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Resting metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733845/genome-wide-identification-in-silico-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-zip-like-genes-from-trichomonas-vaginalis-in-response-to-zinc-and-iron
#1
K G Fernández-Martín, M E Alvarez-Sánchez, V E Arana-Argáez, L C Alvarez-Sánchez, J C Lara-Riegos, J C Torres-Romero
Trace elements such as Zinc and Iron are essential components of metalloproteins and serve as cofactors or structural elements for enzymes involved in several important biological processes in almost all organisms. Because either excess or insufficient levels of Zn and Fe can be harmful for the cells, the homeostatic levels of these trace minerals must be tightly regulated. The Zinc regulated transporter, Iron regulated transporter-like Proteins (ZIP) comprise a diverse family, with several paralogues in diverse organisms and are considered essential for the Zn and Fe uptake and homeostasis...
July 21, 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729390/walking-economy-is-predictably-determined-by-speed-grade-and-gravitational-load
#2
Lindsay W Ludlow, Peter G Weyand
The metabolic energy human walking requires can vary by more than 10-fold depending on the speed, surface gradient and load carried. Although the mechanical factors determining economy are generally considered to be numerous and complex, we tested a minimum-mechanics hypothesis that only three variables are needed for broad, accurate prediction: speed, surface grade, and total gravitational load. We first measured steady-state rates of oxygen uptake in 20 healthy adult subjects during unloaded treadmill trials from 0...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729386/dormancy-in-embryos-insight-from-hydrated-encysted-embryos-of-an-aquatic-invertebrate
#3
Tamar Ziv, Vered Chalifa-Caspi, Nadav Denekamp, Inbar Plaschkes, Sylwiya Sylwia Kierszniowska, Idit Blais, Arie Admon, Esther Lubzens
Numerous aquatic invertebrates remain dormant for decades in a hydrated state as encysted embryos. In search for functional pathways associated with this form of dormancy, we used label-free quantitative proteomics to compare the proteomes of hydrated encysted dormant embryos (resting eggs; RE) with non-dormant embryos (amictic eggs; AM) of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis</p> <p>A total of 2,631 proteins were identified in rotifer eggs. About 62% proteins showed higher abundance in AM relative to RE (Fold Change>3; p=0...
July 20, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727062/workload-of-official-contests-net-cost-of-transport-and-metabolic-power-of-mangalarga-marchador-horses-of-marcha-batida-or-picada-gaits
#4
J Lage, M G Fonseca, G G M de Barros, W H Feringer-Júnior, G T Pereira, G C Ferraz
This study aimed to characterize the maximum heart rate (HR) and the intensity of official marcha contests (OMC) and to compare the cost of transport (COT) and metabolic power (Pmet) of Mangalarga Marchador (MM) horses of marcha batida (MB) and marcha picada (MP) gaits. Twenty-two MM horses participated in this study. The experiment was conducted in 3 phases: 1) maximum effort test (MET), 2) OMC, and 3) standardized marcha test (SMT). To characterize the HR, 19 horses (14 MB and 5 MP) underwent a MET. Of those, 13 (9 MB and 4 MP) were monitored during the OMC, which consisted of 4 stages: marcha, walk, functional trial, and rest...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726736/protozoadb-2-0-a-trypanosoma-brucei-case-study
#5
Rodrigo Jardim, Diogo Tschoeke, Alberto M R Da Vila
Over the last decade new species of Protozoa have been sequenced and deposited in GenBank. Analyzing large amounts of genomic data, especially using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), is not a trivial task, considering that researchers used to deal or focus their studies on few genes or gene families or even small genomes. To facilitate the information extraction process from genomic data, we developed a database system called ProtozoaDB that included five genomes of Protozoa in its first version. In the present study, we present a new version of ProtozoaDB called ProtozoaDB 2...
July 20, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723842/reduced-neuromuscular-performance-in-amenorrheic-elite-endurance-athletes
#6
Åsa B Tornberg, Anna Melin, Fiona Manderson Koivula, Anders Johansson, Sven Skouby, Jens Faber, Anders Sjödin
INTRODUCTION: Secondary functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (SFHA) is common among female athletes, especially in weight-sensitive sports. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between SFHA and neuromuscular performance in elite endurance athletes. METHODS: Sixteen eumenorrheic (EUM) and 14 SFHA athletes from national teams and competitive clubs participated. Methods included gynecological examination; body composition (DXA);; resting metabolic rate and work efficiency; exercise capacity; knee muscular strength (KMS) and knee muscular endurance (KME); reaction time (RT); blood sampling performed on the 3rd-5th day of the menstrual cycle, and 7-day assessment of energy availability...
