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Meningitis in children

A W Dretler, N G Rouphael, D S Stephens
The control of meningitis, meningococcemia and other infections caused by Neisseria meningitidis is a significant global health challenge. Substantial progress has occurred in the last twenty years in meningococcal vaccine development and global implementation. Meningococcal protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines to serogroups A, C, W, and Y (modeled after the Haemophilus influenzae b conjugate vaccines) provide better duration of protection and immunologic memory, and overcome weak immune responses in infants and young children and hypo-responsive to repeated vaccine doses seen with polysaccharide vaccines...
March 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Istvan Bodi, Anastasios Giamouriadis, Naomi Sibtain, Ross Laxton, Andrew King, Francesco Vergani
Background: Primary CNS malignant rhabdoid tumors are very rare in adults and much less is known about their biological behavior than in children. Recently, two adult cases of SMARCB1 (also known as INI1)-deficient tumor with rhabdoid cells have been described, suggesting an emerging group of primary meningeal SMARCB1-deficient tumors. We have recently encountered a case of INI1-deficient tumor with similar histology and immunophenotype to the above cases, but with a superficial cerebral, yet apparent intra-axial origin...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Samia N Naccache, Maryann Lustestica, Margil Fahit, Javier Mestas, Jennifer Dien Bard
Early establishment of infectious process allows for expedited clinical management of meningitis and encephalitis. The FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis (FA-M/E) panel provides rapid detection of potential pathogens associated with encephalitis/meningitis in both immunocompetent and compromised patients. Here we conducted a one year review of the performance of the FA-M/E panel at a tertiary care children's hospital. 265 samples from 251 patients were tested. 87.25% (219/251) were negative, 9.96% (25/251) were positive for viral analytes and 3...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Íñigo Corral, Susana Sainz de la Maza, Mario Rodríguez, Michal-Maciej Kawiorski, María-José López-Martínez, Juan-Carlos Galán
Neurological manifestations associated with HHV-7 have been described in primary infection in children, and very occasionally in immunocompromised adult patients. However, the role of HHV-7 reactivation as a cause of central nervous system (CNS) diseases in immunocompetent adults has not yet been defined. We retrospectively analyzed clinical and microbiological features of adults with neurological symptoms who underwent lumbar puncture and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for herpesviruses (HHV-1-8) and enteroviruses performed in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), during a 4-year period...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Ewelina Gowin, Bogna Świątek-Kościelna, Ewelina Kałużna, Ewa Strauss, Jacek Wysocki, Jerzy Nowak, Michał Michalak, Danuta Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska
The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence of single single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as well as their combinations in genes encoding proteins involved in the immune response in children with bacterial meningitis. The prospective study group consisted of 39 children with bacterial meningitis and 49 family members surveyed between 2012 and 2016. Eleven SNPs in five genes involved in immune response were analysed. The mean number of minor frequency alleles (MAF) of studied SNPs was lowest in the control group and highest in patients with pneumococcal meningitis...
January 1, 2018: Innate Immunity
Bernard Louizette Christophe, Mariana Mott, Gabriela da Cunha, Juliana Caierão, Pedro D Azevedo, Cícero Dias
PURPOSE: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the elderly is an important public health issue due to the increased proportion of this population in many countries including Brazil. We aimed to characterise pneumococci isolates in adults >50 years with IPD, following the introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) as part of the National Childhood Immunisation Program for children ≤2 years in March 2010. METHODOLOGY: Between 2013 and 2015, pneumococcal isolates were collected and serotypes were determined using multiplex PCR and/or Quellung reaction...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Mariia Karppinen, Atte Sjövall, Tuula Pelkonen, Luis Bernardino, Irmeli Roine, Anne Pitkäranta, Antti A Aarnisalo, Päivi Nevalainen, Leena Lauronen
Objective: To assess the role of single and repeated auditory brain stem response (ABR) in predicting mortality and severe neurological injury among children having bacterial meningitis (BM) in Luanda, Angola. Methods: The morphology of ABR traces of 221 children (aged 2 months to 12 years) from admission day was analyzed and compared with age-matched normative data. Absence and delay of traces were compared with mortality and mortality or severe neurological injury in subgroup analyses...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Ear, Nose and Throat
Li-Yuan Wang, Xiao-Tang Cai, Zhi-Ling Wang, Shun-Li Liu, Yong-Mei Xie, Hui Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the clinical features of Enterococcus faecium meningitis in children. METHODS: The clinical data of nine children with Enterococcus faecium meningitis were analyzed. RESULTS: In all the nine children, Enterococcus faecium was isolated from blood, cerebrospinal fluid, or peripherally inserted central catheters; 6 (67%) patients were neonates, 2 (22%) patients were younger than 6 months, and 1 (11%) patient was three years and four months of age...
