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Judgment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737416/rejecting-a-bad-option-feels-like-choosing-a-good-one
#1
Hannah Perfecto, Jeff Galak, Joseph P Simmons, Leif D Nelson
Across 4,151 participants, the authors demonstrate a novel framing effect, attribute matching, whereby matching a salient attribute of a decision frame with that of a decision's options facilitates decision-making. This attribute matching is shown to increase decision confidence and, ultimately, consensus estimates by increasing feelings of metacognitive ease. In Study 1, participants choosing the more attractive of two faces or rejecting the less attractive face reported greater confidence in and perceived consensus around their decision...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736771/on-interestingness-measures-for-mining-statistically-significant-and-novel-clinical-associations-from-emrs
#2
Orhan Abar, Richard J Charnigo, Abner Rayapati, Ramakanth Kavuluru
Association rule mining has received significant attention from both the data mining and machine learning communities. While data mining researchers focus more on designing efficient algorithms to mine rules from large datasets, the learning community has explored applications of rule mining to classification. A major problem with rule mining algorithms is the explosion of rules even for moderate sized datasets making it very difficult for end users to identify both statistically significant and potentially novel rules that could lead to interesting new insights and hypotheses...
October 2016: ACM-BCB: ACM Conference on Bioinformatics, Computational Biology and Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736770/classification-of-helpful-comments-on-online-suicide-watch-forums
#3
Ramakanth Kavuluru, Amanda G Williams, María Ramos-Morales, Laura Haye, Tara Holaday, Julie Cerel
Among social media websites, Reddit has emerged as a widely used online message board for focused mental health topics including depression, addiction, and suicide watch (SW). In particular, the SW community/subreddit has nearly 40,000 subscribers and 13 human moderators who monitor for abusive comments among other things. Given comments on posts from users expressing suicidal thoughts can be written from any part of the world at any time, moderating in a timely manner can be tedious. Furthermore, Reddit's default comment ranking does not involve aspects that relate to the "helpfulness" of a comment from a suicide prevention (SP) perspective...
October 2016: ACM-BCB: ACM Conference on Bioinformatics, Computational Biology and Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736335/tfos-dews-ii-definition-and-classification-report
#4
REVIEW
Jennifer P Craig, Kelly K Nichols, Esen K Akpek, Barbara Caffery, Harminder S Dua, Choun-Ki Joo, Zuguo Liu, J Daniel Nelson, Jason J Nichols, Kazuo Tsubota, Fiona Stapleton
The goals of the TFOS DEWS II Definition and Classification Subcommittee were to create an evidence-based definition and a contemporary classification system for dry eye disease (DED). The new definition recognizes the multifactorial nature of dry eye as a disease where loss of homeostasis of the tear film is the central pathophysiological concept. Ocular symptoms, as a broader term that encompasses reports of discomfort or visual disturbance, feature in the definition and the key etiologies of tear film instability, hyperosmolarity, and ocular surface inflammation and damage were determined to be important for inclusion in the definition...
July 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736008/is-elective-status-a-predictor-of-poor-survival-in-liver-retransplantation
#5
R Stankiewicz, O Kornasiewicz, M Grąt, Z Lewandowski, Z Gorski, M Krawczyk
BACKGROUND: Orthotopic liver retransplantation (reLT) is considered to have poorer outcomes than primary transplantation. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of medical urgency status as a predictor of patient survival after reLT. METHODS: Forty-nine patients who underwent reLT were included in this retrospective study. Urgent or elective status was based on the judgment of the surgical team, selected variables, and the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score...
July 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733246/defective-recognition-and-naming-of-famous-people-from-voice-in-patients-with-unilateral-temporal-lobe-tumours
#6
C Papagno, G Mattavelli, A Casarotti, L Bello, G Gainotti
Twenty-nine patients who underwent surgery for a temporal glioma, either in the left (16 patients) or right (13 patients) hemisphere, were administered standardized tests of unknown voice discrimination (UVD) and of famous voice recognition (VO-REC), which included tasks of familiarity evaluation, semantic identification and naming of famous voices. The UVD consisted of twenty stimuli, in which two audio files were consecutively presented; the subject was requested to judge whether the voices belonged to the same or different persons...
July 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733142/deprescribing-for-frail-older-people-learning-from-the-case-of-mrs-hansen
#7
Anne Gerd Granas, Marit Stendal Bakken, Sabine Ruths, Katja Taxis
Drug treatment is often an essential part in treatment and prevention of diseases in older people, but there is much concern about inappropriate medication use. This paper aims to describe the complexity of medication safety issues and clinical judgments when optimizing prescribing in older individuals. It uses the case of Mrs. Hansen, an aged nursing home resident, to illustrate the facilitators and barriers of this process. With decreasing life expectancy, medication use should shift from cure to care, focusing on symptomatic treatment to increase the patient's well-being...
