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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538161/that-certain-something-focusing-on-similarities-reduces-judgmental-uncertainty
#1
Ann-Christin Posten, Thomas Mussweiler
Comparative thinking is an efficient cognitive strategy that reduces judgmental uncertainty. However, comparisons may be conducted with a focus on similarities or differences. Similarity-focused comparisons seem to facilitate information-transfer, which has been suggested to drive the uncertainty-reducing effect of comparisons. This implies that similarity-focused comparisons reduce uncertainty more than dissimilarity-focused comparisons. Two experiments examine this assumption. In Study 1, a similarity-focus (compared to a difference-focus and a neutral control condition) increased judgmental certainty when the comparison was based on confident standard-knowledge...
May 21, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534303/revising-recognition-judgments-during-noisy-recognition-evidence-accumulation-the-dynamics-of-losses-versus-gains
#2
Antonio Jaeger, Ian G Dobbins
Outside the laboratory, we sometimes revise our recognition judgments of others-realizing, for example, that we have accidentally failed to greet an acquaintance we just passed in the hallway. These recognition reversals have rarely been studied. Here, using a basic noisy-accumulation framework, we simulated recognition response reversals in which initial speeded recognition judgments were followed by an opportunity to revise the initial judgment. The simulation predictions were compared to empirical data from two experiments in which we gave participants the opportunity to revise each of their initial speeded recognition judgments...
May 22, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533389/facial-appearance-affects-science-communication
#3
Ana I Gheorghiu, Mitchell J Callan, William J Skylark
First impressions based on facial appearance predict many important social outcomes. We investigated whether such impressions also influence the communication of scientific findings to lay audiences, a process that shapes public beliefs, opinion, and policy. First, we investigated the traits that engender interest in a scientist's work, and those that create the impression of a "good scientist" who does high-quality research. Apparent competence and morality were positively related to both interest and quality judgments, whereas attractiveness boosted interest but decreased perceived quality...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533183/dedicated-research-time-during-surgery-residency-leads-to-a-significant-decline-in-self-assessed-clinical-aptitude-and-surgical-skills
#4
Monica M Grova, Anthony D Yang, Misty D Humphries, Joseph M Galante, Edgardo S Salcedo
OBJECTIVE: The surgical community commonly perceives a decline in surgical and patient care skills among residents who take dedicated time away from clinical activity to engage in research. We hypothesize that residents perceive a decline in their skills because of dedicated research time. SETTING: UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA, an institutional tertiary care center. PARTICIPANTS: General surgery residents and graduates from UC Davis general surgery residency training program, who had completed at least 1 year of research during their training...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532731/evaluation-procedures-in-health-perspective-of-nursing-care-in-patient-safety
#5
Theo Duarte da Costa, Viviane Euzébia Pereira Santos, Marcos Antônio Ferreira Junior, Alynne Fortes Vitor, Pétala Tuani Candido de Oliveira Salvador, Kisna Yasmin Andrade Alves
OBJECTIVE: The objective research is analyzing the nursing care in intensive care units from the perspective of patient safety based on health evaluation. METHODS: This is an evaluation research, for the purpose of issuance of judgment or judgment on a given system, carried out in six intensive care units. Data collection occurred from April to July 2014, in locu, with a validated instrument containing 97 questions related to patient safety. These, 73 items targeted to analyze the element "process" in safety patient nursing care...
June 2017: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532614/evidence-based-medicine-was-bound-to-fail-a-report-to-alvan-feinstein
#6
Giovanni A Fava
John Ioannidis has provided a lucid account, in the form of a report to David Sackett, of how evidence-based medicine (EBM) was hijacked to serve vested interests: major randomized controlled trials are largely done by and for the benefit of the industry; meta-analyses and guidelines are flooded with conflicts of interest; national and federal research funds are unable to address basic clinical questions. Nonetheless, EBM would remain a worthwhile goal. In this paper, in the form of a report to Alvan Feinstein, it is argued that current developments were largely predictable...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532613/the-practice-of-evidence-based-medicine-involves-the-care-of-whole-persons
#7
W Scott Richardson
In this issue of the Journal, Dr. Fava posits that evidence-based medicine (EBM) was bound to fail. I share some of the concerns he expresses, yet I see more reasons for optimism. Having been on rounds with both Drs. Engel and Sackett, I reckon they would have agreed more than they disagreed. Their central teaching was the compassionate and well-informed care of sick persons. The model that emerged from these rounds was that patient care could be both person-centered and evidence-based, that clinical judgment was essential to both, and the decisions could and should be shared...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532542/-threshold-segmentation-of-pulmonary-subsolid-nodules-on-ct-images-%C3%A2-detection-and-quantification-of-the-solid-component
#8
Wensong Zheng, Qing Wang, Ying Wang, Fangfang Guo, Xinyue Wang, Tielian Yu
BACKGROUND: The detection and quantification of solid components in pulmonary subsolid nodules (SSN) are of vital importance on differential diagnosis, pathological speculation and prognosis prediction. However, no objective and wide-accepted criterion has been built up to now. The purpose of this study is to explore the optimal threshold that can be used for the detection and quantification of solid components in SSNs by using threshold segmentation method on computed tomography (CT) images...
