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Lynn W Bush, Louis E Bartoshesky, Karen L David, Benjamin Wilfond, Janet L Williams, Ingrid A Holm
Disclaimer: This article is designed primarily as an educational resource for medical geneticists and other health care providers to help them provide quality patient care. Adherence to the information contained in this article does not necessarily assure a successful medical outcome. This information and any associated recommendations should not be considered inclusive of all proper procedures and tests or exclusive of other procedures and tests that are reasonably directed to obtaining the same results. In determining the propriety of any specific procedure or test, each provider should apply his or her own professional judgment to the specific clinical circumstances presented by the individual patient...
March 22, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Folami Alamudun, Paige Paulus, Hong-Jun Yoon, Georgia Tourassi
Prior research has shown that physicians' medical decisions can be influenced by sequential context, particularly in cases where successive stimuli exhibit similar characteristics when analyzing medical images. This type of systematic error is known to psychophysicists as sequential context effect as it indicates that judgments are influenced by features of and decisions about the preceding case in the sequence of examined cases, rather than being based solely on the peculiarities unique to the present case...
July 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Ching-Yen Chen, Tze-Chun Tang, Tzu-Ting Chen, Ya Mei Bai, Huei-Huang Tsai, Hou-Liang Chen, Chun-Jen Huang, Chih-Ken Chen, Chun-Chih Chen, Mei-Chun Hsiao, Chia-Yih Liu, Hong-Shiow Yeh, Nan-Ying Chiu, Cheng-Chen Hsiao, Cheng-Sheng Chen, Tung-Ping Su
Purpose: Paliperidone extended release (ER) is an oral psychotropic treatment formulated to release paliperidone at a controlled, gradually ascending rate. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of switching to paliperidone ER in Taiwanese patients with schizophrenia who were unresponsive or intolerant to previous antipsychotic therapy. Patients and methods: This was a 24-week, open-label, single-arm, multicenter, Phase IV trial. Based on consulting psychiatrists' judgment, patients were deemed eligible for the switch to paliperidone ER; the switch was achieved by cross-tapering, using a recommended starting dose of 6 mg...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
G C L Gracindo, J H da Silva Gallo, R Nunes
We aimed to outline the profile of medical professionals in Brazil who have violated the deontological norms set forth in the ethics code of the profession, and whose cases were judged by the higher tribunal for medical ethics between 2010 and 2016. This survey was conducted using a database formed from professional ethics cases extracted from the plenary of the medical ethics tribunal of the Federal Council of Medicine. These were disciplinary ethics cases that were judged at appeal level between 2010 and 2016...
March 15, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Reneeka Persaud, Patricia M Coutts, Alisa Brandon, Luvneet Verma, James A Elliott, R Gary Sibbald
GENERAL PURPOSE: The purpose of this learning activity is to provide information about the Healthy Foot Screen, a new tool for assessment of common foot abnormalities. TARGET AUDIENCE: This continuing education activity is intended for physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. LEARNING OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES: After completing this continuing education activity, you should be able to:1...
April 2018: Advances in Skin & Wound Care
Cindel J M White, Mark Schaller
Conceptual analyses of moral cognition suggest that different variables may influence moral judgments depending upon the target's age. Five experiments (total N = 1,733) tested the implications for moral judgments about adults and young children. Results show that adults who were perceived to be more cognitively capable were judged to have greater moral rights and their transgressions were judged less harshly, but young children who were perceived to be more cognitively capable were judged to have fewer moral rights and their transgressions were judged more harshly...
March 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Seth Wiener, Kiwako Ito, Shari R Speer
This study examines the perceptual trade-off between knowledge of a language's statistical regularities and reliance on the acoustic signal during L2 spoken word recognition. We test how early learners track and make use of segmental and suprasegmental cues and their relative frequencies during non-native word recognition. English learners of Mandarin were taught an artificial tonal language in which a tone's informativeness for word identification varied according to neighborhood density. The stimuli mimicked Mandarin's uneven distribution of syllable+tone combinations by varying syllable frequency and the probability of particular tones co-occurring with a particular syllable...
