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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814614/role-of-inactivity-in-chronic-diseases-evolutionary-insight-and-pathophysiological-mechanisms
#1
REVIEW
Frank W Booth, Christian K Roberts, John P Thyfault, Gregory N Ruegsegger, Ryan G Toedebusch
This review proposes that physical inactivity could be considered a behavior selected by evolution for resting, and also selected to be reinforcing in life-threatening situations in which exercise would be dangerous. Underlying the notion are human twin studies and animal selective breeding studies, both of which provide indirect evidence for the existence of genes for physical inactivity. Approximately 86% of the 325 million in the United States (U.S.) population achieve less than the U.S. Government and World Health Organization guidelines for daily physical activity for health...
October 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812766/modulatory-effects-of-arginine-glutamine-and-branched-chain-amino-acids-on-heat-shock-proteins-immunity-and-antioxidant-response-in-exercised-rats
#2
Carolina Soares Moura, Pablo Christiano Barboza Lollo, Priscila Neder Morato, Eder Muller Risso, Jaime Amaya-Farfan
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are endogenous proteins whose function is to maintain the cell's tolerance to insult, and glutamine supplementation is known to increase HSP expression during intense exercise. Since few studies have addressed the possibility that supplementation with other amino acids could have similar effects to that of glutamine, our objective was to evaluate the effects of leucine, valine, isoleucine and arginine as potential stimulators of HSPs 25, 60, 70 and 90 in rats subjected to acute exercise as a stressing factor...
August 16, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811697/role-of-iron-and-copper-in-the-pathogenesis-of-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Mohit Kumar Gangania, Jyoti Batra, Suman Kushwaha, Rachna Agarwal
Parkinson's disease (PD) is an old age disorder of basal ganglia which involves oligomerization of α-synuclein protein and formation of intercellular inclusions known as "Lewy bodies" in substantia nigra and caudate nuclei in brain which is progressive in nature. It is second most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremor at rest, muscle rigidity, slowness of movement (bradykinesia, akinesia), and changes in posture (instability). Both excess and deficiency in levels of transition metals (especially iron, copper) can be detrimental to the central nervous system...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811685/mutation-analyses-in-selected-exons-of-the-mut-gene-in-indian-patients-with-methylmalonic-acidemia
#4
Chandrawati Kumari, Seema Kapoor, Bijo Varughese, Sunil Kumar Pollipali, Siddarth Ramji
Deficiency or diminished activity of a cobalamin dependent enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase causes inborn error of metabolism called methylmalonic acidemia (MMA). In this study we elucidated the spectrum of mutations in 21 Indian mut MMA patients by direct sequencing. Sequence analysis identified a total of 70 mutations in exon 2, 9, 11 and 12 of MUT gene. Out of which 26 mutations were predicted to be deleterious and rest were benign. The 23 novel mutations consist of four nonsense mutations (p.N6*, p.G539*, p...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811653/meal-timing-effects-on-insulin-sensitivity-and-intrahepatic-triglycerides-during-weight-loss
#5
R I Versteeg, M T Ackermans, A J Nederveen, E Fliers, M J Serlie, S E la Fleur
BACKGROUND: Several human and rodent studies suggest that in addition to the amount of energy consumed, timing of food intake contributes to body weight regulation. Consuming most energy in the morning has favorable effects on weight loss and weight maintenance. Whether this also affects glucose metabolism and liver fat independently from weight loss is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that during weight loss, consuming most energy in the morning improves insulin sensitivity and reduces hepatic fat content more than consuming most energy in the evening...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810996/rhabdomyolysis-after-crawling-military-training
#6
Danit Atias-Varon, Haggai Sherman, Ran Yanovich, Yuval Heled
INTRODUCTION: Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome characterized by muscle necrosis followed by release of intracellular muscle contents into the circulation. Exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) occurs in response to nonfamiliar and/or excessive, prolonged, or repetitive exercises, with eccentric characteristics. In military populations, due to the type of intense, all out physical loads, ER is a significant threat, particularly when training under heat stress. However, many other etiologies exist, and clinical presentations vary greatly...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810558/functional-assessment-of-prefrontal-lobes-in-patients-with-major-depression-disorder-using-a-dual-mode-technique-of-3d-arterial-spin-labeling-and-18-f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography
#7
Chang Fu, Dapeng Shi, Yongju Gao, Junling Xu
The aim of this study was to explore the functions of cerebral blood perfusion and glucose metabolism in the prefrontal lobe of patients with major depression disorder (MDD), and to analyze the correlations between these functional changes and depressive symptoms. 3D-arterial spin labeling (ASL) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) were successfully performed in 17 patients with MDD and 16 healthy controls in a resting state. The depressive symptoms of the patients were classified into seven factors and scored with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809814/yerba-mat%C3%A3-ilex-paraguariensis-metabolic-satiety-and-mood-state-effects-at-rest-and-during-prolonged-exercise
#8
Ahmad Alkhatib, Roisin Atcheson
Yerba Maté (YM), has become a popular herb ingested for enhancing metabolic health and weight-loss outcomes. No studies have tested the combined metabolic, satiety, and psychomotor effects of YM during exercise. We tested whether YM ingestion affects fatty acid oxidation (FAO), profile of mood state score (POMS), and subjective appetite scale (VAS), during prolonged moderate exercise. Twelve healthy active females were randomized to ingest either 2 g of YM or placebo (PLC) in a repeated-measures design. Participants rested for 120 min before performing a 30-min cycling exercise corresponding to individuals' crossover point intensity (COP)...