July 13, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732594/thermodynamic-models-to-elucidate-the-enantioseparation-of-drugs-with-two-stereogenic-centers-by-micellar-electrokinetic-chromatography
#8
Xuming Guo, Qiuxia Liu, Shaoqiang Hu, Wenbo Guo, Zhuo Yang, Yonghua Zhang
An equilibrium model depicting the simultaneous protonation of chiral drugs and partitioning of protonated ions and neutral molecules into chiral micelles in micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) has been introduced. It was used for the prediction and elucidation of complex changes in migration order patterns with experimental conditions in the enantioseparation of drugs with two stereogenic centers. Palonosetron hydrochloride (PALO), a weakly basic drug with two stereogenic centers, was selected as a model drug...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730850/development-and-validation-of-the-heidelberg-form-for-emotion-regulation-strategies-hferst-factor-structure-reliability-and-validity
#9
Shahrzad Izadpanah, Sven Barnow, Andreas B Neubauer, Julia Holl
The Heidelberg Form for Emotion Regulation Strategies (HFERST) was developed to complement previous emotion regulation (ER) questionnaires and addresses some of their limitations by measuring eight ER strategies. An initial item pool was developed in German following expert discussions and adaptation of the items from existing ER scales. Following a stepwise selection based on the experts' judgments, 32 items with the best content validity were chosen. Results of an exploratory factor analysis in Study 1 ( N = 399) and two confirmatory factor analyses in Studies 2 ( N = 715) and 3 ( N = 408) supported the eight-factor structure of the HFERST and provided evidence for its internal consistency, construct and criterion validity, and clinical utility...
July 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729844/not-merely-experiential-unconscious-thought-can-be-rational
#10
Katie E Garrison, Ian M Handley
Individuals often form more reasonable judgments from complex information after a period of distraction vs. deliberation. This phenomenon has been attributed to sophisticated unconscious thought during the distraction period that integrates and organizes the information (Unconscious Thought Theory; Dijksterhuis and Nordgren, 2006). Yet, other research suggests that experiential processes are strengthened during the distraction (relative to deliberation) period, accounting for the judgment and decision benefit...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728323/analysis-of-the-legal-effect-of-settlement-agreements-prepared-in-medical-litigation-following-plastic-surgery-in-korea
#11
Jung Woo Kwon, Bo Young Park, So Ra Kang, Seung Eun Hong
BACKGROUND: Settlements between doctors and patients provide a solution to complicated disputes. However, some disputes may be renewed as a result of negligence by both parties. The purpose of this study was to review the legal issues that may potentially arise during the preparation of settlement agreements and to propose a list of requirements for ensuring the effectiveness of these settlement agreements. METHODS: Data from 287 civil cases concerning aesthetic surgery that took place between 2000 and 2015 were collected from a court database in South Korea...
July 2017: Archives of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727930/visual-perception-of-british-women-s-skin-color-distribution-in-two-nonindustrialized-societies-the-maasai-and-the-tsimane
#12
Bernhard Fink, Marina Butovskaya, Piotr Sorokowski, Agnieszka Sorokowska, Paul J Matts
In women with lightly pigmented skin in particular, facial skin color homogeneity decreases with age, primarily due to chronic exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR), leading to a decrease in perceived health and attractiveness. Perception of female skin may be influenced by continuous exposure to, and thus familiarity with, age-related changes in visible skin condition in a given society. Men and women of two traditional societies, the Maasai (Tanzania) and the Tsimane' (Bolivia), unfamiliar with lighter colored skin, judged images of British women's facial skin for age, health, and attractiveness...
July 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727922/considerations-in-physical-therapy-management-of-a-non-responding-patient-with-low-back-pain
#13
Timothy J Madson
STUDY DESIGN: Case Study. BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Low back pain is a common condition managed by physical therapists (PT). Screening tools have been developed to assist the PT with medical screening of patients for serious disease. Sinister pathologies may present as musculoskeletal symptoms during the patient examination. It is important for the PT to frequently reevaluate their patient's response to therapeutic interventions and refer for further evaluation if they are not responding to conservative care...
