarian (VEG) and 43 omnivore (OMN) athletes were evaluated using VO2 max testing on the treadmill, and strength assessment using a dynamometer to determine peak torque for leg extensions. Dietary data were assessed using detailed seven-day food logs...
November 15, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848162/characterizing-the-spectrum-of-right-ventricular-remodelling-in-response-to-chronic-training
#11
Marta Sitges, Beatriz Merino, Constatine Butakoff, Maria Sanz de la Garza, Carles Paré, Silvia Montserrat, Barbara Vidal, Manel Azqueta, Georgia Sarquella, Josep Antoni Gutierrez, Ramon Canal, Josep Brugada, Bart H Bijnens
The significance and spectrum of reduced right ventricular (RV) deformation, reported in endurance athletes, is unclear. To comprehensively analyze the cardiac performance at rest of athletes, especially focusing on integrating RV size and deformation to unravel the underlying triggers of this ventricular remodelling. Hundred professional male athletes and 50 sedentary healthy males of similar age were prospectively studied. Conventional echocardiographic parameters of all four chambers were obtained, as well as 2D echo-derived strain (2DSE) in the left (LV) and in the RV free wall with separate additional analysis of the RV basal and apical segments...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843418/effects-of-acute-carbohydrate-ingestion-on-anaerobic-exercise-performance
#12
Ben M Krings, Jaden A Rountree, Matthew J McAllister, Patrick M Cummings, Timothy J Peterson, Brent J Fountain, JohnEric W Smith
BACKGROUND: Carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation during endurance exercises has been shown to increase performance, but there is limited research with CHO supplementation during strength and conditioning exercises. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of various levels of CHO ingestion during acute testing sessions requiring participants to complete a strength and conditioning program designed for collegiate athletes. METHODS: Participants (n = 7) performed a series of exercises while ingesting an amino-acid electrolyte control (CON) or CON plus varying levels of CHO...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827793/preparticipation-predictors-for-championship-injury-and-illness-cohort-study-at-the-beijing-2015-international-association-of-athletics-federations-world-championships
#13
Toomas Timpka, Jenny Jacobsson, Victor Bargoria, Julien D Périard, Sébastien Racinais, Ola Ronsen, Karin Halje, Christer Andersson, Örjan Dahlström, Armin Spreco, Pascal Edouard, Juan-Manuel Alonso
OBJECTIVES: To determine preparticipation predictors of injury and illness at a major Athletics championship. METHODS: A cohort study design was used. Before the 2015 International Association of Athletics Federations World Championships in Athletics, all 207 registered national teams were approached about partaking in a study of preparticipation health; 50 teams accepted. The athletes (n=957) in the participating teams were invited to complete a preparticipation health questionnaire (PHQ)...
November 8, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822169/the-effect-of-six-days-of-dietary-nitrate-supplementation-on-performance-in-trained-crossfit-athletes
#14
Samuel J Kramer, Daniel A Baur, Maria T Spicer, Matthew D Vukovich, Michael J Ormsbee
BACKGROUND: While it is well established that dietary nitrate reduces the metabolic cost of exercise, recent evidence suggests this effect is maintained 24 h following the final nitrate dose when plasma nitrite levels have returned to baseline. In addition, acute dietary nitrate was recently reported to enhance peak power production. Our purpose was to examine whether chronic dietary nitrate supplementation enhanced peak power 24 h following the final dose and if this impacted performance in a heavily power-dependent sport...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813393/the-effect-of-a-short-term-training-period-on-physiological-parameters-and-running-performance-intensity-distribution-versus-constant-intensity-exercise
#15
Vicente J Clemente-Suárez, Athanasios A Dalamitros, Pantelis T Nikolaidis
BACKGROUND: This study compared the effect of two training strategies differing on the weekly intensity distribution on physiological parameters and running performance in moderately trained endurance athletes. METHODS: Thirty male athletes were equally divided into three groups, one following an increasing weekly aerobic intensity distribution (EXP1), one with constant weekly aerobic intensitydistribution (EXP2) and a control one, following a freely chosen program (CON)...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813391/physical-fitness-characteristics-of-adolescent-wushu-athletes
