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Meningitis in children

Adam W Bartlett, Ben Smith, C R Robert George, Brendan McMullan, Alison Kesson, Monica M Lahra, Dip Paed, Pamela Palasanthiran
BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a recognized cause of sepsis and meningitis, particularly in infants. Early onset (<7 days) GBS disease has been well characterized, whereas the epidemiology of late onset disease (LOD, 7-89 days) and very late onset disease (VLOD, ≥90 days) is less well understood. The aims of this study were to assess risk factors, presentation, management, and outcome for GBS LOD and VLOD. METHODS: Microbiology laboratory databases and hospital diagnostic coding for Sydney Children's Hospital and the Children's Hospital at Westmead were investigated for patients ≥ 7 days of age diagnosed with GBS bloodstream infection or meningitis from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2014 (15 years)...
October 3, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Andrea Streng, Veit Grote, Anita Rack-Hoch, Johannes G Liese
BACKGROUND: Universal varicella vaccination for one-year-old children was introduced in Germany in 2004. We investigated changes in incidence and type of varicella-associated neurologic complications in children during the first 7 years after universal vaccination recommendation. METHODS: Surveillance study based on patients <17 years of age with an International Classification of Diseases (10 Revision, ICD-10) discharge diagnosis of varicella, annually reported by 22-29 pediatric hospitals in Bavaria (Germany), 2005 to 2011...
October 3, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Lorena Monge Galindo, Ruth Fernando Martínez, Cristina Fuertes Rodrigo, David Fustero de Miguel, Victoria Pueyo Royo, Juan Pablo García Iñiguez, Javier López-Pisón, José Luis Peña-Segura
INTRODUCTION: We present our experience on idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), before and after the introduction of a specific diagnosis and management protocol. METHOD: A descriptive retrospective study was conducted on patients with IIH over a 25year period (1990-2015), comparing the last 7years (after introduction of the protocol) with the previous 18years. RESULTS: Among the 18,865 patients evaluated, there were 54 cases of IIH (29 infants and 25 children)...
October 13, 2016: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Laurence Ducharme-Crevier, Michele G Mills, Priya M Mehta, Craig M Smith, Mark S Wainwright
BACKGROUND: The primary objective of this study was to characterize changes in cerebral blood flow measured using transcranial Doppler in children with central nervous system infections. We hypothesized that children with central nervous system infections have abnormal cerebral blood flow, associated with a greater frequency of complications and poor neurological outcome. METHODS: We conducted a single-center, retrospective study of children admitted to the neonatal or pediatric intensive care unit with central nervous system infection and undergoing transcranial Doppler as part of routine care between March 2011 and July 2015...
September 4, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Shashikant Srivastava, Devyani Deshpande, Jotam Pasipanodya, Eric Nuermberger, Soumya Swaminathan, Tawanda Gumbo
BACKGROUND:  When treated with the same antibiotic dose, children achieve different 0- to 24-hour area under the concentration-time curves (AUC0-24) because of maturation and between-child physiological variability on drug clearance. Children are also infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates with different antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Thus, each child will achieve different AUC0-24/MIC ratios when treated with the same dose. METHODS:  We used 10 000-subject Monte Carlo experiments to identify the oral doses of linezolid, moxifloxacin, and faropenem that would achieve optimal target exposures associated with optimal efficacy in children with disseminated tuberculosis...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Mansour Amin, Mozhgan Ghaderpanah, Tahereh Navidifar
Meningitis is a life-threatening infection associated with a high mortality and morbidity worldwide. Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most prevalent infectious agents that cause bacterial meningitis (BM). The objective of this study was to determine the frequencies of these three bacteria using bacterial cultures and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In our cross-sectional study, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were obtained from 196 patients who were suspected of having BM and referred to the pediatric ward of Abuzar Hospital (Ahvaz, Iran)...
October 2016: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
Rutger Bennet, Margareta Eriksson
AIM: This study described the epidemiology and clinical features of childhood tuberculosis (TB) in Stockholm over a 45-year period, when there was a resurge of tuberculosis concomitant with increased immigration. METHODS: We describe 220 children up to the age of 16 years with active TB, seen at the Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital from 1971-2015. The study period was divided into three 15-year periods. RESULTS: Cases increased from 10 children in 1971-1985 to 76 in 1986-2000 and 134 in 2001-2015, with overall incidence increasing from <1 to four per 100,000...
