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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645212/google-searches-for-cheap-cigarettes-spike-at-tax-increases-evidence-from-an-algorithm-to-detect-spikes-in-time-series-data
#1
Theodore L Caputi
Introduction: Online cigarette dealers have lower prices than brick-and-mortar retailers and advertise tax-free status 1-8. Previous studies show smokers search out these online alternatives at the time of a cigarette tax increase 9-10. However, these studies rely upon researchers' decision to consider a specific date and preclude the possibility that researchers focus on the wrong date. The purpose of this study is to introduce an unbiased methodology to the field of observing search patterns and to use this methodology to determine whether smokers search Google for "cheap cigarettes" at cigarette tax increases and, if so, whether the increased level of searches persists...
June 22, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645202/effects-of-mobility-and-multimorbidity-on-inpatient-and-post-acute-health-care-utilization
#2
Kristine E Ensrud, Li-Yung Lui, Lisa Langsetmo, Tien N Vo, Brent C Taylor, Peggy M Cawthon, Meredith L Kilgore, Charles E McCulloch, Jane A Cauley, Marcia L Stefanick, Kristine Yaffe, Eric S Orwoll, John T Schousboe
Background: This study examines effects of mobility and multimorbidity on hospitalization and inpatient and post-acute care (PAC) facility days among older men. Methods: Prospective study of 1701 men (mean age 79.3 years) participating in MrOS Study Year 7 (Y7) examination (2007-2008) linked with their Medicare claims. At Y7, mobility ascertained by usual gait speed and categorized as poor, intermediate, or good. Multimorbidity quantified by applying Elixhauser algorithm to inpatient and outpatient claims and categorized as none, mild-moderate, or high...
June 22, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645137/-to-take-or-not-to-take-the-association-between-perceived-addiction-risk-expected-analgesic-response-and-likelihood-of-trying-novel-pain-relievers-in-self-identified-chronic-pain-patients
#3
D Andrew Tompkins, Andrew S Huhn, Patrick S Johnson, Michael T Smith, Eric C Strain, Robert R Edwards, Matthew W Johnson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Probability discounting refers to the effect of outcome uncertainty on decision making. Using probability discounting, we examined the degree to which self-identified chronic pain patients (CPP) were likely to try a novel analgesic medication given increasing addiction risk. We postulated that propensity for opioid misuse, trait impulsivity, and previous opioid experience would be positively associated with likelihood of risky medication use. DESIGN: This cross-sectional online study determined state/trait associations with addiction-related medication decisions in CPP...
June 23, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644919/signaling-and-epigenetic-mechanisms-of-intestinal-stem-cells-and-progenitors-insight-into-crypt-homeostasis-plasticity-and-niches
#4
REVIEW
Ryan J Smith, Abilasha Rao-Bhatia, Tae-Hee Kim
The rapid turnover of intestinal epithelial cells is maintained by a small number of stem cells located in pocket-like gland structures called crypts. While our understanding of the identity and function of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) has rapidly progressed, epigenetic and transcriptional regulation in crypt stem cell and progenitor pools remains an active field of investigation. Surrounded by various types of cells in the stroma, crypt progenitors display high levels of plasticity, harboring the ability to interconvert in the face of epithelial damage...
June 23, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644890/drivers-of-coral-reef-marine-protected-area-performance
#5
Venetia Alexa Hargreaves-Allen, Susana Mourato, Eleanor Jane Milner-Gulland
Coral reefs are severely threatened and a principal strategy for their conservation is marine protected areas (MPAs). However the drivers of MPA performance are complex and there are likely to be trade-offs between different types of performance (e.g. conservation or welfare related outcomes). We compiled a global dataset from expert knowledge for 76 coral reef MPAs in 33 countries and identified a set of performance measures reflecting ecological and socio-economic outcomes, achievement of aims and reduction of threats, using spatial or temporal comparisons wherever possible...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644835/physician-assessments-of-drug-seeking-behavior-a-mixed-methods-study
#6
Michael A Fischer, John B McKinlay, Jeffrey N Katz, Eric Gerstenberger, Felicia Trachtenberg, Lisa D Marceau, Lisa C Welch
BACKGROUND: Pain complaints are common, but clinicians are increasingly concerned about overuse of opioid pain medications. This may lead patients with actual pain to be stigmatized as "drug-seeking," or attempting to obtain medications they do not require medically. We assessed whether patient requests for specific opioid pain medication would lead physicians to classify them as drug-seeking and change management decisions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Mixed-methods analysis of interviews with 192 office-based primary care physicians after viewing video vignettes depicting patients presenting with back pain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644786/antecedents-and-consequences-of-medical-students-moral-decision-making-during-professionalism-dilemmas
#7
Lynn Monrouxe, Malissa Shaw, Charlotte Rees
Medical students often experience professionalism dilemmas (which differ from ethical dilemmas) wherein students sometimes witness and/or participate in patient safety, dignity, and consent lapses. When faced with such dilemmas, students make moral decisions. If students' action (or inaction) runs counter to their perceived moral values-often due to organizational constraints or power hierarchies-they can suffer moral distress, burnout, or a desire to leave the profession. If moral transgressions are rationalized as being for the greater good, moral distress can decrease as dilemmas are experienced more frequently (habituation); if no learner benefit is seen, distress can increase with greater exposure to dilemmas (disturbance)...
