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Meningitis in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326000/epidemiology-of-tuberculosis-in-spain-results-obtained-by-the-national-epidemiological-surveillance-network-in-2015
#1
Rosa Cano-Portero, Rocío Amillategui-Dos Santos, Raquel Boix-Martínez, Amparo Larrauri-Cámara
The epidemiological surveillance data for tuberculosis in Spain in 2015 is analysed in this report. This information was gathered through cases reported to the Red Nacional de Vigilancia Epidemiológica [National Epidemiological Surveillance Network]. In addition, the update of the treatment of the cases reported in 2014 is included. The incidence rate of tuberculosis in 2015 was 10.59 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, 10% less than in 2014. This decrease was mainly due to the sustained decreased trend of pulmonary tuberculosis rates, from other locations and in adults, while for cases of tuberculous meningitis and in children the decrease is less marked, with a tendency to stabilization...
January 8, 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323107/serological-survey-of-neutralizing-antibodies-to-eight-major-enteroviruses-among-healthy-population
#2
Rui Zhu, Tong Cheng, Zhichao Yin, Dongxiao Liu, Longfa Xu, Yongchao Li, Wei Wang, Jian Liu, Yuqiong Que, Xiangzhong Ye, Qiyi Tang, Qinjian Zhao, Shengxiang Ge, Shuizhen He, Ningshao Xia
Human enteroviruses (EVs) are the most common causative agents infecting human, causing many harmful diseases, such as hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), herpangina (HA), myocarditis, encephalitis, and aseptic meningitis. EV-related diseases pose a serious worldwide threat to public health. To gain comprehensive insight into the seroepidemiology of major prevalent EVs in humans, we firstly performed a serological survey for neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), Coxsackie virus A16 (CV-A16), Coxsackie virus A6 (CV-A6), Coxsackie virus A10 (CV-A10), Coxsackie virus B3 (CV-B3), Coxsackie virus B5 (CV-B5), Echovirus 25 (ECHO25), and Echovirus 30 (ECHO30) among the healthy population in Xiamen City in 2016, using micro-neutralization assay...
January 10, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322336/correction-to-meta-analysis-of-adjunctive-dexamethasone-to-improve-clinical-outcome-of-bacterial-meningitis-in-children
#3
Ying Wang, Xinjie Liu, Yuzhen Wang, Qi Liu, Cuicui Kong, Guixia Xu
The original version of this article unfortunately contained an error.
January 10, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307960/tropical-fevers-in-indian-intensive-care-units-a-prospective-multicenter-study
#4
Sunit Singhi, Narendra Rungta, Karthi Nallasamy, Ashish Bhalla, J V Peter, Dhruva Chaudhary, Rajesh Mishra, Prakash Shastri, Rajesh Bhagchandani, T D Chugh
Background and Aims: Infections in tropics often present as undifferentiated fevers with organ failures. We conducted this nationwide study to identify the prevalence, profile, resource utilization, and outcome of tropical fevers in Indian Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Materials and Methods: This was a multicenter prospective observational study done in 34 ICUs across India (July 2013-September 2014). Critically ill adults and children with nonlocalizing fever >48 h and onset < 14 days with any of the following: thrombocytopenia/rash, respiratory distress, renal failure, encephalopathy, jaundice, or multiorgan failure were enrolled consecutively...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302563/hemiplegia-as-a-presentation-of-hiv-infection-in-children-a-report-of-3-cases
#5
Ira Shah, Sneha Nandy, Renu Kumari
Strokes are a rare neurological manifestation of HIV infection in children with multifactorial etiologies. We present three HIV-infected children who presented to us with stroke out of which two had cerebral infarcts and who responded to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Third patient had tuberculous meningitis who was lost to follow-up before ART could be initiated.
April 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297142/bacterial-infections-of-the-central%C3%A2-nervous-system
#6
REVIEW
Renu Suthar, Naveen Sankhyan
Bacterial infections of the central nervous system (CNS) continue to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children. The spectrum of bacterial infection of CNS includes; focal or multifocal infections like brain abscesses or subdural empyema; or more generalized or diffuse infections like pyogenic meningitis or ventriculitis. Focal and generalized infections may co-exist in an individual patient. Prompt and adequate antibiotic therapy and occasionally neurosurgical interventions are the cornerstone of effective management...
