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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538328/a-systematic-review-of-the-association-between-physical-fitness-and-musculoskeletal-injury-risk-part-1-cardiorespiratory-endurance
#1
Peter J Lisman, Sarah J de la Motte, Timothy C Gribbin, Dianna P Jaffin, Kaitlin Murphy, Patricia A Deuster
Lisman, PJ, de la Motte, SJ, Gribbin, TC, Jaffin, DP, Murphy, K, and Deuster, PA. A systematic review of the association between physical fitness and musculoskeletal injury risk: part 1-cardiorespiratory endurance. J Strength Cond Res 31(6): 1744-1757, 2017-Musculoskeletal injuries (MSK-Is) are a significant health problem for both military and athletic populations. Research indicates that MSK-I is associated with physical fitness; however, the association between specific components of physical fitness and MSK-I in military and athletic populations has not been systematically examined...
June 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536531/caffeine-and-bicarbonate-for-speed-a-meta-analysis-of-legal-supplements-potential-for-improving-intense-endurance-exercise-performance
#2
REVIEW
Peter M Christensen, Yusuke Shirai, Christian Ritz, Nikolai B Nordsborg
A 1% change in average speed is enough to affect medal rankings in intense Olympic endurance events lasting ~45 s to 8 min which for example includes 100 m swimming and 400 m running (~1 min), 1,500 m running and 4000 m track cycling (~4 min) and 2,000 m rowing (~6-8 min). To maximize the likelihood of winning, athletes utilizes legal supplements with or without scientifically documented beneficial effects on performance. Therefore, a continued systematic evidence based evaluation of the possible ergogenic effects is of high importance...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522767/individual-hemoglobin-mass-response-to-normobaric-and-hypobaric-live-high-train-low-a-one-year-crossover-study
#3
Anna Hauser, Severin Troesch, Jonas J Saugy, Laurent Schmitt, Roberto Cejuela-Anta, Raphael Faiss, Thomas Steiner, Neil Robinson, Grégoire P Millet, Jon Peter Wehrlin
PURPOSE: To compare individual hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) changes following a live high-train low (LHTL) altitude training camp under either normobaric hypoxia (NH) or hypobaric hypoxia (HH) conditions in endurance athletes. METHODS: In a crossover design with a one-year washout, 15 male triathletes randomly performed two 18-d LHTL training camps in either HH or NH. All athletes slept at 2250 m and trained at altitudes < 1200 m. Hbmass was measured in duplicate with the optimized carbon monoxide rebreathing method before (pre-) and immediately after (post-) each 18 d training camp...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515835/the-effect-of-acute-hyperglycemia-on-muscular-strength-power-and-endurance
#4
Franklin Lime-Ma, Joshua A Cotter, Evan E Schick
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the impact of acute hyperglycemia on skeletal muscle strength, power, and endurance. Ten male collegiate athletes (age 21.5 ± 1.5 years, height 186 ± 2.03 cm, body mass 108.8 ± 7.6 kg) participated in 2 testing sessions, separated by 7 days and randomized for either high glucose (HG) or control (C) treatment conditions. HG consumed a high glucose drink (2 g glucose/kg body weight) while controls consumed an isocaloric nutrition bar (40% protein, 30% fat, and 30% carbohydrate)...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512433/reported-hydration-beliefs-and-behaviors-without-effect-on-plasma-sodium-in-endurance-athletes
#5
Daniela Chlíbková, Pantelis T Nikolaidis, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle, Josef Bednář
Purpose: Little information is available on the association of hydration beliefs and behaviors in endurance athletes and exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH). The aim of the present study was to determine hydration beliefs and behaviors in endurance athletes. Method: A 100 and 38 recreational athletes [107 mountain bikers (MTBers) and 31 runners] competing in seven different endurance and ultra-endurance races completed pre- and post-race questionnaires, and a subgroup of 113 (82%) participants (82 MTBers and 31 runners) also provided their blood samples...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493406/beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate-supplementation-and-skeletal-muscle-in-healthy-and-muscle-wasting-conditions
#6
REVIEW
Milan Holeček
Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a metabolite of the essential amino acid leucine that has been reported to have anabolic effects on protein metabolism. The aims of this article were to summarize the results of studies of the effects of HMB on skeletal muscle and to examine the evidence for the rationale to use HMB as a nutritional supplement to exert beneficial effects on muscle mass and function in various conditions of health and disease. The data presented here indicate that the beneficial effects of HMB have been well characterized in strength-power and endurance exercise...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493064/evidence-based-prerequisites-and-precursors-of-athletic-talent-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Vladimir B Issurin
Extensive findings related to nature and nurture in determining athletic talent (AT) have been reviewed. Available data demonstrate the important contribution of hereditary factors as well as the crucial importance of environmental prerequisites for identifying and developing AT. Recent publications provide examples of contemporary approaches intended to solve the problem of how to discover and nurture AT. A number of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies highlighted possibilities of revealing a predisposition to certain sports among youthful prospects, but were unable to predict attainment of world-class status...
