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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911071/severe-brain-injury-in-massachusetts-assessing-the-continuum-of-care
#1
Laura Lorenz, Gabrielle Katz
Acquired brain injury (ABI) is a major public health problem in Massachusetts (Hackman et al, 2014) and includes traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, ABI-related infectious diseases, metabolic disorders affecting the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), and brain tumor. Advances in emergency medical care and neurosurgery mean that more people are surviving severe traumatic brain injury (Trexler et al, 2014). Yet many patients with severe TBI in particular, are not receiving inpatient services after initial treatment (Hackman et al, 2014; CDC, 2014) or later that are known to be effective (Malec & Kean, 2015; Lewis & Horn, 2015; BI Commission, 2011; Kolakowsky-Hayner et al, 2000; Interviews)...
December 10, 2015: Issue Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908788/time-to-wake-up-studying-neurovascular-coupling-and-brain-wide-circuit-function-in-the-un-anesthetized-animal
#2
REVIEW
Yu-Rong Gao, Yuncong Ma, Qingguang Zhang, Aaron T Winder, Zhifeng Liang, Lilith Antinori, Patrick J Drew, Nanyin Zhang
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has allowed the noninvasive study of task-based and resting-state brain dynamics in humans by inferring neural activity from blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) signal changes. An accurate interpretation of the hemodynamic changes that underlie fMRI signals depends on the understanding of the quantitative relationship between changes in neural activity and changes in cerebral blood flow, oxygenation and volume. While there has been extensive study of neurovascular coupling in anesthetized animal models, anesthesia causes large disruptions of brain metabolism, neural responsiveness and cardiovascular function...
November 28, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906063/characterization-of-a-multiprotein-complex-involved-in-excitation-transcription-coupling-of-skeletal-muscle
#3
Manuel Arias-Calderón, Gonzalo Almarza, Alexis Díaz-Vegas, Ariel Contreras-Ferrat, Denisse Valladares, Mariana Casas, Héctor Toledo, Enrique Jaimovich, Sonja Buvinic
BACKGROUND: Electrical activity regulates the expression of skeletal muscle genes by a process known as "excitation-transcription" (E-T) coupling. We have demonstrated that release of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) during depolarization activates membrane P2X/P2Y receptors, being the fundamental mediators between electrical stimulation, slow intracellular calcium transients, and gene expression. We propose that this signaling pathway would require the proper coordination between the voltage sensor (dihydropyridine receptor, DHPR), pannexin 1 channels (Panx1, ATP release conduit), nucleotide receptors, and other signaling molecules...
April 11, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905297/altered-thermoregulatory-responses-in-heart-failure-patients-exercising-in-the-heat
#4
Bryce N Balmain, Ollie Jay, Surendran Sabapathy, Danielle Royston, Glenn M Stewart, Rohan Jayasinghe, Norman R Morris
Heart failure (HF) patients appear to exhibit impaired thermoregulatory capacity during passive heating, as evidenced by diminished vascular conductance. Although some preliminary studies have described the thermoregulatory response to passive heating in HF, responses during exercise in the heat remain to be described. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare thermoregulatory responses in HF and controls (CON) during exercise in the heat. Ten HF (NYHA classes I-II) and eight CON were included. Core temperature (Tc), skin temperature (Tsk), and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) were assessed at rest and during 1 h of exercise at 60% of maximal oxygen uptake...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901289/the-influence-of-physical-characteristics-on-the-resting-energy-expenditure-of-youth-a-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Stephen D Herrmann, Robert G McMurray, Youngdeok Kim, Erik A Willis, Minsoo Kang, Thomas McCurdy