July 19, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721476/post-prandial-physiology-and-intestinal-morphology-of-the-pacific-hagfish-eptatretus-stoutii
#7
Alyssa M Weinrauch, Alexander M Clifford, Greg G Goss
Hagfishes are unique to the vertebrate lineage in that they acquire dissolved nutrients across multiple epithelia including the intestine, gill, and skin. This feat has been attributed to their immersive feeding behavior that likely simultaneously provides benefits (nutrient rich) and potentially adverse (hypercapnia, hypoxia, high environmental ammonia) physiological effects. Examinations have been conducted of the ex vivo transport capabilities of specific nutrients as well as in vivo effects of the hypothesized feeding environments, yet the physiological effects of feeding itself have never been elucidated...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720715/ischemic-preconditioning-does-not-alter-muscle-sympathetic-responses-to-static-handgrip-and-metaboreflex-activation-in-young-healthy-men
#8
Anthony V Incognito, Connor J Doherty, Jordan B Lee, Matthew J Burns, Philip J Millar
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been hypothesized to elicit ergogenic effects by reducing feedback from metabolically sensitive group III/IV muscle afferents during exercise. If so, reflex efferent neural outflow should be attenuated. We investigated the effects of IPC on muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during static handgrip (SHG) and used post-exercise circulatory occlusion (PECO) to isolate for the muscle metaboreflex. Thirty-seven healthy men (age: 24 ± 5 years [mean ± SD]) were randomized to receive sham (n = 16) or IPC (n = 21) interventions...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717808/the-impact-of-multimorbidity-on-resting-metabolic-rate-in-community-dwelling-women-over-a-ten-year-period-a-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-study
#9
A Nagel, A Jungert, A Spinneker, M Neuhäuser-Berthold
OBJECTIVES: Ageing has been associated with increasing multimorbidity. This study investigated whether the number of diseases is a predictor of resting metabolic rate (RMR) and its long-term changes in community-dwelling elderly women. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN: Cross-sectional and longitudinal data, obtained over ten years with repeated follow-ups, from 180 women aged 60 - 86 years and with a BMI of 18 - 43 kg/m2 at baseline were analyzed. MEASUREMENTS: RMR was measured using indirect calorimetry and body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717391/transcriptional-mechanisms-underlying-life-history-responses-to-climate-change-in-the-three-spined-stickleback
#10
Sin-Yeon Kim, Maria M Costa, Anna Esteve-Codina, Alberto Velando
Phenotypic plasticity, the ability of an organism to express different phenotypes depending on the environment, provides an important mechanism by which an animal population can persist under rapid climate change. We experimentally tested both life-history and transcriptional responses of an ecological model species, the three-spined stickleback, to warm acclimation at the southern edge of its European range. We explored cross-environment genetic correlations of key life-history traits in male sticklebacks exposed to long-term temperature changes to examine whether the plasticity pattern was variable among genotypes by using a character-state approach...
August 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716914/metabolic-profiles-of-exercise-in-patients-with-mcardle-disease-or-mitochondrial-myopathy
#11
Nigel F Delaney, Rohit Sharma, Laura Tadvalkar, Clary B Clish, Ronald G Haller, Vamsi K Mootha
McArdle disease and mitochondrial myopathy impair muscle oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) by distinct mechanisms: the former by restricting oxidative substrate availability caused by blocked glycogen breakdown, the latter because of intrinsic respiratory chain defects. We applied metabolic profiling to systematically interrogate these disorders at rest, when muscle symptoms are typically minimal, and with exercise, when symptoms of premature fatigue and potential muscle injury are unmasked. At rest, patients with mitochondrial disease exhibit elevated lactate and reduced uridine; in McArdle disease purine nucleotide metabolites, including xanthine, hypoxanthine, and inosine are elevated...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714795/analysis-of-physical-activity-among-free-living-nonagenarians-from-a-sardinian-longevous-population
#12
Giovanni Mario Pes, Maria Pina Dore, Alessandra Errigo, Michel Poulain
Physical activity was identified as a major determinant of longevity. Using wearable accelerometers, we evaluated energy expenditure (EE), including resting- (REE) and total-energy expenditure, (TEE), physical activity level (PAL), percentage of PAL ≥ 3 metabolic equivalent tasks (METs), number of steps, resting index (RI%) and sleeping patterns in 44 free-living nonagenarians (27 men) residing in a Sardinian village famous for its longevous population. The average REE and TEE recorded were: men 1278 ± 161 kcal/day and 957 ± 110, and women: 2286 ± 541kcal/day and 1811 ± 308 in the women, respectively...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713431/an-unexpected-cause-of-bradycardia-in-a-patient-with-bacterial-meningitis
#13
Petros Ioannou, Magdalini Velegraki, Stella Soundoulounaki, Achilleas Gikas, Diamantis P Kofteridis
Sinus bradycardia which is a sinus rhythm with a resting heart rate of less than 60 bpm is caused by intrinsic cardiac disorders like sick sinus syndrome or inferior myocardial infarction, metabolic and environmental causes (such as hypothyroidism and electrolyte disorders), medications (such as beta-blockers and amiodarone), infection (such as myocarditis), increased intracranial pressure, and toxic exposure, while it can sometimes be a normal phenomenon, especially during sleep, in athletes, and during pregnancy...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713355/respiratory-pathways-reconstructed-by-multi-omics-analysis-in-melioribacter-roseus-residing-in-a-deep-thermal-aquifer-of-the-west-siberian-megabasin
#14
Sergey Gavrilov, Olga Podosokorskaya, Dmitry Alexeev, Alexander Merkel, Maria Khomyakova, Maria Muntyan, Ilya Altukhov, Ivan Butenko, Elizaveta Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Vadim Govorun, Ilya Kublanov
Melioribacter roseus, a representative of recently proposed Ignavibacteriae phylum, is a metabolically versatile thermophilic bacterium, inhabiting subsurface biosphere of the West-Siberian megabasin and capable of growing on various substrates and electron acceptors. Genomic analysis followed by inhibitor studies and membrane potential measurements of aerobically grown M. roseus cells revealed the activity of aerobic respiratory electron transfer chain comprised of respiratory complexes I and IV, and an alternative complex III...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712506/vdac1-functions-in-ca-2-homeostasis-and-cell-life-and-death-in-health-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Varda Shoshan-Barmatz, Yakov Krelin, Anna Shteinfer-Kuzmine
In the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM), the voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) serves as a mitochondrial gatekeeper, controlling the metabolic and energy cross-talk between mitochondria and the rest of the cell. VDAC1 also functions in cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis by transporting Ca(2+) in and out of mitochondria. VDAC1 has also been recognized as a key protein in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, contributing to the release of apoptotic proteins located in the inter-membranal space (IMS) and regulating apoptosis via association with pro- and anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins and hexokinase...