October 14, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
N Laventhal, A A E Verhagen, T W R Hansen, E Dempsey, P G Davis, G A Musante, A Wiles, W Meadow, A Janvier
OBJECTIVE: Ethically and legally, assertions that resuscitation is in a patient's best interest should be inversely correlated with willingness to forego intensive care (and accept comfort care) at the surrogate's request. Previous single country studies have demonstrated a relative devaluation of neonates when compared with other critically ill patients. STUDY DESIGN: In this international study, physicians in Argentina, Australia, Canada, Ireland, The Netherlands, Norway and the United States were presented with eight hypothetical vignettes of incompetent critically ill patients of different ages...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
R Solomons, M Grantham, B J Marais, R van Toorn
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in children is often delayed, with disastrous consequences. The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy aims to ensure the accurate assessment of ill children using simple yet reliable clinical signs. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study of 30 consecutive children aged 3 months to 5 years diagnosed with TBM at Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. Clinical records were reviewed to assess diagnostic delay and identify IMCI indicators that were present at the time of initial presentation...
October 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Joseph S Van Tuyl, Aubrey N Jones, Peter N Johnson
Postmarketing surveillance has associated meropenem with the development of hematologic abnormalities, including agranulocytosis, neutropenia, and leukopenia, but the exact incidence in children is unknown. The case describes a full-term, 26-day-old neonate admitted for a sepsis workup. She was found to have a blood culture positive for Enterobacter cloacae and suspected meningitis and was initiated on meropenem 40 mg/kg/dose intravenously every 8 hours. On day 14 of antibiotic treatment, the patient developed an isolated neutropenia with an absolute neutrophil count of 288 cells/mm(3)...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
Jasmin B Kuemmerle-Deschner, Seza Ozen, Pascal N Tyrrell, Isabelle Kone-Paut, Raphaela Goldbach-Mansky, Helen Lachmann, Norbert Blank, Hal M Hoffman, Elisabeth Weissbarth-Riedel, Boris Hugle, Tilmann Kallinich, Marco Gattorno, Ahmet Gul, Nienke Ter Haar, Marlen Oswald, Fatma Dedeoglu, Luca Cantarini, Susanne M Benseler
Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) is a rare, heterogeneous disease entity associated with NLRP3 gene mutations and increased interleukin-1 (IL-1) secretion. Early diagnosis and rapid initiation of IL-1 inhibition prevent organ damage. The aim of the study was to develop and validate diagnostic criteria for CAPS. An innovative process was followed including interdisciplinary team building, item generation: review of CAPS registries, systematic literature review, expert surveys, consensus conferences for item refinement, item reduction and weighting using 1000Minds decision software...
October 4, 2016: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Yanju Zhu, Xi Zhou, Jiansheng Liu, Longhui Xia, Yue Pan, Junying Chen, Na Luo, Jianzhong Yin, Shaohui Ma
Human enteroviruses (EVs) are the major causative agents of aseptic meningitis. In this study, a total of 524 children were admitted to the children Kunming hospital (continental China) for aseptic meningitis manifestations in 2009 and 2010. An EV infection was diagnosed in 85/524 children (16.2 %) and the viruses detected were assigned to 16 serotypes. Most serotypes belonged to the enterovirus B species. Echovirus 9 was predominant (24.7 %), followed by coxsackievirus B5 (23.5 %) and then echovirus 30 (16...
2016: SpringerPlus
J Gaudelus, F Denis, R Cohen, J-P Stahl, P Pujol, E Gauthier, A Martinot
: Repeating evaluations of vaccine coverage (VC) is essential to measure the implementation and effectiveness of vaccination policy. We report the results of VC in infants from the Vaccinoscopie(®) study in 2014 to assess the changes secondary to the new 2013 immunization schedule. METHOD: Study conducted on Internet among a representative sample of mothers reporting their child's vaccination record. RESULTS: The removal of the dose of DTPa-Hib at the age of 3 months was quickly adopted since only 1 % of children aged 6 months had received three doses of DTPa in 2014 compared to 96 % in 2012...