March 1, 2018: Language and Speech
Jamal Seidi, Fatemeh Alhani, Farasat Ardalan
Background: Clinical judgment of nurses to conduct medication orders is based on patient assessment, medication knowledge, observation, and interpretation of the data collected. This process is influenced by many factors. Objective: This study aims to explore nurses' experience about facilitating factors in medication administration based on clinical judgment of nurses. Methods: This qualitative study was part of an approved project research of the Iranian National Institute of Health Research, which was conducted in Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences in 2015...
December 2017: Electronic Physician
Andrew W Artenstein, Jennifer Friderici, Paul Visintainer
Introduction: Spinal epidural abscess (SEA), a highly morbid and potentially lethal deep tissue infection of the central nervous system has more than tripled in incidence over the past decade. Early recognition at the point of initial clinical presentation may prevent irreversible neurologic injury or other serious, adverse outcomes. To facilitate early recognition of SEA, we developed a predictive scoring model. Methods: Using data from a 10-year, retrospective, case-control study of adults presenting for care at a tertiary-care, regional, academic medical center, we used the Integrated Discrimination Improvement Index (IDI) to identify candidate discriminators and created a multivariable logistic regression model, refined based on p-value significance...
March 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Karuna Subramaniam, Hardik Kothare, Danielle Mizuiri, Srikantan S Nagarajan, John F Houde
Self-agency is the experience of being the agent of one's own thoughts and motor actions. The intact experience of self-agency is necessary for successful interactions with the outside world (i.e., reality monitoring) and for responding to sensory feedback of our motor actions (e.g., speech feedback control). Reality monitoring is the ability to distinguish internally self-generated information from outside reality (externally-derived information). In the present study, we examined the relationship of self-agency between lower-level speech feedback monitoring (i...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Louise Ewing, Elizabeth Pellicano, Harriet King, Laura Lennuyeux-Comnene, Emily K Farran, Annette Karmiloff-Smith, Marie L Smith
Unusual patterns of fixation behavior in individuals with autism spectrum disorder during face tasks hint at atypical processing strategies that could contribute to diminished face expertise in this group. Here, we use the Bubbles reverse correlation technique to directly examine face-processing strategies during identity judgments in children with and without autism, and typical adults. Results support a qualitative atypicality in autistic face processing. We identify clear differences not only in the specific features relied upon for face judgments, but also more generally in the extent to which they demonstrate a flexible and adaptive profile of information use...
March 20, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Stefan Schneider, Doerte U Junghaenel, Masakatsu Ono, Arthur A Stone
Advances in pain measurement using ecological momentary assessments offer novel opportunities for understanding the temporal dynamics of pain. This study examined whether regime-switching models, which capture processes characterized by recurrent shifts between different states, provide clinically relevant information for characterizing individuals based on their temporal pain patterns. Patients with rheumatic diseases (N=116) provided 7-8 momentary pain ratings per day for two weekly periods, separated by 3 months...
March 16, 2018: Pain
Mohammad Yazdi, Orhan Korhan, Sahand Daneshvar
This study aimed at establishing fault tree analysis (FTA) using expert opinion to compute the probability of an event. Thus, in order to find the probability of the top event (TE), all probabilities of the basic events (BEs) should be available when FTA is drawn for an event. In this case, employing expert judgment can be used as an alternative to failure data in an awkward situation. The fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP) as a standard technique is used to give a specific weight to each expert, and fuzzy set theory is engaged for aggregating expert opinion...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
Timothy J Wood, Debra Pugh, Claire Touchie, James Chan, Susan Humphrey-Murto
There is an increasing focus on factors that influence the variability of rater-based judgments. First impressions are one such factor. First impressions are judgments about people that are made quickly and are based on little information. Under some circumstances, these judgments can be predictive of subsequent decisions. A concern for both examinees and test administrators is whether the relationship remains stable when the performance of the examinee changes. That is, once a first impression is formed, to what degree will an examiner be willing to modify it? The purpose of this study is to determine the degree that first impressions influence final ratings when the performance of examinees changes within the context of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE)...