January 3, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289561/haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-hib-seroprevalence-and-current-epidemiology-in-england-and-wales
#7
Sarah Collins, David Litt, Rachael Almond, Jamie Findlow, Ezra Linley, Mary Ramsay, Ray Borrow, Shamez Ladhani
Introduction The introduction of the Hib conjugate vaccine in the United Kingdom resulted in a rapid decline in invasive Hib disease across all age groups. However, a resurgence in 2000-2002 prompted the introduction of additional control measures, including a routine 12-month booster in 2006. Here we describe results from a national serosurvey in children eligible for the 12-month booster and recent H. influenzae epidemiology in England and Wales. Methods A national serosurvey was performed to determine the prevalence of anti-polyribosyl-phosphate (anti-PRP) IgG antibodies in 1,000 residual samples from children up to 8 years of age in 2013-14...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288471/chemokines-cxcl10-cxcl11-and-cxcl13-in-acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-non-polio-enterovirus-aseptic-meningitis-and-neuroborreliosis-cxcl10-as-initial-discriminator-in-diagnostic-algorithm
#8
Lorna Stemberger Maric, Snjezana Zidovec Lepej, Lana Gorenec, Ivana Grgic, Vladimir Trkulja, Oktavija Dakovic Rode, Srdan Roglic, Tonci Grmoja, Nina Barisic, Goran Tesovic
We investigated potential diagnostic usefulness of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of chemokines CXCL10, CXCL11, and CXCL13 in pediatric patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) (n = 23), non-polio enterovirus aseptic meningitis (NPEV AM) (n = 20), and neuroborreliosis (NB) (n = 21) and children with acute infectious diseases with neurological symptoms but with excluded neuroinfection/neuroinflammation (controls, n = 20). CSF levels of CXCL10 and CXCL11 were higher in patients with NPEV AM than those in other children, and CXCL10 levels showed a high discriminative potential (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, ROC, 0...
December 29, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285148/correlation-between-cd64-and-pct-levels-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-degree-of-hearing-impairment-sequelae-in-neonates-with-purulent-meningitis
#9
Cui Liu, Dongchi Zhao
This study investigated the possible correlation between the degree of hearing impairment caused by neonatal purulent meningitis and the levels of CD64 and PCT in cerebrospinal fluid of patients, and assessed the prognostic value of such levels. We recorded data from 156 cases of neonatal purulent meningitis retrospectively. All the patients received brainstem response audiometry, and cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected within the first day after admission through lumbar puncture. Flow cytometry was used to detect CD64 levels and enzyme-linked fluorescent assay was used to detect PCT levels...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277475/subtractive-genome-analysis-for-in-silico-identification-and-characterization-of-novel-drug-targets-in-streptococcus-pneumonia-strain-jja
#10
Abdul Wadood, Alam Jamal, Muhammad Riaz, Ajmal Khan, Reaz Uddin, Musharraf Jelani, Syed Sikander Azam
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a Gram-positive bacterium. Humans are the major target for the pneumococcus. The pneumococcus is a common etiological agent of many different diseases such as bacterial meningitis, pneumonia, otitis media (OM), sinusitis, and conjunctivitis. According to the WHO, the pneumococcus is responsible for causing 1 million deaths each year. In 2000, over 14 million children worldwide under the age of 5 years were diagnosed with a pneumococcal disease, with the highest incidence seen in Africa...
December 22, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260780/-the-results-of-bilateral-cochlear-implantation-in-the-children-who-survived-meningitis
#11
N A Daikhes, Kh M Diab, A R Siraeva, N V Tarasova, D S Kondratchikov, A S Machalov, O A Pashchinina, A O Kuznetsov, K D Yusifov
The objective of the present study was the prospective analysis of the results of bilateral cochlear implantation (CI) in the children presenting with bilateral ossification of the cochlea after they had survived meningitis. A total of 15 patients underwent the surgical intervention. In those exhibiting bilateral ossification of the basal cochlear helix over the 5 mm segment (up to first bend of the cochlear turn) and partial ossification of the second helix (in 6 children), the affected portions were removed with the placement of two choleostomies, the lower one (from the ossified membrane of the cochlear window) and the upper one (toward the second helix)...
2017: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258705/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-children-under-16%C3%A2-years-of-age-incomplete-rebound-in-incidence-after-the-maximum-effect-of-pcv13-in-2012-13-in-germany
#12
Raphael Weinberger, Rüdiger von Kries, Mark van der Linden, Thorsten Rieck, Anette Siedler, Gerhard Falkenhorst
OBJECTIVE: To identify a potential nadir of the impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination (PCV) in infancy on invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) in children under 16 in Germany. METHODS: Active surveillance on IPD based on two independent data sources with capture-recapture correction for underreporting. Annual incidence rates by age group, serotypes, site of infection, and relative incidence reduction compared to pre-vaccination period (1997-2001) at nadir and for the most recent season are reported...
December 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248907/is-bacterial-meningitis-a-risk-factor-for-developing-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#13
Eldira Hadzic, Osman Sinanovic, Haris Memisevic
INTRODUCTION: Bacterial meningitis is a severe disease with high morbidity. Many medical conditions are known to be associated with meningitis including Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The goal of the present study was to examine the frequency of ADHD in children who had had bacterial meningitis. An additional goal was to assess the odds ratio for ADHD in children who had had meningitis and children who had not had it. METHODS: The sample comprised 60 children who had had meningitis in the first year of their lives and 60 control children who had not had the disease...
