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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813093/where-is-sugarcane-cropping-expanding-in-the-brazilian-cerrado-and-why-a-case-study
#1
Murilo R DE Arruda, Ken E Giller, Maja Slingerland
Sugarcane growing area in Brazil sharply expanded between 2000 and 2010 due to the increasing world demand for sugar and ethanol. Since this expansion of sugarcane is said to occur in areas covered by degraded pastures, it is likely not threatening the environment or food production. In order to verify this assumption, we investigate at farm and field levels which types of land use sugarcane cropping replaced between 2005 and 2010 and the reasons for farmers shifting or not shifting to sugarcane, as a case study in two counties in the state of Goiás...
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812995/optimizing-waveform-maximum-determination-for-specular-point-tracking-in-airborne-gnss-r
#2
Erwan Motte, Mehrez Zribi
Airborne GNSS-R campaigns are crucial to the understanding of signal interactions with the Earth's surface. As a consequence of the specific geometric configurations arising during measurements from aircraft, the reflected signals can be difficult to interpret under certain conditions like over strongly attenuating media such as forests, or when the reflected signal is contaminated by the direct signal. For these reasons, there are many cases where the reflectivity is overestimated, or a portion of the dataset has to be flagged as unusable...
August 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812892/designer-extracts-as-tools-to-balance-estrogenic-and-chemopreventive-activities-of-botanicals-for-women-s-health
#3
Birgit M Dietz, Shao-Nong Chen, René F Ramos Alvarenga, Huali Dong, Dejan Nikolić, Martin Biendl, Richard B van Breemen, Judy L Bolton, Guido F Pauli
Botanical dietary supplements contain multiple bioactive compounds that target numerous biological pathways. The lack of uniform standardization requirements is one reason that inconsistent clinical effects are reported frequently. The multifaceted biological interactions of active principles can be disentangled by a coupled pharmacological/phytochemical approach using specialized ("knock-out") extracts. This is demonstrated for hops, a botanical for menopausal symptom management. Employing targeted, adsorbent-free countercurrent separation, Humulus lupulus extracts were designed for pre- and postmenopausal women by containing various amounts of the phytoestrogen 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN) and the chemopreventive constituent xanthohumol (XH)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812873/ultrathin-manganese-based-metal-organic-framework-nanosheets-low-cost-and-energy-dense-lithium-storage-anodes-with-the-coexistence-of-metal-and-ligand-redox-activities
#4
Chao Li, Xiaoshi Hu, Wei Tong, Wensheng Yan, Xiaobing Lou, Ming Shen, Bingwen Hu
We herein demonstrate the fabrication of Mn- and Ni-based ultrathin metal-organic framework nanosheets with the same coordination mode (defined as 'Mn-UMOFNs' and 'Ni-UMOFNs', respectively) through an expedient and versatile ultrasonic approach, and scrutinize their electrochemical properties as anode materials for rechargeable lithium battery for the first time. The obtained Mn-UMOFNs with structure advantages over Ni-UMOFNs (thinner nanosheets, smaller metal-ion radius, higher specific surface area) exhibit high reversible capacity (1187 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1 for 100 cycles), excellent rate capability (701 mAh g-1 even at 2 A g-1), rapid Li+ diffusion coefficient (2...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812818/assessing-the-health-impact-of-trade-a-call-for-an-expanded-research-agenda-comment-on-the-trans-pacific-partnership-is-it-everything-we-feared-for-health
#5
Courtney McNamara
Labonté et al provide an insightful analysis of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and its impact on a selection of important health determinants. Their work confirms concerns raised by previous analyses of leaked drafts and offers governments serious and timely reasons to carefully consider provisions of the agreement prior to moving forward with ratification. It also contributes more generally to a growing literature focused on identifying the health impacts of trade. This commentary uses the authors' analysis as a starting point to reflect on two interrelated issues relevant both for taking seriously one of the article's main recommendations and future work in the area of trade and health...
September 14, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812801/four-challenges-that-global-health-networks-face
#6
EDITORIAL
Jeremy Shiffman
Global health networks, webs of individuals and organizations with a shared concern for a particular condition, have proliferated over the past quarter century. They differ in their effectiveness, a factor that may help explain why resource allocations vary across health conditions and do not correspond closely with disease burden. Drawing on findings from recently concluded studies of eight global health networks-addressing alcohol harm, early childhood development (ECD), maternal mortality, neonatal mortality, pneumonia, surgically-treatable conditions, tobacco use, and tuberculosis-I identify four challenges that networks face in generating attention and resources for the conditions that concern them...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812412/an-investigation-into-discharge-visual-perception-and-appearance-concerns-of-prosthetic-eye-wearers
#7
Nicola S Pine, Ian de Terte, Keith R Pine
We investigate prosthetic eye wearers' initial and current concerns about mucoid discharge, visual perception, and appearance, and the reasons for their concerns. A retrospective, cross-sectional study of private practice patients was designed. Participants were 217 experienced prosthetic eye wearers, aged at least 16 years. An anonymous questionnaire was e-mailed or mailed to participants. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to investigate differences or correlations between variables. Content analysis was used to analyze participants' open responses...