October 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
M Levy, M-T Abi-Warde, A-C Rameau, S Fafi-Kremer, Y Hansmann, M Fischbach, L Higel
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is an arbovirus induced by tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) transmitted by tick bite. The disease is rare in France (two to three cases per year) but endemic zones extend from Western Europe to the east coast of Asia (10,000-15,000 cases per year). An 8-year-old boy was admitted to our pediatric ward in Strasbourg (France) for febrile headache with diplopia. Four days after a tick bite, he declared a febrile headache together with maculopapular rash on the elbows, knees, and cheeks...
October 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Maurice Gatera, Jeannine Uwimana, Emmanuel Manzi, Fidele Ngabo, Friday Nwaigwe, Bradford D Gessner, Jennifer C Moïsi
BACKGROUND: Ongoing surveillance is critical to assessing pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) impact over time. However, robust prospective studies are difficult to implement in resource-poor settings. We evaluated retrospective use of routinely collected data to estimate PCV impact in Rwanda. METHODS: We collected data from admission registers at five district hospitals on children age <5yearsadmitted for suspected meningitis and pneumonia during 2002-2012...
October 17, 2016: Vaccine
Seyed Bahman Momen, Seyed Davar Siadat, Neda Akbari, Bijan Ranjbar, Khosro Khajeh
BACKGROUND: Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis, otitis media, pneumonia, cellulitis, bacteremia, and septic arthritis in infants and young children. The Hib capsule contains the major virulence factor, and is composed of polyribosyl ribitol phosphate (PRP) that can induce immune system response. Vaccines consisting of Hib capsular polysaccharide (PRP) conjugated to a carrier protein are effective in the prevention of the infections. However, due to costly processes in PRP production, these vaccines are too expensive...
June 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
Marcela Potin, Alberto Fica, Jan Wilhem, Jaime Cerda, Lily Contreras, Carola Escobar, Gabriela Moreno, Alma Muñoz, Liliana Véliz
Inclusion of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV10) in the Chilean infant vaccination Program in 2011 was followed by a reduction of hospital admissions and pneumonia-related deaths in this age group. However, a progressive increase of serotype 19A pneumococcal isolates (not included in PCV10) has been observed. According to the analysis of pneumococcal strains performed by the national reference laboratory of the Institute of Public Health as part of a national surveillance on invasive pneumococcal infections, the relative proportion of serotype 19A isolates increased from <5% before 2010 to 12-23% in years 2014-2015...
June 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Hanan Mohammed Al Qahtani, Khalid Suliman Aljoqiman, Hisham Arabi, Hesham Al Shaalan, Sumit Singh
We report a case of a 14-month-old girl with undiagnosed Currarino triad presenting acutely with meningitis caused by enteric commensals. Head CT demonstrated a large pneumocephalus. A fistulous neurenteric tract through a presacral mass was present on spine MRI and abdominal CT. The patient had a history of constipation for the last three months. However, an underlying diagnosis of Currarino triad had not been suspected. In retrospect, a sickle-shaped sacral anomaly was present on a previous abdominal radiograph...
2016: Case Reports in Radiology
Elham Ekhtiyari, Mohammad Barzegar, Amir Mehdizadeh, Maghsood Shaaker, Sepideh Ghodoosifar, Alireza Abhari, Masoud Darabi
PURPOSE: Meningitis is relatively common in infants and young children and can cause permanent brain damage. The aim of this study was to determine whether meningitis is associated with fatty acids in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). METHODS: CSF samples from children between 3 months and 6 years of age admitted to the Tabriz public hospitals who met clinical criteria of meningitis were collected at enrollment. A total of 81 samples were analyzed for fatty acid profile by gas-liquid chromatography...
September 5, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Robert Cohen, Emmanuelle Varon, Stéphane Béchet, Stéphane Bonacorsi, Corinne Levy
BACKGROUND: Several underlying conditions increase the risk of pneumococcal meningitis (PM) in childhood. Patients with these diseases are initially considered as an important target of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). Limited data are available for PM in children with underlying conditions. To understand the benefits of PCV7 followed by PCV13 in this vulnerable population, we analyzed the data for a large cohort of pediatric patients with PM in France from 2001 to 2014. METHODS: We conducted hospital-based active surveillance with 227 pediatric wards working with 168 microbiology departments throughout France...
September 22, 2016: Vaccine
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