July 20, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727735/we-perceive-a-mind-in-a-robot-when-we-help-it
#14
Tetsushi Tanibe, Takaaki Hashimoto, Kaori Karasawa
People sometimes perceive a mind in inorganic entities like robots. Psychological research has shown that mind perception correlates with moral judgments and that immoral behaviors (i.e., intentional harm) facilitate mind perception toward otherwise mindless victims. We conducted a vignette experiment (N = 129; Mage = 21.8 ± 6.0 years) concerning human-robot interactions and extended previous research's results in two ways. First, mind perception toward the robot was facilitated when it received a benevolent behavior, although only when participants took the perspective of an actor...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727567/intuitionistic-multiplicative-group-analytic-hierarchy-process-and-its-use-in-multicriteria-group-decision-making
#15
Zhiming Zhang, Witold Pedrycz
As an extension of multiplicative preference relations (MPRs), intuitionistic MPRs (IMPRs) reflect experts' hesitant quantitative judgments. This paper presents an intuitionistic multiplicative preference information-based group analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and develops an intuitionistic multiplicative group AHP (IMGAHP), which addresses multicriteria group decision-making (MCGDM) that uses IMPRs to capture experts' preference judgments. First, we introduce a consistency index to gauge the consistency of IMPRs and describe the concept of acceptably consistent IMPRs...
July 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726804/diagnostic-cytogenetic-testing-following-positive-noninvasive-prenatal-screening-results-a-clinical-laboratory-practice-resource-of-the-american-college-of-medical-genetics-and-genomics-acmg
#16
Athena M Cherry, Yassmine M Akkari, Kimberly M Barr, Hutton M Kearney, Nancy C Rose, Sarah T South, James H Tepperberg, Jeanne M Meck
Disclaimer: ACMG Clinical Laboratory Practice Resources are developed primarily as an educational tool for clinical laboratory geneticists to help them provide quality clinical laboratory genetic services. Adherence to these practice resources is voluntary and does not necessarily assure a successful medical outcome. This Clinical Laboratory Practice Resource should not be considered inclusive of all proper procedures and tests or exclusive of other procedures and tests that are reasonably directed to obtaining the same results...
July 20, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726534/an-occupational-therapy-and-teaching-partnership-applying-a-scholarship-of-practice-model
#17
Brian Fitzgerald, Siobhán MacCobb
Occupational therapists must generate knowledge and evidence that relates specifically to their practice context especially when there is a paucity of literature for emerging areas of practice. This paper describes the process of adopting a scholarship of practice approach with other professionals to generate evidence for practice in mainstream post primary school settings with students with social, emotional and behavioral difficulties (SEBD). Scholarship of practice and clinical reasoning are closely intertwined as therapists generate evidence on their practice to make informed decisions and judgments...
July 20, 2017: Occupational Therapy in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726453/ethical-and-legal-considerations-in-psychobiography
#18
Joseph G Ponterotto, Jason D Reynolds Taewon Choi
Despite psychobiography's long-standing history in the field of psychology, there has been relatively little discussion of ethical issues and guidelines in psychobiographical research. The Ethics Code of the American Psychological Association (APA) does not address psychobiography. The present article highlights the value of psychobiography to psychology, reviews the history and current status of psychobiography in the field, examines the relevance of existing APA General Principles and Ethical Standards to psychobiographical research, and introduces a best practice ethical decision-making model to assist psychologists working in psychobiography...
July 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726065/automatic-referral-to-standardize-palliative-care-access-an-international-delphi-survey
#19
David Hui, Masanori Mori, Yee-Choon Meng, Sharon M Watanabe, Augusto Caraceni, Florian Strasser, Tiina Saarto, Nathan Cherny, Paul Glare, Stein Kaasa, Eduardo Bruera
PURPOSE: Palliative care referral is primarily based on clinician judgment, contributing to highly variable access. Standardized criteria to trigger automatic referral have been proposed, but it remains unclear how best to apply them in practice. We conducted a Delphi study of international experts to identify a consensus for the use of standardized criteria to trigger automatic referral. METHODS: Sixty international experts stated their level of agreement for 14 statements regarding the use of clinician-based referral and automatic referral over two Delphi rounds...
July 19, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725188/using-virtual-reality-to-assess-ethical-decisions-in-road-traffic-scenarios-applicability-of-value-of-life-based-models-and-influences-of-time-pressure
#20
Leon R Sütfeld, Richard Gast, Peter König, Gordon Pipa
Self-driving cars are posing a new challenge to our ethics. By using algorithms to make decisions in situations where harming humans is possible, probable, or even unavoidable, a self-driving car's ethical behavior comes pre-defined. Ad hoc decisions are made in milliseconds, but can be based on extensive research and debates. The same algorithms are also likely to be used in millions of cars at a time, increasing the impact of any inherent biases, and increasing the importance of getting it right. Previous research has shown that moral judgment and behavior are highly context-dependent, and comprehensive and nuanced models of the underlying cognitive processes are out of reach to date...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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