August 16, 2017: Orbit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812397/to-what-extent-can-soft-tissue-releases-improve-hip-displacement-in-cerebral-palsy
#8
Terje Terjesen
Background and purpose - Hip displacement is frequent in nonambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP) and treatment is controversial. This prospective study assesses the effectiveness of soft-tissue releases to treat hip subluxation, analyses prognostic factors for outcome, and identifies time to failure in hips with poor outcome. Patients and methods - 37 children (16 girls) with hip subluxation were recruited from the population-based screening program for children with CP in Norway. They had consecutively undergone soft-tissue releases (bilateral tenotomies of adductors and iliopsoas) at a mean age of 5...
August 16, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812381/retrospective-review-of-sglt2-inhibitor-exposures-reported-to-13-poison-centers
#9
Scott E Schaeffer, Carol DesLauriers, Henry A Spiller, Alfred Aleguas, Salvador Baeza, Mark L Ryan
BACKGROUND: SGLT2 inhibitors are a new class of oral antidiabetics prescribed in the United States since 2013. They act by inhibiting reabsorption of glucose in the proximal convoluted tubule of the kidney, allowing excess glucose to be excreted. Little has been reported regarding effects of non-therapeutic exposure to this class of medication. METHODS: Retrospective records from 13 poison centers were examined for human exposures to SGLT2 inhibitors between 1st January 2013 and 31st December 2016...
August 16, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812379/dietary-polyphenols-for-atherosclerosis-a-comprehensive-review-and-future-perspectives
#10
Roodabeh Bahramsoltani, Farnaz Ebrahimi, Mohammad Hosein Farzaei, Armaghan Baratpourmoghaddam, Pardis Ahmadi Borkani, Pourouchista Rostamiasrabadi, Amir Hosein Rasouli Amirabadi, Roja Rahimi
Atherosclerosis is one of the most prevalent reasons for premature death in adults. Despite the several conventional drugs in the market; many patients are not completely treated. Here we comprehensively review current clinical evidence regarding the efficacy of dietary polyphenols in atherosclerosis and related complications. PubMed, Cochrane library and Scopus were searched from inception until August 2016 to obtain clinical trials in which polyphenols were evaluated in cardiovascular parameters related to atherosclerosis...
August 16, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812286/occupational-exposures-and-health-outcomes-among-immigrants-in-the-usa
#11
REVIEW
Sally C Moyce, Marc Schenker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immigrants experience higher rates of occupational injury and fatality than their native-born counterparts. This review summarizes the current data related to occupational/environmental exposures and explores potential reasons for the disparities. RECENT FINDINGS: Immigrant workers are employed in sectors that expose them to dangerous working conditions. They experience increased risk for exposure to heat, pesticides, hazardous chemicals, and cleaning agents, as well as physical hazards such as falls...
August 15, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812280/effect-of-missing-inter-beat-interval-data-on-heart-rate-variability-analysis-using-wrist-worn-wearables
#12
Hyun Jae Baek, JaeWook Shin
Most of the wrist-worn devices on the market provide a continuous heart rate measurement function using photoplethysmography, but have not yet provided a function to measure the continuous heart rate variability (HRV) using beat-to-beat pulse interval. The reason for such is the difficulty of measuring a continuous pulse interval during movement using a wearable device because of the nature of photoplethysmography, which is susceptible to motion noise. This study investigated the effect of missing heart beat interval data on the HRV analysis in cases where pulse interval cannot be measured because of movement noise...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812279/the-effects-of-li-nb-ratio-on-the-preparation-and-photocatalytic-performance-of-li-nb-o-compounds
#13
Haifa Zhai, Hairui Liu, Hongjing Li, Liuyang Zheng, Chunjie Hu, Zhao Wang, Jingjing Qi, Jien Yang
The effects of Li/Nb ratio on the preparation of Li-Nb-O compounds by a hydrothermal method were studied deeply. Li/Nb ratio has a great impact on the formation of LiNbO3; the ratio smaller than 3:1 is beneficial to the formation of LiNbO3, while larger than 3:1, forms no LiNbO3 at all and the morphology and chemical bond of Nb2O5 raw material are totally modified by Li ions. The reason can be attributed to the large content of LiOH, which is beneficial to form Li3NbO4 not LiNbO3, and also, even if LiNbO3 particle locally forms, it is easily dissolved in LiOH solution with strong alkalinity...
