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Endocrine pancreas

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791774/serotonergic-regulation-of-insulin-secretion
#1
REVIEW
Luis Rodrigo Cataldo Bascuñan, Claire Lyons, Hedvig Bennet, Isabella Artner, Malin Fex
The exact physiological role for the monoamine serotonin (5-HT) in modulation of insulin secretion is yet to be fully understood. Although the presence of this monoamine in islets of Langerhans is well established, it is only with recent advances that the complex signaling network in islets involving 5-HT is being unraveled. With more than fourteen different 5-HT receptors expressed in human islets, and receptor independent mechanisms in insulin producing β-cells, our understanding of 5-HT's regulation of insulin secretion is increasing...
May 23, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779584/imaging-endocrinology-in-animal-models-of-endocrine-disease
#2
REVIEW
Patrice Mollard, Marie Schaeffer
Endocrine organs secrete a variety of hormones involved in the regulation of a multitude of body functions. Although pancreatic islets were discovered at the turn of the 19th century, other endocrine glands remained commonly described as diffuse endocrine systems. Over the last two decades, development of new imaging techniques and genetically-modified animals with cell-specific fluorescent tags or specific hormone deficiencies have enabled in vivo imaging of endocrine organs and revealed intricate endocrine cell network structures and plasticity...
June 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776636/molecular-diagnostics-in-the-neoplasms-of-the-pancreas-liver-gallbladder-and-extrahepatic-biliary-tract-2018-update
#3
REVIEW
Lei Zhang, Martin H Bluth, Amarpreet Bhalla
Pancreatic neoplasms, including ductal adenocarcinoma, solid pseudopapillary neoplasm, pancreatic endocrine neoplasms, acinar cell carcinoma, and pancreatoblastoma, are associated with different genetic abnormalities. Hepatic adenomas with beta-catenin exon 3 mutation are associated with a high risk of malignancy. Hepatic adenoma with arginosuccinate synthetase 1 expression or sonic hedgehog mutations are associated with a risk of bleeding. Hepatocellular carcinoma and choangiocarcinoma display heterogeneity at both morphologic and molecular levels Cholangiocellular carcinoma is most commonly associated with IDH 1/2 mutations...
June 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769672/pancreas-regeneration
#4
REVIEW
Qiao Zhou, Douglas A Melton
The pancreas is made from two distinct components: the exocrine pancreas, a reservoir of digestive enzymes, and the endocrine islets, the source of the vital metabolic hormone insulin. Human islets possess limited regenerative ability; loss of islet β-cells in diseases such as type 1 diabetes requires therapeutic intervention. The leading strategy for restoration of β-cell mass is through the generation and transplantation of new β-cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells. Other approaches include stimulating endogenous β-cell proliferation, reprogramming non-β-cells to β-like cells, and harvesting islets from genetically engineered animals...
May 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768476/treatment-with-specific-soluble-factors-promotes-the-functional-maturation-of-transcription-factor-mediated-pancreatic-transdifferentiated-cells
#5
Hiroaki Motoyama, Akira Kobayashi, Takahide Yokoyama, Akira Shimizu, Hiroshi Sakai, Tsuyoshi Notake, Kentaro Fukushima, Shin-Ichi Miyagawa
Pancreatic lineage-specific transcription factors (TFs) display instructive roles in converting adult cells to endocrine pancreatic cells through a process known as transdifferentiation. However, little is known about potential factors capable of accelerating transdifferentiation following transduction to achieve the functional maturation of transdifferentiated cells. In this study, we demonstrated, using adult liver-derived progenitor cells, that soluble factors utilized in pancreatic differentiation protocols of pluripotent stem cells promote functional maturation of TFs-mediated transdifferentiated cells...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746344/nutritional-considerations-in-pediatric-pancreatitis-a-position-paper-from-the-naspghan-pancreas-committee-espghan-pancreas-working-group
#6
Maisam Abu-El-Haija, Aliye Uc, Steven L Werlin, A Jay Freeman, Miglena Georgieva, Danijela Jojkić - Pavkov, Daina Kalnins, Brigitte Kochavi, Bart G P Koot, Stephanie Van Biervliet, Jaroslaw Walkowiak, Michael Wilschanski, Veronique D Morinville
OBJECTIVES: Wide variations exist in how physicians manage the nutritional aspects of children affected by acute pancreatitis (AP), acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) and chronic (CP) pancreatitis. Better consensus for optimal management is needed. METHODS: This consensus statement on nutrition in pediatric pancreatic diseases was developed through a joint ESPGHAN-NASPGHAN working group that performed an evidence-based search of the literature on nutrition in AP, ARP, and CP with a focus on pediatrics...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741203/peptide-receptor-radionuclide-therapy-for-advanced-gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors-from-oncology-perspective
#7
Agnieszka Kolasińska-Ćwikła, Anna Łowczak, Katarzyna Maciejkiewicz Maciejkiewicz, Jarosław Bogdan Ćwikła
Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy (PRRT) is a form of molecular targeted therapy which is performed by using a small peptide (somatostatin analogue - SSA) that is coupled with a radionuclide beta emitting radiation. PRRT is a nuclear medicine for the systemic treatment of non-resectable, metastasized well/moderately differentiated, neuroendocrine tumours (NET) with overexpression of somatostatin receptor. These types of tumours include gastroenteropancreatic neoplasm (GEP-NENs), e.g. arising from the small bowel (often called carcinoid tumours), the pancreas, duodenum or stomach, but also from the large bowel or the lung and many other tissues (so called diffuse neuroendocrine system)...