August 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808062/ablating-tbc1d1-impairs-contraction-induced-sarcolemmal-glucose-transporter-type-4-redistribution-but-not-insulin-mediated-responses-in-rats
#9
Jamie Whitfield, Sabina Paglialunga, Brennan K Smith, Paula M Miotto, Genevieve Simnett, Holly L Robson, Swati S Jain, Eric A F Herbst, Eric M Desjardins, David J Dyck, Lawrence L Spriet, Gregory R Steinberg, Graham P Holloway
TBC1 domain family member 1 (TBC1D1), a Rab GTPase-activating protein and paralogue of Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160), has been implicated in both insulin- and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase (AICAR)-mediated glucose transporter type (GLUT4) translocation. However, the role of TBC1D1 in contracting muscle remains ambiguous. We therefore explored the metabolic consequence of ablating TBC1D1 in both resting and contracting skeletal muscles, utilizing a rat TBC1D1-KO model...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807824/flavan-3-ol-delays-the-progression-of-disuse-atrophy-induced-by-hindlimb-suspension-in-mice
#10
Mao Ito, Naoto Kudo, Yuji Miyake, Tatsuya Imai, Tomoki Unno, Yoko Yamashita, Yoshihisa Hirota, Hitoshi Ashida, Naomi Osakabe
Periods of skeletal muscle disuse, for example due to a sedentary lifestyle or bed rest, are associated with aging and can lead to muscle atrophy. We previously found that the flavan 3-ol fraction derived from cocoa (FL) enhanced energy expenditure with metabolic changes in skeletal muscle. In the present study, we examined the effect of FL on disuse muscle atrophy induced by hindlimb suspension in mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were assigned to four groups as follows: unsuspended-vehicle, unsuspended-FL, suspended-vehicle, and suspended-FL...
August 11, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805343/rest-and-exercise-hemodynamic-and-metabolic-findings-in-active-duty-soldiers-referred-for-cardiac-catheterization-to-exclude-heart-disease-insights-from-past-invasive-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-using-multisensor-high-fidelity-catheters
#11
James A Watts, Faith R Kelly, Terry D Bauch, Joseph P Murgo, Bernard J Rubal
OBJECTIVE: This study describes results of iCPET from the past, which used submaximal stress and multisensor high-fidelity catheters to exclude heart disease in a unique population of young adults. BACKGROUND: There has been resurgence in comprehensive hemodynamic evaluation of complex cardiovascular patients. Although dynamic assessments during cardiac catheterization have become commonplace, there remains limited information regarding left and right heart hemodynamic changes during supine exercise in young adults...
May 8, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803856/bioenergetic-costs-and-state-influence-distance-perception
#12
David Francis Hunt, Heidi B N Hunt, Justin H Park
Bioenergetic resources and states have been found to influence visual perception, with greater expected energy expenditure being associated with perceptions of greater distances and steeper slopes. Here we tested whether resting metabolic rate (RMR), which can serve as a proxy for the bioenergetic costs of completing physical activity, is positively correlated with perceived distance. We also tested whether temporarily depleting bioenergetic resources through exercise would result in greater perceived distance...
August 10, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802792/fat-mass-fat-free-mass-and-resting-metabolic-rate-in-weight-stable-sleeve-gastrectomy-patients-compared-with-weight-stable-nonoperated-patients
#13
Luigi Schiavo, Giuseppe Scalera, Vincenzo Pilone, Gabriele De Sena, Antonio Iannelli, Alfonso Barbarisi
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that body composition and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in weight-stable patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and duodenal switch is similar to that of nonoperated individuals within the same body mass index (BMI) interval. Currently, data concerning fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), and RMR on weight-stable patients after sleeve gastrectomy (SG) are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To assess FM, FFM, and RMR, in a selected and homogenous population of weight-stable SG patients (WSSG) and compare them with those obtained from healthy normal weight-stable nonoperated (WSNO) volunteers controls of similar sex, age, and BMI...