OBJECTIVE: To examine the literature on resting energy expenditure (REE) of youth and determine the influence of age, sex, BMI, and body composition on REE. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using PubMed, BIOSIS Previews, NTIS, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Pascal databases for studies with data on resting metabolic rate, REE, resting oxygen uptake (or VO2 ) in healthy children, youth, or adolescents (age = 1-18 years). Over 200 publications were identified; sixty-one publications met criteria and were included in the meta-analyses, resulting in 142 study population estimates (totaling 5,397 youth) of REE...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901037/control-of-energy-expenditure-in-humans
#6
REVIEW
K R Westerterp
Energy expenditure is determined by body size and body composition and by food intake and physical activity. Body size and body composition are the determinants of resting energy expenditure. Higher weight results in higher energy requirement through a higher resting requirement because of a higher maintenance cost of a larger body. Activity-induced energy expenditure is the most variable component of total energy expenditure. Smaller and leaner subjects generally move more as activity energy expenditure in larger subjects is not higher in proportion to the cost of moving with a higher body weight...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899896/respiratory-function-in-voluntary-participating-patagonia-sea-lions-otaria-flavescens-in-sternal-recumbency
#7
Andreas Fahlman, Johnny Madigan
We measured esophageal pressures (n = 4), respiratory flow rates (n = 5), and expired O2 and CO2 (n = 4) in five adult Patagonia sea lions (Otaria flavescens, body mass range 94.3-286.0 kg) during voluntary breaths while laying down out of water. The data were used to estimate the dynamic specific lung compliance (sCL), the O2 consumption rate ([Formula: see text]O2) and CO2 production rates ([Formula: see text]CO2) during rest. Our results indicate that the resting tidal volume in Patagonia sea lions is approximately 47-73% of the estimated total lung capacity...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899562/the-chembl-database-in-2017
#8
Anna Gaulton, Anne Hersey, Michał Nowotka, A Patrícia Bento, Jon Chambers, David Mendez, Prudence Mutowo, Francis Atkinson, Louisa J Bellis, Elena Cibrián-Uhalte, Mark Davies, Nathan Dedman, Anneli Karlsson, María Paula Magariños, John P Overington, George Papadatos, Ines Smit, Andrew R Leach
ChEMBL is an open large-scale bioactivity database (https://www.ebi.ac.uk/chembl), previously described in the 2012 and 2014 Nucleic Acids Research Database Issues. Since then, alongside the continued extraction of data from the medicinal chemistry literature, new sources of bioactivity data have also been added to the database. These include: deposited data sets from neglected disease screening; crop protection data; drug metabolism and disposition data and bioactivity data from patents. A number of improvements and new features have also been incorporated...
November 28, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896266/in-vitro-bone-cell-models-impact-of-fluid-shear-stress-on-bone-formation
#9
REVIEW
Claudia Wittkowske, Gwendolen C Reilly, Damien Lacroix, Cecile M Perrault
This review describes the role of bone cells and their surrounding matrix in maintaining bone strength through the process of bone remodeling. Subsequently, this work focusses on how bone formation is guided by mechanical forces and fluid shear stress in particular. It has been demonstrated that mechanical stimulation is an important regulator of bone metabolism. Shear stress generated by interstitial fluid flow in the lacunar-canalicular network influences maintenance and healing of bone tissue. Fluid flow is primarily caused by compressive loading of bone as a result of physical activity...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894867/creatine-kinase-as-a-marker-of-obesity-in-a-multi-ethnic-population
#10
Yentl C Haan, Inge Oudman, Frederieke S Diemer, Fares A Karamat, Irene G van Valkengoed, Gert A van Montfrans, Lizzy M Brewster
OBJECTIVE: Creatine kinase (CK), the central regulatory enzyme of energy metabolism, is particularly high in type II skeletal muscle fibers, which are associated with insulin resistance and obesity. As resting plasma CK is mainly derived from skeletal muscle, we assessed whether plasma CK is associated with markers of obesity. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed a random sample of the multi-ethnic population of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, consisting of 1444 subjects aged 34-60 years...