June 23, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712073/association-between-ace-and-agt-polymorphism-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-acromegalic-patients
#16
Tomris Erbas, Nese Cinar, Selcuk Dagdelen, Arzu Gedik, Hikmet Yorgun, Ugur Canpolat, Giray Kabakci, Mehmet Alikasifoglu
PURPOSE: Whether the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays a role or not in the development of cardiovascular morbidity in acromegaly patients is unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between ACE (I/D) and AGT (M235T) gene polymorphisms and cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in the acromegaly. METHODS: The study included one hundred and seventeen acromegalic patients (62 F/55 M, age: 50.2 ± 12.3 years) and 106 healthy controls (92 F/14 M, age: 41...
July 15, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711736/two-dose-investigation-of-the-5-ht-agonist-psilocybin-on-relative-and-global-cerebral-blood-flow
#17
Candace R Lewis, Katrin H Preller, Rainer Kraehenmann, Lars Michels, Philipp Stämpfli, Franz X Vollenweider
Psilocybin, the active compound in psychedelic mushrooms, is an agonist of various serotonin receptors. Seminal psilocybin positron emission tomography (PET) research suggested regional increases in glucose metabolism in frontal cortex (hyperfrontality). However, a recent arterial spin labeling (ASL) study suggests psilocybin may lead to hypo-perfusion in various brain regions. In this placebo-controlled, double-blind study we used pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) to measure perfusion changes, with and without adjustment for global brain perfusion, after two doses of oral psilocybin (low dose: 0...
July 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711405/a-unique-glycan-isoform-of-transferrin-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-a-potential-diagnostic-marker-for-neurological-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Kyoka Hoshi, Hiromi Ito, Yuka Matsumoto, Kiyoshi Saito, Takashi Honda, Yoshiki Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro Hashimoto
BACKGROUND: cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is sequestered from blood by the blood-brain barrier and directly communicates with brain parenchymal interstitial fluid, leading to contain specific biomarkers of neurological diseases. SCOPE OF REVIEW: CSF contains glycan isoforms of transferrin (Tf): one appears to be derived from the brain and the other from blood. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: CSF contains two glycan-isoforms; brain-type Tf and serum-type Tf...
July 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709739/structured-lifestyle-intervention-in-patients-with-the-metabolic-syndrome-mitigates-oxidative-stress-but-fails-to-improve-measures-of-cardiovascular-autonomic-neuropathy
#19
Subramaniam Pennathur, Mamta Jaiswal, Elizabeth A White, Lynn Ang, David M Raffel, Melvyn Rubenfire, Rodica Pop-Busui
AIMS: To assess the role of oxidative stress in mediating adverse outcomes in metabolic syndrome (MetS) and resultant cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN), and to evaluate the effects of lifestyle interventions on measures of oxidative stress and CAN in subjects with MetS. METHODS: Pilot study in 25 non-diabetic subjects with MetS (age 49±10years, 76% females) participating in a 24-week lifestyle intervention (supervised aerobic exercise/Mediterranean diet), and 25 age-matched healthy controls...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709719/metformin-effects-on-the-heart-and-the-cardiovascular-system-a%C3%A2-review-of-experimental-and-clinical-data
#20
REVIEW
L Nesti, A Natali
BACKGROUND: Metformin, the eldest and most widely used glucose lowering drug, is likely to be effective also on cardiac and vascular disease prevention. Nonetheless, uncertainty still exists with regard to its effects on the cardiovascular system as a whole and specifically on the myocardium, both at the organ and cellular levels. METHODS: We reviewed the available data on the cardiac and vascular effects of metformin, encompassing both in vitro, either tissue or isolated organ, and in vivo studies in experimental animals and humans, as well as the evidence generated by major clinical trials...
May 10, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
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