March 20, 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Chao Wei, Yucong Zhang, Gaurab Pokhrel, Xiaming Liu, Jiahua Gan, Xiao Yu, Zhangqun Ye, Shaogang Wang
Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is generally accepted as the gold standard treatment for the treatment of large kidney stones (> 2 cm). For nearly 40 years, with the continuous progress of technology and the constant updating of ideas, PCNL has made great progress. In this review, we discuss the current research progress, recent advancement and hot spot of the whole process of PCNL including anesthesia, position, puncture, dilation, lithotripsy approaches, perfusate, tube placement, hospitalization time, drug, treatment of residual stones, prognosis judgment and operation evaluation by summarizing the related research in this article...
March 19, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Huixia Zhou, Bibing Dai, Sonja Rossi, Juan Li
Background: Depressed populations demonstrate a greater tendency to have negative interpretations on ambiguous situations. Cognitive theories concerning depression proposed that such a negative bias plays an important role in developing and maintaining depression. There is now fairly consistent evidence arising from different stimuli and assessment methods that depression is featured by such a bias. The current study aimed to explore the neural signatures associated with the interpretation bias in the elderly with depressive symptoms confronted with different facial expressions using event-related brain potentials (ERPs)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Elvira Khachatryan, Benjamin Wittevrongel, Kim De Keyser, Miet De Letter, Marc M Van Hulle
Half of the global population can be considered bilingual. Nevertheless when faced with patients with aphasia, clinicians and therapists usually ignore the patient's second language (L2) albeit its interference in first language (L1) processing has been shown. The excellent temporal resolution by which each individual linguistic component can be gaged during word-processing, promoted the event-related potential (ERP) technique for studying language processing in healthy bilinguals and monolingual aphasia patients...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
William F Paolo, Rhonaldo Silaban, Long Nguyen, Susan Wojcik, William Grant
OBJECTIVE: Computerized tomography (CT) is often employed to diagnose or rule out certain suspected abdominal pathologies. The aim of this study is to compare emergency physicians' estimated post-test disease probabilities to the probabilities obtained for similar diagnostic tests as reported in the literature. METHODS: Physicians were asked to estimate pre and posttest probabilities before and after CT scan results in patients with nontraumatic abdominal and pelvic pain...
February 27, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Francisco Magalhães, Kaline Rocha, Victor Marinho, Jéssica Ribeiro, Thomaz Oliveira, Carla Ayres, Thalys Bento, Francisca Leite, Daya Gupta, Victor Hugo Bastos, Bruna Velasques, Pedro Ribeiro, Marco Orsini, Silmar Teixeira
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease is described as resulting from dopaminergic cells progressive degeneration, specifically in the substantia nigra pars compacta that influence the voluntary movements control, decision making and time perception. AIM: This review had a goal to update the relation between time perception and Parkinson's Disease. METHODOLOGY: We used the PRISMA methodology for this investigation built guided for subjects dopaminergic dysfunction in the time judgment, pharmacological models with levodopa and new studies on the time perception in Parkinson's Disease...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Misun Kim, Eleanor A Maguire
Humans commonly operate within 3D environments such as multifloor buildings and yet there is a surprising dearth of studies that have examined how these spaces are represented in the brain. Here, we had participants learn the locations of paintings within a virtual multilevel gallery building and then used behavioral tests and fMRI repetition suppression analyses to investigate how this 3D multicompartment space was represented, and whether there was a bias in encoding vertical and horizontal information. We found faster response times for within-room egocentric spatial judgments and behavioral priming effects of visiting the same room, providing evidence for a compartmentalized representation of space...
March 15, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
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