March 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Shraddha Siwakoti, Rinku Sah, Rupa Singh Rajbhandari, Basudha Khanal
Introduction: Pantoea agglomerans, primarily an environmental and agricultural organism has been reported as both commensal and pathogen of humans. We present two case reports of P. agglomerans infections in children that involved the meninges and bloodstream. Case Presentations: A 6-month-old female baby, diagnosed as congenital hydrocephalus secondary to aqueduct stenosis with ventriculoperitoneal shunt in situ, operated 14 days back was brought to the pediatric emergency with a two-day history of high fever associated with vomiting, irritability, excessive crying, and decreased feeding...
2018: Case Reports in Pediatrics
A Koïvogui, A Carbunar, L-M Imounga, C Laruade, S Laube
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the vaccination coverage (VC) rate in persons aged from 9 months to 18 years and to describe it according to the predictive factors of good vaccination status. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive and etiological study. METHODS: The study involved 1332 persons aged below 18 years and members of 521 representative households in French Guiana. VC was estimated by the proportion of people with complete immunization for 13 vaccines (four mandatory, seven recommended, and two specific)...
March 8, 2018: Public Health
Alexander Pschibul, Wibke G Janzarik, Peter Franck, Markus Hufnagel, Christopher Beck, Rudolf Korinthenberg
Despite the availability of modern antibiotics, pneumococcal meningitis in both children and adults remains a severe disease-one known to frequently cause grave complications and residual disability. Although the appearance of arterial vasospasms in bacterial meningitis systematically has been investigated and reported on for adult patients, such research is lacking when it comes to infants. We report on a 4-week-old infant who, 6 days after onset of pneumococcal meningitis, suffered severe neurological deterioration with treatment-resistant seizures and coma...
March 9, 2018: Neuropediatrics
Jingjing Yuan, Li Shen, Jing Wu, Xinran Zou, Jiaqi Gu, Jianguo Chen, Lingxiang Mao
Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) infection has grown to become a serious threat to global public health. It is one of the major causes of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in infants and young children. EV-A71 can also infect the central nervous system (CNS) and induce diverse neurological complications, such as brainstem encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, and acute flaccid paralysis, or even death. Viral proteins play a crucial role in EV-A71 infection. Many recent studies have discussed the structure and function of EV-A71 proteins, and the findings reported will definitely aid the development of vaccines and therapeutic approaches...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Nathan Ford, Graeme Meintjes, Alexandra Calmy, Helen Bygrave, Chantal Migone, Marco Vitoria, Martina Penazzato, Lara Vojnov, Meg Doherty
In 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO) published guidelines for the management of advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease within a public health approach. Recent data suggest that more than a third of people starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) do so with advanced HIV disease, and an increasing number of patients re-present to care at an advanced stage of HIV disease following a period of disengagement from care. These guidelines recommend a standardized package of care for adults, adolescents, and children, based on the leading causes of morbidity and mortality: tuberculosis, severe bacterial infections, cryptococcal meningitis, toxoplasmosis, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia...