November 25, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893563/resistance-training-improves-muscle-function-and-cardiometabolic-risks-but-not-quality-of-life-in-older-people-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Ping-Lun Hsieh, Chin-Hsiao Tseng, Yufeng Jane Tseng, Wei-Shiung Yang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In older people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the effects of aging and T2DM may compromise the function of skeletal muscle, deteriorate metabolic status, and jeopardize physical performance, aerobic capacity, and quality of life (QoL). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks of resistance training (RT) on muscle function, physical performance, cardiometabolic risks, and QoL in older people with T2DM. METHODS: This study was a randomized controlled trial that employed block randomization, assessor blinding, and the intention-to-treat principle...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892887/cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-nonfatalcardiovascular-events-a-population-based-follow-up-study
#12
Hassan Khan, Nabil Jaffar, Rainer Rauramaa, Sudhir Kurl, Kai Savonen, Jari A Laukkanen
BACKGROUND: To examine the prognostic value of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with risk of first major nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and heart failure (HF) events. METHODS: Cardiorespiratory fitness, as measured by maximal oxygen uptake, was assessed at baseline in a prospective cohort of 2,089 men aged 42 to 61years. RESULTS: During a mean (SD) follow-up of 19.1(8.4) years, 522 nonfatal acute MI events, 198 acute all-cause nonfatal stroke events, and 221 nonfatal HF events were recorded...
November 2, 2016: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892703/the-measurement-and-estimation-of-total-energy-expenditure-in-japanese-patients-with-als-a-doubly-labelled-water-method-study
#13
Toshio Shimizu, Kazuko Ishikawa-Takata, Akiko Sakata, Utako Nagaoka, Noriko Ichihara, Chiho Ishida, Yuki Nakayama, Tetsuo Komori, Masatoyo Nishizawa
Appropriate nutritional therapy has not been established for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Our objective was to measure the total energy expenditure (TEE) and determine an equation to estimate the energy requirements for Japanese patients with ALS. Twenty-six Japanese patients with ALS participated in the study. The TEE was measured using the doubly labelled water (DLW) method for a 14-day period. Using a range of clinical parameters and multiple regression analyses, we determined an adequate equation to calculate TEE...
November 28, 2016: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890490/fragmentation-of-daily-rhythms-associates-with-obesity-and-cardiorespiratory-fitness-in-adolescents-the-helena-study
#14
Marta Garaulet, Antonio Martinez-Nicolas, Jonatan R Ruiz, Kenn Konstabel, Idoia Labayen, Marcela González-Gross, Ascensión Marcos, Dénes Molnar, Kurt Widhalm, Jose Antonio Casajús, Stefaan De Henauw, Anthony Kafatos, Christina Breidenassel, Michael Sjöström, Manuel J Castillo, Luis A Moreno, Juan A Madrid, Francisco B Ortega
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronobiology studies periodic changes in living organisms and it has been proposed as a promising approach to investigate obesity. We analyze the association of the characteristics of the rest-activity rhythms with obesity, cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic risk in adolescents from nine European countries. METHODS: 1044 adolescents (12.5-17.5 y) were studied. Circadian health was evaluated by actigraphy with accelerometers (Actigraph GT1M)...
November 5, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886064/probiotic-supplements-beneficially-affect-tryptophan-kynurenine-metabolism-and-reduce-the-incidence-of-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-in-trained-athletes-a-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-trial
#15
Barbara Strasser, Daniela Geiger, Markus Schauer, Johanna M Gostner, Hannes Gatterer, Martin Burtscher, Dietmar Fuchs
BACKGROUND: Prolonged intense exercise has been associated with transient suppression of immune function and an increased risk of infections. In this context, the catabolism of amino acid tryptophan via kynurenine may play an important role. The present study examined the effect of a probiotic supplement on the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and the metabolism of aromatic amino acids after exhaustive aerobic exercise in trained athletes during three months of winter training...