July 1, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802598/effect-of-parecoxib-sodium-pretreatment-combined-with-dexmedetomidine-on-early-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-in-elderly-patients-after-shoulder-arthroscopy-a-randomized-double-blinded-controlled-trial
#14
Jian Lu, Gang Chen, Hongmei Zhou, Qinghe Zhou, Zhipeng Zhu, Cheng Wu
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate effect of parecoxib sodium pretreatment combined with dexmedetomidine on early postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients after shoulder arthroscopy. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind study. SETTING: University-affiliated teaching hospital. PATIENTS: One hundred and fifty-two elderly patients scheduled for shoulder arthroscopy. INTERVENTIONS: At 15min before the induction of anesthesia, 152 patients received intravenously parecoxib sodium 40mg and dexmedetomidine at a dose of 0...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800970/guidelines-of-the-brazilian-society-of-rheumatology-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-osteoporosis-in-men
#15
REVIEW
Marco Antônio R Loures, Cristiano Augusto F Zerbini, Jaime S Danowski, Rosa Maria R Pereira, Caio Moreira, Ana Patrícia de Paula, Charlles Heldan M Castro, Vera Lucia Szenjenfeld, Laura Maria C Mendonça, Sebastião C Radominiski, Mailze C Bezerra, Ricardo Simões, Wanderley M Bernardo
Osteoporosis, a metabolic disease characterized by low bone mass, deterioration of the bone tissue microarchitecture and increased susceptibility to fractures, is commonly regarded as a women's health problem. This point of view is based on the fact that compared with men, women have lower bone mineral density and longer lifespans and lose bone mass faster, especially after menopause, due to a marked decrease in serum estrogen levels. However, in the last 20 years, osteoporosis in men has become recognized as a public health problem due to the occurrence of an increasingly higher number of fragility fractures...
August 8, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798697/cardiac-autonomic-modulation-and-the-kinetics-of-heart-rate-responses-in-the-on-and-off-transient-during-exercise-in-women-with-metabolic-syndrome
#16
Lucas R B E Silva, Antonio R Zamunér, Paulo Gentil, Fagner M Alves, Acácia G F Leal, Viviane Soares, Maria S Silva, Marcus F Vieira, Karina Simões, Gustavo R Pedrino, Ana C S Rebelo
Objective: To test whether women with metabolic syndrome (MS) have impairments in the on- and off-transients during an incremental test and to study whether any of the MS components are independently associated with the observed responses. Research Design and Methods: Thirty-six women aged 35-55 years were divided into a group with MS (MSG, n = 19) and a control group (CG, n = 17). R-R intervals (RRi) and heart rate variability (HRV) were calculated on a beat-to-beat basis and the heart rate (HR) at the on- and off-transient were analyzed during an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795140/resting-and-exercise-energy-metabolism-after-liver-transplantation-for-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#17
Josh Levitsky, Ajay Singhvi, H Steven Sadowsky, Ayelet Cohen, Alysen Demzik, Lisa VanWagner, Mary Rinella
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a leading indication for liver transplantation (LT). We hypothesized that weight gain after LT may be exacerbated by reduced metabolic rates due to the LT procedure, particularly during exercise. We aimed to compare resting and exercise energy expenditure between patients transplanted for NASH and nontransplant nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) subjects. METHODS: NASH LT recipients (>1-year post, n = 14) and NAFLD controls (n = 13) underwent analysis of body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), and exercise energy expenditure (VO2max), the latter using a ramped-Bruce protocol assessed by expired gas analysis and peak heart rate...
August 2017: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792279/resting-mapk-expression-in-chronically-trained-endurance-runners
#18
Justin X Nicoll, Andrew C Fry, Andrew J Galpin, Donald B Thomason, Christopher A Moore
PURPOSE: There is a paucity of research investigating the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) in chronically trained (CT) athletes. Thus, it is unclear how MAPK may contribute to performance and muscle adaptation in CT subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine MAPK total protein, and phosphorylated expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38-MAPK (p38) between untrained, and chronically trained runners...
August 9, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790443/endocannabinoid-tone-is-higher-in-healthy-lean-south-asian-than-white-caucasian-men
#19
Vasudev Kantae, Kimberly J Nahon, Maaike E Straat, Leontine E H Bakker, Amy C Harms, Mario van der Stelt, Thomas Hankemeier, Ingrid M Jazet, Mariëtte R Boon, Patrick C N Rensen
South Asians have a higher risk to develop obesity and related disorders compared to white Caucasians. This is likely in part due to their lower resting energy expenditure (REE) as related with less energy-combusting brown adipose tissue (BAT). Since overactivation of the endocannabinoid system is associated with obesity and low BAT activity, we hypothesized that South Asians have a higher endocannabinoid tone. Healthy lean white Caucasian (n = 10) and South Asian (n = 10) men were cold-exposed to activate BAT...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782601/metabolomic-profile-in-hyperthyroid-patients-before-and-after-antithyroid-drug-treatment-correlation-with-thyroid-hormone-and-tsh-concentration
#20
Cristina Piras, Nicolò Arisci, Simone Poddighe, Sonia Liggi, Stefano Mariotti, Luigi Atzori
Hyperthyroidism (HT) is characterized by an intense metabolic impact which affects the lipid, carbohydrate and amino acids metabolism, with increased resting energy expenditure and thermogenesis. Metabolomics is a new comprehensive technique that allows to capture an instant metabolic picture of an organism, reflecting peculiar molecular and pathophysiological states. The aim of the present prospective study was to identify a distinct metabolomic profile in HT patients using (1)H NMR spectroscopy before and after antithyroid drug treatment...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
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