March 4, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Taty Tshimangani, Jean Pongo, Joseph Bodi Mabiala, Marcel Yotebieng, Nicole F O'Brien
Empirical knowledge suggests that acute neurologic disorders are common in sub-Saharan Africa, but studies examining the true burden of these diseases in children are scarce. We performed this prospective, observational study to evaluate the prevalence, clinical characteristics, treatment approaches, and outcomes of children suffering acute neurologic illness or injury (ANI) in an urban and rural site in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Over 12 months, 471 out of 6,563 children admitted met diagnostic criteria for ANI, giving a hospital-based prevalence of 72/1,000 admissions...
March 5, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Maria Stella Arantes do Amaral, Ana Cláudia Mirândola B Reis, Eduardo T Massuda, Miguel Angelo Hyppolito
INTRODUCTION: The surgery during which the cochlear implant internal device is implanted is not entirely free of risks and may produce problems that will require revision surgeries. OBJECTIVE: To verify the indications for cochlear implantation revision surgery for the cochlear implant internal device, its effectiveness and its correlation with certain variables related to language and hearing. METHODS: A retrospective study of patients under 18 years submitted to cochlear implant Surgery from 2004 to 2015 in a public hospital in Brazil...
February 16, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
Asalim Thabet, Tyler Greenfield, Richard M Cantor
Corticosteroids have been used for over half a century to treat various inflammatory disorders; however, their use in many pediatric conditions remains controversial. This issue reviews evidence on corticosteroid treatment in acute asthma exacerbations, croup, acute pharyngitis, anaphylaxis, acute spinal injury, and bacterial meningitis. While corticosteroids are clearly indicated for management of asthma exacerbations and croup, they are not universally recommended for potential spinal cord injury. Due to insufficient data or conflicting data, corticosteroids may be considered in children with acute pharyngitis, anaphylaxis, and bacterial meningitis...
March 2018: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
Asalim Thabet, Tyler Greenfield, Richard M Cantor, Bryan Wilson
Corticosteroids have been used for over half a century to treat various inflammatory disorders; however, their use in many pediatric conditions remains controversial. This issue reviews evidence on corticosteroid treatment in acute asthma exacerbations, croup, acute pharyngitis, anaphylaxis, acute spinal injury, and bacterial meningitis. While corticosteroids are clearly indicated for management of asthma exacerbations and croup, they are not universally recommended for potential spinal cord injury. Due to insufficient data or conflicting data, corticosteroids may be considered in children with acute pharyngitis, anaphylaxis, and bacterial meningitis...
March 1, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
Birkneh Tilahun Tadesse, Byron Alexander Foster, Mulugeta Sitot Shibeshi, Henok Tadele Dangiso
Background: Bacterial meningitis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. However, limited research has focused on the diagnosis and management of meningitis in resource-limited settings. Methods: We designed a prospective case series of children admitted to a large, academic referral hospital with acute meningitis syndrome. Data were collected on age, time of presentation, prior antibiotics, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) parameters, antibiotic and steroid prescription, and clinical outcome...
November 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
Bahaa Abu Raya, Manish Sadarangani
Invasive meningococcal disease causes meningitis and septicemia worldwide with highest rates of disease occurring in children <2 years of age, and in particular young infants. Vaccination during pregnancy has been a successful strategy for prevention of other infections in young infants, most notably tetanus, pertussis and influenza. However, few studies of meningococcal vaccines in pregnancy have been undertaken, and none include the most commonly used current vaccines to prevent disease by capsular groups A, B, C, W and Y...
February 27, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Joan L Robinson
Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is serious, often resulting in fulminant sepsis or meningitis. IMD in Canada is primarily attributable to serogroups B and C. There are routine programs for serogroup C vaccine at 12 months of age, with some jurisdictions routinely providing additional earlier doses. Adolescents routinely receive a booster dose of serogroup C vaccine or of a quadrivalent (serogroups A, C, W and Y) vaccine. Serogroup B vaccines are not recommended for routine use pending further data on the efficacy and duration of protection from the available vaccine...
February 2018: Paediatrics & Child Health
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