2017: Israel Journal of Psychiatry and related Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248780/correlation-of-lactate-concentration-in-peripheral-plasma-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-with-glasgow-outcome-scale-for-tuberculous-meningitis-patients-complicated-by-acute-hydrocephalus-treated-with-fluid-diversions
#14
Ahmad Faried, Gusman Arief, Muhammad Z Arifin, Heda M Nataprawira
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is an endemic infectious disease in developing countries, and it can become a serious illness in children. TBM treatment is more difficult and prone to failure than lung TB. TBM causes hydrocephalus, cerebral edema, increased intracranial pressure, global ischemia and neurological deficits, which disturb cellular metabolism and increase lactate levels. Therefore, a reliable and widely available clinical indicator of TBM severity is needed. Successful treatment of TBM is assessed using the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS)...
December 14, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236737/comparison-of-sequential-multiplex-pcr-sequetyping-and-whole-genome-sequencing-for-serotyping-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#15
Florian Mauffrey, Éric Fournier, Walter Demczuk, Irene Martin, Michael Mulvey, Christine Martineau, Simon Lévesque, Sadjia Bekal, Marc-Christian Domingo, Florence Doualla-Bell, Jean Longtin, Brigitte Lefebvre
Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the major causes of pneumonia, meningitis and other pneumococcal infections in young children and elders. Determination of circulating S. pneumoniae serotypes is an essential service by public health laboratories for the monitoring of putative serotype replacement following the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) and of the efficacy of the immunization program. The Quellung method remains the gold standard for typing S. pneumoniae. Although this method is very effective, it is also costly, time consuming and not totally reliable due to its subjective nature...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233576/changing-epidemiology-of-haemophilus-influenzae-in-children
#16
REVIEW
David F Butler, Angela L Myers
Haemophilus influenzae remains a common cause of illness in children throughout the world. Before the introduction of vaccination, H influenzae type b (Hib) disease was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in young children and a frequent cause of pneumonia, epiglottitis, and septic arthritis. Clinicians should remain diligent in counseling parents on the dangers of Hib and provide vaccination starting at 2 months of age. The epidemiology of invasive H influenzae disease is shifting. It is imperative that clinicians recognize the changing epidemiology and antibiotic resistance patterns for H influenzae to optimize care in hospital and ambulatory settings...
December 9, 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231065/serum-interleukin-6-levels-as-an-indicator-of-aseptic-meningitis-among-children-with-enterovirus-71-induced-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease
#17
Joo Young Lee, Minji Son, Jin Han Kang, Ui Yoon Choi
OBJECTIVES: The enterovirus EV71 is a major pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. Aseptic meningitis is the most common neurologic complication of EV71-induced HFMD. Lumbar puncture is a crucial procedure in the diagnosis of aseptic meningitis. It is often performed based on physicians' clinical suspicion. A diagnostic method that can aid in deciding whether this procedure should be performed is necessary. Cytokines are speculated to be associated with neurologic complications...
December 14, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228220/the-burden-of-presumed-tuberculosis-in-hospitalized-children-in-a-resource-limited-setting-in-papua-new-guinea-a-prospective-observational-study
#18
Villa Watch, Jimmy Aipit, Tina Kote-Yarong, Allanie Rero, John W Bolnga, Elvin Lufele, Moses Laman
Background: In Papua New Guinea, TB is considered to be a major public health problem, but little is known about the prevalence and prognosis of presumed TB in children. Methods: As part of a prospective hospital-based surveillance on the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, the authors investigated the admission prevalence and case fatality rate associated with presumed TB over a 6-year period (2011-2016). All children admitted who were diagnosed with TB were followed-up until discharge or death...
December 8, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216183/presentation-of-life-threatening-invasive-nontyphoidal-salmonella-disease-in-malawian-children-a-prospective-observational-study
#19
Calman A MacLennan, Chisomo L Msefula, Esther N Gondwe, James J Gilchrist, Paul Pensulo, Wilson L Mandala, Grace Mwimaniwa, Meraby Banda, Julia Kenny, Lorna K Wilson, Amos Phiri, Jenny M MacLennan, Elizabeth M Molyneux, Malcolm E Molyneux, Stephen M Graham
Nontyphoidal Salmonellae commonly cause invasive disease in African children that is often fatal. The clinical diagnosis of these infections is hampered by the absence of a clear clinical syndrome. Drug resistance means that empirical antibiotic therapy is often ineffective and currently no vaccine is available. The study objective was to identify risk factors for mortality among children presenting to hospital with invasive Salmonella disease in Africa. We conducted a prospective study enrolling consecutive children with microbiologically-confirmed invasive Salmonella disease admitted to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, in 2006...
December 7, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211821/elizabethkingia-in-children-a-comprehensive-review-of-symptomatic-cases-reported-from-1944-2017
#20
Eric J Dziuban, Jessica Franks, Marvin So, Georgina Peacock, David D Blaney
Elizabethkingia species often exhibit extensive antibiotic resistance and result in high morbidity and mortality, yet no systematic reviews exist that thoroughly characterize and quantify concerns for infected infants and children. We performed a review of literature and identified an initial 902 articles; 96 articles reporting 283 pediatric cases met our inclusion criteria and were subsequently reviewed. Case reports spanned 28 countries and ranged from 1944 to 2017. Neonatal meningitis remains the most common presentation of this organism in children, along with a range of other clinical manifestations...
December 2, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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