May 11, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488921/sex-differences-in-world-record-performance-the-influence-of-sport-discipline-and-competition-duration
#8
Øyvind Sandbakk, Guro Strøm Solli, Hans-Christer Holmberg
In the present review, we summarize scientific knowledge concerning sex differences in world record performance and the influence of sport discipline and competition duration. In addition, we discuss how physiological factors relate to sex dimorphism. While cultural factors played a major role in the rapid improvement of performance of women relative to men up until the 1990's, sex differences between the world's best athletes in most events have remained relatively stable at approximately 8-12%. The exceptions are events in which upper-body power is a major contributor, where this difference is more than 15%, and ultra-endurance swimming, where the gap is now less than 5%...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486334/aerobic-exercise-supplemented-with-muscular-endurance-training-improves-onset-of-blood-lactate-accumulation
#9
John W Farrell, David J Lantis, Carl J Ade, Greg S Cantrell, Rebecca D Larson
Studies have shown that when aerobic exercise is supplemented with muscular endurance training metabolic adaptions occur that result in the delay of the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA). However, previous studies have not explored any submaximal cardiorespiratory adaptations that may result from this training protocol. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the effect of supplementing an aerobic exercise training program with a muscular endurance training program on various cardiorespiratory and metabolic measurements...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483556/identifying-the-physical-and-anthropometric-qualities-explanatory-of-paddling-adolescents
#10
Wade H Sinclair, Anthony S Leicht, Troy W Eady, Nick J Marshall, Carl T Woods
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify the physical and/or anthropometric qualities explanatory of adolescent surf lifesavers participating in paddling activities. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. METHODS: A total of 53 (14-18years) male participants were recruited and classified into two groups; paddlers (n=30; actively participating in paddling), non-paddlers (n=23; not actively participating in paddling). All participants completed a testing battery that consisted of 16 physical (isometric strength and muscular endurance) and anthropometric (height, mass, segment lengths and breadths) assessments...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480693/factors-determining-800-m-running-performance-in-young-male-athletes
#11
Ramon Cruz, Romulo C de Moraes Bertuzzi, Danilo L Alves, Rafael Azevedo, Phelipe H Cardoso Castro, Jefferson Verbena Freitas, Adriano E Lima-Silva, Fernando R de Oliveira, Jorge R Perrout Lima
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to identify determinant variables on 800-m running performance in young male athletes derived from field tests and biological maturity. METHODS: A total of 89 athletes, aged between 13 and 15 years old, performed a 800-m running trial and a battery of tests which involved anthropometric measurements, a running anaerobic test (RAST), a flexibility test (sit-and-reach), a counter movement jump test and progressive test for aerobic fitness evaluation...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475643/a-combination-of-routine-blood-analytes-predicts-fitness-decrement-in-elderly-endurance-athletes
#12
Helmuth Haslacher, Franz Ratzinger, Thomas Perkmann, Delgerdalai Batmyagmar, Sonja Nistler, Thomas M Scherzer, Elisabeth Ponocny-Seliger, Alexander Pilger, Marlene Gerner, Vanessa Scheichenberger, Michael Kundi, Georg Endler, Oswald F Wagner, Robert Winker
Endurance sports are enjoying greater popularity, particularly among new target groups such as the elderly. Predictors of future physical capacities providing a basis for training adaptations are in high demand. We therefore aimed to estimate the future physical performance of elderly marathoners (runners/bicyclists) using a set of easily accessible standard laboratory parameters. To this end, 47 elderly marathon athletes underwent physical examinations including bicycle ergometry and a blood draw at baseline and after a three-year follow-up period...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469746/low-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet-can-it-help-exercise-performance
#13
Chen-Kang Chang, Katarina Borer, Po-Ju Lin
Low-carbohydrate-high-fat (LCHF) diets have been used as a means of weight loss and control of symptoms in several clinical conditions. There is emerging evidence that the metabolic changes induced by LCHF diets enhance endurance performance. The aims of this review are to examine the evidence of LCHF diets in improving various aspects of athletic performance. Long-term LCHF dietary intake may help control body weight and fat mass while maintaining lean body mass in athletes in weight-sensitive sports. LCHF-adapted endurance athletes can reach the maximal fat oxidation rate of approximately 1...