November 23, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885535/preserved-fat-free-mass-after-gastric-bypass-and-duodenal-switch
#16
Martin Skogar, Ulf Holmbäck, Jakob Hedberg, Ulf Risérus, Magnus Sundbom
BACKGROUND: Concerns for the possibility of an excessive loss of fat-free mass (FFM) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) after bariatric surgery, such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and duodenal switch (BPD/DS), have been raised. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to examine body composition and RMR in patients after RYGB and BPD/DS and in non-operated controls. METHODS: Body composition and RMR were studied with Bod Pod and indirect calorimetry in weight-stable RYGB (n = 15) and BPD/DS patients (n = 12) and compared with non-operated controls (n = 17)...
November 24, 2016: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885415/resting-heart-rate-and-risk-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-adults-a-dose-response-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#17
REVIEW
Xuejiao Liu, Xinping Luo, Yu Liu, Xizhuo Sun, Chengyi Han, Lu Zhang, Bingyuan Wang, Yongcheng Ren, Yang Zhao, Dongdong Zhang, Dongsheng Hu, Ming Zhang
The magnitude of the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) with increased resting heart rate (RHR) has been inconsistently reported in some observational studies, and whether a dose-response relationship exists between RHR and MetS is unclear. We performed a meta-analysis including dose-response analysis to quantitatively evaluate this association in adults. We searched PubMed, Web of Knowledge, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and WanFang databases for articles published up to April 2, 2016. A random-effects model was used to pool relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs); restricted cubic spline function was used to assess the dose-response relationship...
November 25, 2016: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884763/acox2-deficiency-an-inborn-error-of-bile-acid-synthesis-identified-in-an-adolescent-with-persistent-hypertransaminasemia
#18
Maria J Monte, Marta Alonso-Peña, Oscar Briz, Elisa Herraez, Carmen Berasain, Josepmaria Argemi, Jesus Prieto, Jose J G Marin
BACKGROUND: Acyl-CoA oxidase (ACOX2) is involved in the shortening of C27 cholesterol derivatives to generate C24 bile acids. Inborn errors affecting the rest of peroxisomal enzymes involved in bile acid biosynthesis have been described. These conditions are usually characterized by serious hepatic and/or neurologic manifestations. AIMS: We have investigated bile acid profile and enzymes involved in their biosynthesis in the first reported case of ACOX2 deficiency identified in an adolescent boy with persistent unexplained hypertransaminasemia and his family...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884662/integrity-of-central-nervous-function-in-diabetes-mellitus-assessed-by-resting-state-eeg-frequency-analysis-and-source-localization
#19
Jens B Frøkjær, Carina Graversen, Christina Brock, Ahmad Khodayari-Rostamabad, Søren S Olesen, Tine M Hansen, Eirik Søfteland, Magnus Simrén, Asbjørn M Drewes
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with structural and functional changes of the central nervous system. We used electroencephalography (EEG) to assess resting state cortical activity and explored associations to relevant clinical features. Multichannel resting state EEG was recorded in 27 healthy controls and 24 patients with longstanding DM and signs of autonomic dysfunction. The power distribution based on wavelet analysis was summarized into frequency bands with corresponding topographic mapping. Source localization analysis was applied to explore the electrical cortical sources underlying the EEG...
November 6, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883924/physiological-effects-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-egcg-on-energy-expenditure-for-prospective-fat-oxidation-in-humans-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Mahendra P Kapoor, Masaaki Sugita, Yoshitaka Fukuzawa, Tsutomu Okubo
Green tea catechins (GTCs) are known to improve fat oxidation (FOX) during fasted, rested and exercise conditions wherein epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is thought to be the most pharmacologically active and has been studied extensively. From the available data of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on EGCG, we carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis to elucidate whether EGCG consumption indeed increase energy expenditure (EE) and promote FOX. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, JICST, JSTPLUS, and JMEDPLUS and others) and eight RCTs were included...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
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