May 20, 2017: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532359/visual-confidence
#9
Pascal Mamassian
Visual confidence refers to an observer's ability to judge the accuracy of her perceptual decisions. Even though confidence judgments have been recorded since the early days of psychophysics, only recently have they been recognized as essential for a deeper understanding of visual perception. The reluctance to study visual confidence may have come in part from obtaining convincing experimental evidence in favor of metacognitive abilities rather than just perceptual sensitivity. Some effort has thus been dedicated to offer different experimental paradigms to study visual confidence in humans and nonhuman animals...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532288/effects-of-happy-and-sad-facial-expressions-on-the-perception-of-time-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#10
Giovanna Mioni, Simon Grondin, Lucia Meligrana, Francesco Perini, Luigi Bartolomei, Franca Stablum
INTRODUCTION: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement disorder caused by deterioration of the dopaminergic system. Previous studies have demonstrated temporal as well as emotional facial recognition impairment in PD patients. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that emotional facial expressions alter temporal judgments. In the present study, we investigate the magnitude of temporal distortions caused by the presentation of emotional facial expressions (happiness, sadness, and neutral) in PD patients with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) and controls...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532210/the-linear-nonthreshold-lnt-model-as-used-in-radiation-protection-an-ncrp-update
#11
John D Boice
Purpose/Objective(s): The linear non-threshold (LNT) model has been used in radiation protection for over 40 years and has been hotly debated! It relies heavily on human epidemiology, with support from radiobiology. The scientific underpinnings include NCRP Report No. 136 ("Evaluation of the Linear-Nonthreshold Dose-Response Model for Ionizing Radiation"), UNSCEAR 2000, ICRP Publication 99 (2004) and the National Academies BEIR VII Report (NRC 2006). NCRP Scientific Committee 1-25 is reviewing recent epidemiologic studies focusing on dose-response models, including threshold, and the relevance to radiation protection...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531797/a-macrophyte-bioassessment-approach-linking-taxon-specific-tolerance-and-abundance-in-north-temperate-lakes
#12
Alison Mikulyuk, Martha Barton, Jennifer Hauxwell, Catherine Hein, Ellen Kujawa, Kristi Minahan, Michelle E Nault, Daniel L Oele, Kelly I Wagner
Bioassessment methods are critically needed to evaluate and monitor lake ecological condition. Aquatic macrophytes are good candidate indicators, but few lake bioassessment methods developed in North America use them. The few macrophyte bioassessment methods that do exist suffer from problems related to subjectivity and discernibility along disturbance gradients. We developed and tested a bioassessment approach for 462 north temperate lakes. The approach links macrophyte abundance to lake ecological condition via estimates of taxon-specific abundance-weighted tolerance to anthropogenic disturbance...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531645/judgment-of-moral-and-social-transgression-in-schizophrenia
#13
Jonathan McGuire, Martin Brüne, Robyn Langdon
INTRODUCTION: Despite evidence of pervasive social-cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, little is known of moral cognition in this population. While recent research indicates that impairment of explicit moral reasoning is explained by these individuals' other cognitive deficits, their capacities for basic moral judgment are unknown. METHODS: 45 people with schizophrenia and 27 healthy controls completed the Moral-Conventional Distinction Task: a classic task that assesses judgment of violations of moral or social convention on permissibility, severity, and authority-contingence...