June 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644784/how-should-physicians-respond-when-the-best-treatment-for-an-individual-patient-conflicts-with-practice-guidelines-about-the-use-of-a-limited-resource
#8
Edmund G Howe
The case presents a physician's ethical conflict, due to limited resources, between his obligations to meet the needs of a community and those of his patient. Elements of the decision-making process (and who should make the decision) are discussed, including the limitations of what ethical reasoning can offer and risks of arbitrary outcomes. Additionally, potential benefits to physicians and their patients of discussing these conflicts, including reducing the physician's moral distress, are noted. I argue that physicians' abilities to make "right" decisions in such situations are limited, and I suggest ways in which physicians can try to preserve their relationships with patients...
June 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644772/risk-stratification-for-second-primary-lung-cancer
#9
Summer S Han, Gabriel A Rivera, Martin C Tammemägi, Sylvia K Plevritis, Scarlett L Gomez, Iona Cheng, Heather A Wakelee
Purpose This study estimated the 10-year risk of developing second primary lung cancer (SPLC) among survivors of initial primary lung cancer (IPLC) and evaluated the clinical utility of the risk prediction model for selecting eligibility criteria for screening. Methods SEER data were used to identify a population-based cohort of 20,032 participants diagnosed with IPLC between 1988 and 2003 and who survived ≥ 5 years after the initial diagnosis. We used a proportional subdistribution hazards model to estimate the 10-year risk of developing SPLC among survivors of lung cancer LC in the presence of competing risks...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644738/national-survey-and-analysis-of-barriers-to-the-utilisation-of-the-2005-mental-capacity-act-by-people-with-bipolar-disorder-in-england-and-wales
#10
Richard Morriss, Mohan Mudigonda, Peter Bartlett, Arun Chopra, Steven Jones
BACKGROUND: The Mental Capacity Act (2005) (MCA) provides a legal framework for advance planning for both health and welfare in England and Wales for people if they lose mental capacity, for example, through mania or severe depression. AIMS: To determine the proportion of people with bipolar disorder (BD) who utilise advance planning, their experience of using it and barriers to its implementation. METHODS: National survey of people with clinical diagnosis of BD of their knowledge, use and experience of the MCA...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644692/hyperbaric-oxygen-may-only-be-optional-in-head-and-neck-necrotizing-fasciitis-a-retrospective-analysis-of-43-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Jens Faunø Thrane, Arunas Pikelis, Therese Ovesen
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing fasciitis in the head and neck (NF-HN) is a rare and potentially life-threatening condition. The use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in the acute regimen is disputed and there is a lack of evidence of therapeutic effect. This study aims to describe a retrospective cohort of patients with NF-HN and investigate the use of HBOT and consequences thereof. METHODS: All patients treated for NF-HN at Aarhus University Hospital (AUH) between 2002 and 2014 were included in this retrospective cohort...
June 23, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644589/when-do-we-think-it-is-safe-to-drive-after-hand-surgery-current-practice-and-legal-perspective
#12
S F Murphy, J D Martin-Smith, W Martin-Smith, E O'Broin, A J P Clover
Patients recovering from hand surgery frequently ask when it is safe to drive and it is unclear where the responsibility lies; the surgeon, the patient or the insurance company. An eight-question survey looking at various aspects of clinical practice was circulated to consultant and trainee plastic and orthopaedic surgeons in Ireland and the UK. Of the 89 surgeons who replied, (53%) felt the decision when to drive was the patient's compared with the insurance company (40%) and the surgeon (7%). 80% advised patients to contact their insurance company...