February 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467934/ppar%C3%AE-promotes-running-endurance-by-preserving-glucose
#14
Weiwei Fan, Wanda Waizenegger, Chun Shi Lin, Vincenzo Sorrentino, Ming-Xiao He, Christopher E Wall, Hao Li, Christopher Liddle, Ruth T Yu, Annette R Atkins, Johan Auwerx, Michael Downes, Ronald M Evans
Management of energy stores is critical during endurance exercise; a shift in substrate utilization from glucose toward fat is a hallmark of trained muscle. Here we show that this key metabolic adaptation is both dependent on muscle PPARδ and stimulated by PPARδ ligand. Furthermore, we find that muscle PPARδ expression positively correlates with endurance performance in BXD mouse reference populations. In addition to stimulating fatty acid metabolism in sedentary mice, PPARδ activation potently suppresses glucose catabolism and does so without affecting either muscle fiber type or mitochondrial content...
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465675/dietary-thiols-in-exercise-oxidative-stress-defence-exercise-performance-and-adaptation
#15
REVIEW
Yanita McLeay, Stephen Stannard, Stuart Houltham, Carlene Starck
Endurance athletes are susceptible to cellular damage initiated by excessive levels of aerobic exercise-produced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Whilst ROS can contribute to the onset of fatigue, there is increasing evidence that they play a crucial role in exercise adaptations. The use of antioxidant supplements such as vitamin C and E in athletes is common; however, their ability to enhance performance and facilitate recovery is controversial, with many studies suggesting a blunting of training adaptations with supplementation...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462570/anthropometric-and-performance-characteristics-of-the-german-rugby-union-7s-team
#16
Erich Hohenauer, Alfred M Rucker, Peter Clarys, Ursula M Küng, Rahel Stoop, Ron Clijsen
BACKGROUND: Somatotyping is advantageous in sports for the optimal development of performance level and injury prevention. The aim of this study was to describe the anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of the German national rugby union 7s team. Seventeen male rugby players, classified as forwards (n=9; 24.2±2.1 years) and backs (n=8; 24.3±5.05 years) were assessed. METHODS: Anthropometric measurements included: body height, weight, height to weight ratio (H/W), five skinfolds, biepicondylar humerus and femur breadth, upper arm- and calf girth, estimated lower body fat percentage and determination of the individual and mean somatotype...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462565/prophylactic-kinesio-taping-enhances-balance-for-healthy-collegiate-players
#17
Hsiao-Yun Chang, Yu-Hui Huang, Shih-Chung Cheng, Chun-Yu Yeh, Chun-Hou Wang
BACKGROUND: This study was to investigate the effects of prophylactic Kinesio taping and athletic taping on the functional performance of the lower extremities in healthy collegiate players with tapes applied to the dominant leg. METHODS: The study design was a prospective, randomized, clinical trial with comparison of groups. The 32 healthy collegiate players who participated in this study were randomly assigned to 2 groups, an athletic taping group and a Kinesio taping group...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459347/characteristics-and-challenges-of-open-water-swimming-performance-a-review
#18
Roberto Baldassarre, Marco Bonifazi, Paola Zamparo, Maria Francesca Piacentini
PURPOSE: Although the popularity of open water swimming (OWS) events has significantly increased in the last decades, specific studies regarding performance of elite or age group athletes in these events are scarce. The purpose of this review is to analyse the existing literature on OWS. METHODS: Relevant literature was located via computer-generated citations: during August 2016, online computer searches on PubMed and Scopus databases were conducted to locate published research...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453305/a-clinician-guide-to-altitude-training-for-optimal-endurance-exercise-performance-at-sea-level
#19
Keren Constantini, Daniel P Wilhite, Robert F Chapman
Constantini, Keren, Daniel P. Wilhite, and Robert F. Chapman. A clinician guide to altitude training for optimal endurance exercise performance at sea level. High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2017.-For well over 50 years, endurance athletes have been utilizing altitude training in an effort to enhance performance in sea level competition. This brief review will offer the clinician a series of evidence-based best-practice guidelines on prealtitude and altitude training considerations, which can ultimately maximize performance improvement outcomes...
April 28, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441908/glucose-fructose-ingestion-and-exercise-performance-the-gastrointestinal-tract-and-beyond
#20
Robin Rosset, Léonie Egli, Virgile Lecoultre
Carbohydrate ingestion can improve endurance exercise performance. In the past two decades, research has repeatedly reported the performance benefits of formulations comprising both glucose and fructose (GLUFRU) over those based on glucose (GLU). This has been usually related to additive effects of these two monosaccharides on the gastrointestinal tract whereby intestinal carbohydrate absorption is enhanced and discomfort limited. This is only a partial explanation, since glucose and fructose are also metabolized through different pathways after being absorbed from the gut...
April 25, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
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