May 4, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531210/judging-time-to-passage-of-looming-sounds-evidence-for-the-use-of-distance-based-information
#14
Rosa Mariana Silva, João Lamas, Carlos César Silva, Yann Coello, Sandra Mouta, Jorge Almeida Santos
Perceptual judgments are an essential mechanism for our everyday interaction with other moving agents or events. For instance, estimation of the time remaining before an object contacts or passes us is essential to act upon or to avoid that object. Previous studies have demonstrated that participants use different cues to estimate the time to contact or the time to passage of approaching visual stimuli. Despite the considerable number of studies on the judgment of approaching auditory stimuli, not much is known about the cues that guide listeners' performance in an auditory Time-to-Passage (TTP) task...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530771/macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-levels-correlate-with-an-infection-in-trauma-patients
#15
Young Duck Cho, Sung Hyuk Choi, Jung Youn Kim, Sung Jun Park, Young Hoon Yoon, Han Jin Cho, Ji Won Yeom
BACKGROUND: The role of migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is best understood in septic shock and septic disease; however, the role of MIF in a secondary infection after trauma has not yet been completely studied. This study aimed to evaluate the role of MIF in trauma patients. METHODS: The patients in the study population were divided into two groups according to the results of their MIF levels. The initial MIF levels, trauma mechanism, revised trauma score, survival rate, length of stay (LOS) in the intensive care unit (ICU), level of leukocytes, and level of C-reactive protein (CRP) were compared between the groups...
May 2017: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530440/children-s-reasoning-about-deception-and-defiance-as-ways-of-resisting-parents-and-teachers-directives
#16
Matthew Gingo
This research presented 8-, 10-, and 12-year-olds (N = 120) with hypothetical situations depicting comparably aged children engaging in defiance and deception to circumvent authorities' directives that they disagreed with. The nature of the situations varied in terms of domain (personal, moral, or prudential) and type of authority figure (parent or teacher). Evaluations and justifications for the legitimacy of the directives, defiance, and deception were examined, as were general evaluations of deception. Across domains, increased age was associated with decreased acceptance of directives, and increased acceptance of defiance and deception...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530343/-sexuality-in-psychiatric-hospitalization-reality-versus-policy
#17
Anat Shalev, Gabriel Weil, Ludmila Rubinstein
Psychiatric hospitalization might be a necessity for certain groups of patients with mental illness, involving acute symptoms and substantial disability which do not allow independent living in the community. In such situations, it is crucial to enable inpatients to enjoy the best possible quality of life, including the right for sexual autonomy as a basic human right. Satisfying sexual life is part of meaningful life and plays an important role in personal and social recovery. On the other hand, sexual relations in psychiatric wards raise many dilemmas, including the need to protect inpatients from sexual abuse and victimization, particularly when mental illness involves judgment deficits and decreased ability to express autonomous will...
December 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530312/-the-second-victim-treating-the-health-care-providers
#18
REVIEW
Shimrit Shor, Orna Tal, Ron Maymon
During their professional careers, physicians and other health care providers are repeatedly exposed to emotional stress. This is usually secondary to coping with the results of a medical error or complicated medical event. Generally, in the above cases, the patient and his/her family are in the center of the medical system, being "the first victim" of such an event, while the involved caregiver, who provided the medical service, is categorized as the "second victim". "Second victims" may feel anxiety, fear, guilt or anger and experience social withdrawal, which may lead to troubling memories, depression and insomnia...
January 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529977/judgment-of-the-quality-of-restorative-care-as-predictors-of-restoration-retreatment-findings-from-the-national-dental-pbrn
#19
J L Riley, G H Gilbert, G W Ford, J L Fellows, B Rindal, V V Gordan
The primary aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a patient's subjective assessments of the dentist's technical competence, quality of care, and anticipated restoration longevity during a restorative visit are predictive of restoration outcome. This prospective cohort study involved 3,326 patients who received treatment for a defective restoration in a permanent tooth, participated in a baseline patient satisfaction survey, and returned for follow-up. Of the 4,400 restorations that were examined by 150 dentists, 266 (6%) received additional treatment after baseline...
April 2017: JDR Clinical and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528847/independent-contributions-of-fmri-familiarity-and-novelty-effects-to-recognition-memory-and-their-stability-across-the-adult-lifespan
#20
Marianne de Chastelaine, Julia T Mattson, Tracy H Wang, Brian E Donley, Michael D Rugg
The impact of age on the neural correlates of familiarity-driven recognition memory has received relatively little attention. Here, the relationships between age, the neural correlates of familiarity, and memory performance were investigated using an associative recognition test in young, middle-aged and older participants. Test items comprised studied, rearranged (items studied on different trials) and new word pairs. fMRI 'familiarity effects' were operationalized as greater activity for studied test pairs incorrectly identified as 'rearranged' than for correctly rejected new pairs...
May 18, 2017: NeuroImage
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