December 12, 2016: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644450/tough-decisions-about-protocol-review
#13
Patricia A Preisig, Jerald Silverman, Patricia Brown, Nicolette Petervary
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 23, 2017: Lab Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644335/practice-bulletin-number-179-breast-cancer-risk-assessment-and-screening-in-average-risk-women
#14
(no author information available yet)
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women in the United States and the second leading cause of cancer death in American women (1). Regular screening mammography starting at age 40 years reduces breast cancer mortality in average-risk women (2). Screening, however, also exposes women to harm through false-positive test results and overdiagnosis of biologically indolent lesions. Differences in balancing benefits and harms have led to differences among major guidelines about what age to start, what age to stop, and how frequently to recommend mammography screening in average-risk women (2-4)...
July 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644328/practice-bulletin-no-179-summary-breast-cancer-risk-assessment-and-screening-in-average-risk-women
#15
(no author information available yet)
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women in the United States and the second leading cause of cancer death in American women (1). Regular screening mammography starting at age 40 years reduces breast cancer mortality in average-risk women (2). Screening, however, also exposes women to harm through false-positive test results and overdiagnosis of biologically indolent lesions. Differences in balancing benefits and harms have led to differences among major guidelines about what age to start, what age to stop, and how frequently to recommend mammography screening in average-risk women (2-4)...
July 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644300/breathlessness-in-the-primary-care-setting
#16
Noel Baxter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Breathlessness is a high-volume problem with 10% of adults experiencing the symptom daily placing a heavy burden on the health and wider economy. As it worsens, they enter the specialist and hospital-based symptom services where costs quickly escalate and people may find themselves in a place not of their choosing. For many, their care will be delivered by a disease or organ specialist and can find themselves passing between physicians without coordination for symptom support...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644263/mind-the-facts
#17
Maureen Shawn Kennedy
Nurses must become active in protecting science and evidence-based decision making.
July 2017: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644261/is-intravenous-thrombolysis-safe-and-effective-in-central-retinal-artery-occlusion-a-critically-appraised-topic
#18
Oana M Dumitrascu, Joanne F Shen, Madhavi Kurli, Maria I Aguilar, Lisa A Marks, Bart M Demaerschalk, Dean M Wingerchuk, Cumara B O'Carroll
BACKGROUND: Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is a neurological and ophthalmologic emergency associated with poor visual recovery. There is a dilemma regarding the appropriate treatment, as formal guidelines are lacking. Despite being considered an ocular equivalent of cerebral infarction, the time window of intravenous (IV) thrombolysis administration for maximum efficacy and safety in CRAO remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To critically assess the current evidence regarding the safety and effectiveness of IV thrombolysis in the treatment of patients with CRAO...
July 2017: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644260/intravenous-alteplase-for-acute-stroke-and-pulmonary-embolism-in-a-patient-with-recent-abdominoplasty
#19
Michael E Christiansen, Gyanendra Kumar, Raman C Mahabir, Richard A Helmers, Bernard R Bendok, Cumara B O'Carroll
INTRODUCTION: Major surgery in the past 14 days is a relative contraindication to treatment of acute stroke with intravenous (IV) alteplase. The 2016 American Heart Association/American Stroke Association scientific statement discussing inclusion and exclusion criteria for alteplase in acute stroke allows for provider judgment citing a lack of evidence to support surgery as an absolute contraindication. CASE REPORT: A 59-year-old woman presented with acute left hemiparesis, dysarthria, and acute respiratory failure...
July 2017: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644251/risk-factors-etiological-classification-topographical-location-and-outcome-in-medullary-infarctions
#20
Elif Gökçal, Gözde Baran, Elvin Niftaliyev, Vildan Güzel, Talip Asil
An understanding of the etiological mechanisms is important for therapeutic decisions and prognostic evaluation of patients with ischemic stroke. The object of this study was to evaluate the risk factors, etiological subtypes, and topography of lesion in patients with medullary infarctions (MIs). Besides, we also investigated early neurological deterioration, new vascular events, and functional outcome of all patients at 3-month follow-up. We analyzed our database consisting of patients who were diagnosed with acute MI and who were admitted within 24 hours of onset...
July 2017: Neurologist
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