#16
Hsiao C Huang, Wen L Wu, Yu K Chang, I H Chu
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the physical fitness of wushu athletes in junior high schools and to compare their fitness with that of track-and-field and basketball athletes, as well as general junior high school students. METHODS: A total of 120 participants aged 12-15 years were recruited for this study (wushu n = 30; track-and-field n = 30; basketball n = 30; general students n = 30). Participants' height, weight, flexibility, muscle endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, agility, power, and static and dynamic balance were assessed and compared among sports groups and general students...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811300/comparative-locomotor-costs-of-domestic-dogs-reveal-energetic-economy-of-wolf-like-breeds
#17
C M Bryce, T M Williams
The broad diversity in morphology and geographic distribution of the 35 free-ranging members of the family Canidae is only rivaled by that of the domesticated dog, Canis lupus familiaris. Considered to be among nature's most elite endurance athletes, both domestic and wild canids provide a unique opportunity to examine the variability in mammalian aerobic exercise performance and energy expenditure. To determine the potential effects of domestication and selective breeding on locomotor gait and economy in canids, we measured the kinematics and mass-specific metabolism of three large (>20 kg) dog breed groups (northern breeds, retrievers, and hounds) of varying morphological and genomic relatedness to their shared progenitor, the gray wolf...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807037/two-days-of-calorie-deprivation-induced-by-underfeeding-and-aerobic-exercise-degrades-mood-and-lowers-interstitial-glucose-but-does-not-impair-cognitive-function-in-young-adults
#18
Harris R Lieberman, Asma S Bukhari, John A Caldwell, Marques A Wilson, Caroline R Mahoney, Stefan M Pasiakos, James P McClung, Tracey J Smith
BACKGROUND: In studies assessing the effects of acute undernutrition on cognitive function, volunteers are sedentary and findings are equivocal, even though glucose concentrations fall substantially. However, military personnel and endurance athletes often are underfed when physical demands, and consequently energy expenditure, are substantial. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether 2 d of near-total calorie deprivation combined with aerobic exercise degraded cognitive performance and mood...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803627/muscle-contraction-velocity-a-suitable-approach-to-analyze-the-functional-adaptations-in-elite-soccer-players
#19
Irineu Loturco, Lucas A Pereira, Ronaldo Kobal, Katia Kitamura, Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo, Vinicius Zanetti, Cesar C Cal Abad, Fabio Y Nakamura
Tensiomyography (TMG) has been used as a simple and non-invasive tool to assess the mechanical properties of skeletal muscles. The TMG-derived velocity of contraction (Vc), which can be calculated from the ratio between maximal radial displacement and the sum of contraction time and delay time, has been proposed for evaluating athletes. However, its sensitivity to training effects and possible relation with changes in soccer players' neuromuscular performance have not yet been addressed. To test this possibility, twenty-two male Brazilian elite soccer players were assessed using TMG-derived Vc, unloaded squat jump, countermovement jump and drop jump at 45 cm, loaded jump squat and linear (20 m) and change of direction (COD) sprint tests, prior to and after an 8-week period, between two consecutive official tournaments, during which the concurrency between endurance and strength-power training commonly impairs neuromuscular capacities...
September 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798356/lack-of-replication-of-associations-between-multiple-genetic-polymorphisms-and-endurance-athlete-status-in-japanese-population
#20
Thomas Yvert, Eri Miyamoto-Mikami, Haruka Murakami, Motohiko Miyachi, Takashi Kawahara, Noriyuki Fuku
The aim of this study was to examine a polygenic profile related to endurance performance, based on current knowledge, in the Japanese population. We analyzed 21 genetic polymorphisms that have been reported to be associated with endurance performance and its related phenotypes in 175 endurance runners (60 international-, 94 national-, and 21 regional-level) and 649 controls in the Japanese population. Then, we calculated the total genotype score (TGS) (maximum value of 100 for the theoretically optimum polygenic score) for endurance performance...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
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