August 15, 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812235/patent-ethics-the-misalignment-of-views-between-the-patent-system-and-the-wider-society
#14
Ellen-Marie Forsberg, Anders Braarud Hanssen, Hanne Marie Nielsen, Ingrid Olesen
Concerns have been voiced about the ethical implications of patenting practices in the field of biotechnology. Some of these have also been incorporated into regulation, such as the European Commission Directive 98/44 on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions. However, the incorporation of ethically based restrictions into patent legislation has not had the effect of satisfying all concerns. In this article, we will systematically compare the richness of ethical concerns surrounding biotech patenting, with the limited scope of ethical concerns actually addressed in the patent system...
August 15, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812227/effects-of-fluoride-on-surface-structure-of-primary-culture-leydig-cells-in-mouse
#15
Jian Li, Yan Shi, Hua Fan, Yanyan Li, Yuchen Zhu, Xijun Lin, Jianhai Zhang
Fluoride (F) is known to induce reproduction toxicity, and the elucidation of its underlying mechanisms is an ongoing research. These findings aim to provide deeper insights into roles of soduim fluoride (NaF) in testis damage, which could contribute to a better understanding of fluoride-induced male reproductive toxicity. The Leydig cells were administrated by 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/L NaF for 24 h, respectively. Scanning electron microscope was used to identify the change of surface structure in the Leydig cells...
August 15, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812133/-watchful-waiting-as-a-therapeutic-principle-for-diseases-of-the-vitreoretinal-interface
#16
REVIEW
H Hoerauf, B Kirchhof
Elective surgery of the vitreoretinal interface is currently the most common reason for vitrectomy in Germany. The evaluation and correct interpretation of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images is of great importance but the indications for vitrectomy in macular surgery should be based more on patient symptoms and not only the OCT findings. Watchful waiting is highlighted as an alternative therapeutic option in individual patients. This article addresses a number of aspects and discrepancies between findings and patients' level of suffering based on binocular symptoms...
August 15, 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812110/-extra-axial-tumors-of-the-central-nervous-system
#17
REVIEW
R Mühl-Benninghaus
Extra-axial tumors are intracranial neoplasms but are not located within the brain parenchyma. The localization of intracranial neoplasms helps to narrow down the possible differential diagnoses and also plays a deciding role in the treatment strategy and the prognosis. For this reason exact localization of these lesions is extremely important. Extra-axial tumors are the most common neoplasms among adults. They can be divided in a broad spectrum of histopathological subgroups. The most common extra-axial tumors are meningiomas, which arise from the dura mater...
August 15, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812095/-working-hour-preferences-of-female-and-male-residents-developments-over-4%C3%A2-years-of-postgraduate-medical-training-in-germany
#18
REVIEW
Stine Ziegler, Lea Krause-Solberg, Martin Scherer, Hendrik van den Bussche
OBJECTIVES: This article addresses developments regarding working hours and working hour preferences of residents undergoing postgraduate training in Germany and analyses if, and for what reasons, full-time or part-time working models are preferred. METHODS: The source of data is the KarMed study, which is based on yearly postal surveys carried out among graduates of the year 2008/2009 from seven medical faculties in Germany. The interviews took place during the entire postgraduate training period...
August 15, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812079/computational-evaluation-of-aluminophosphate-zeotypes-for-co2-n2-separation
#19
Michael Fischer
Zeolites and structurally related materials (zeotypes) have received considerable attention as potential adsorbents for selective carbon dioxide adsorption. Within this group, zeotypes with aluminophosphate composition (AlPOs) could be an interesting alternative to the more frequently studied aluminosilicate zeolites. So far, however, only a few AlPOs have been characterised experimentally in terms of their CO2 adsorption properties. In this study, force-field based grand-canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations were used to evaluate the potential of AlPOs for CO2/N2 separation, a binary mixture that constitutes a suitable model system for the removal of carbon dioxide from flue gases...
August 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812036/incidence-of-sports-related-concussion-among-ncaa-women-s-ice-hockey-athletes
#20
Emily M Brook, Emily Kroshus, Caroline H Hu, Marissa Gedman, Jamie E Collins, Elizabeth G Matzkin
BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the incidence of concussion and concussion symptom nondisclosure among collegiate women's ice hockey athletes. PURPOSE: To determine the incidence of sports-related concussion (SRC) in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) women's ice hockey athletes. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study. METHODS: An anonymous online survey was completed by 459 NCAA women's ice hockey athletes...
July 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
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