2018: Nuclear Medicine Review. Central & Eastern Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730077/ex-vivo-normothermic-porcine-pancreas-a-physiological-model-for-preservation-and-transplant-study
#8
Rohan Kumar, Wen Yuan Chung, Franscois Runau, John David Isherwood, Kean Guan Kuan, Kevin West, Giuseppe Garcea, Ashley Robert Dennison
INTRODUCTION: An ex vivo normothermic porcine pancreas perfusion (ENPPP) model was established to investigate effects of machine perfusion pressures on graft preservation. METHODOLOGY: Nine porcine pancreata were perfused with autologous blood at 50 mmHg (control) pressure. Graft viability was compared against four ex-vivo porcine pancreata perfused at 20 mmHg ('low') pressure. Arterio-venous oxygen gas differentials, biochemistry, and graft insulin responses to glucose stimulation were compared...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723130/trefoil-factor-3-in-perinatal-pancreas-is-increased-by-gestational-low-protein-diet-and-associated-with-accelerated-%C3%AE-cell-maturation
#9
Louise Winkel, Annika Bagge, Louise Larsen, Tobias N Haase, Morten Rasmussen, Jeanette Lykke, Dennis B Holmgaard, Lars Thim, Jens H Nielsen, Louise T Dalgaard
The endocrine pancreas expands markedly in the first postnatal days and the insulin producing β-cells initiate a functional maturation preceded by a morphological change of the islets of Langerhans. Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is a secreted peptide expressed in intestinal epithelia, where it promotes migration, but its role in the pancreas is not characterized. The aim of this study was to examine the expression and function of TFF3 in perinatal rat pancreas, ex vivo cultured fetal rat pancreas and in the rat β-cell line INS-1E...
May 3, 2018: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721633/decreased-vmat2-in-the-pancreas-of-humans-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-measured-in-vivo-by-pet-imaging
#10
Gary W Cline, Mika Naganawa, Laigao Chen, Kristin Chidsey, Santos Carvajal-Gonzalez, Sylvester Pawlak, Michelle Rossulek, Yanwei Zhang, Jason Bini, Timothy J McCarthy, Richard E Carson, Roberto A Calle
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The progressive loss of beta cell function is part of the natural history of type 2 diabetes. Autopsy studies suggest that this is, in part, due to loss of beta cell mass (BCM), but this has not been confirmed in vivo. Non-invasive methods to quantify BCM may contribute to a better understanding of type 2 diabetes pathophysiology and the development of therapeutic strategies. In humans, the localisation of vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2) in beta cells and pancreatic polypeptide cells, with minimal expression in other exocrine or endocrine pancreatic cells, has led to its development as a measure of BCM...
May 2, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719565/the-rat-pancreatic-body-tail-as-a-source-of-a-novel-extracellular-matrix-scaffold-for-endocrine-pancreas-bioengineering
#11
Huajun Yu, Yunzhi Chen, Hongru Kong, Qikuan He, Hongwei Sun, Pravin Avinash Bhugul, Qiyu Zhang, Bicheng Chen, Mengtao Zhou
Background: Regenerative medicine and tissue engineering are promising approaches for organ transplantation. Extracellular matrix (ECM) based scaffolds obtained through the decellularization of natural organs have become the preferred platform for organ bioengineering. In the field of pancreas bioengineering, acellular scaffolds from different animals approximate the biochemical, spatial and vascular relationships of the native extracellular matrix and have been proven to be a good platform for recellularization and in vitro culture...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717931/-re-generating-human-beta-cells-status-pitfalls-and-perspectives
#12
Luc Baeyens, Marie Lemper, Willem Staels, Sofie De Groef, Nico De Leu, Yves Heremans, Michael S German, Harry Heimberg
Diabetes mellitus results from disturbed glucose homeostasis due to an absolute (type 1) or relative (type 2) deficiency of insulin, a peptide hormone almost exclusively produced by the beta cells of the endocrine pancreas in a tightly regulated manner. Current therapy only delays disease progression through insulin injection and/or oral medications that increase insulin secretion or sensitivity, decrease hepatic glucose production, or promote glucosuria. These drugs have turned diabetes into a chronic disease as they do not solve the underlying beta cell defects or entirely prevent the long-term complications of hyperglycemia...
July 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699458/pancreatic-effects-of-a-bruton-s-tyrosine-kinase-small-molecule-inhibitor-in-rats-are-strain-dependent
#13
Manoj Bhaskaran, Paul D Cornwell, Steven D Sorden, Michael R Elwell, Natalie R Russell, Michael L Pritt, John L Vahle
Inhibitors of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) are under development as potential therapies for various autoimmune diseases. In repeat-dose toxicity studies, small-molecule BTK inhibitors (BTKi) have been reported to cause a constellation of histologic effects at the pancreatic endocrine-exocrine interface in male rats; however, similar findings were not reported in other species. Since the BTKi-induced pancreatic effect is morphologically similar to well-documented spontaneous changes (predominantly characterized by insular/peri-insular hemorrhage, pigment deposition, chronic inflammation, and fibrosis) that are known to vary by rat strain, we investigated potential strain-dependent differences in the pancreatic effects of a small-molecule BTKi, LY3337641...
January 1, 2018: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696066/metastatic-neuroendocrine-pancreatic-tumor-case-report
#14
E C Radu, A I Saizu, R R Grigorescu, A E Croitoru, C Gheorghe
Rationale. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare neoplasms that develop from the endocrine tissues of the pancreas. They have a better overall prognosis than pancreatic adenocarcinoma. However, all commonly used classification systems reflect a separation between more indolent, well-differentiated tumors and far more aggressive poorly differentiated types that behave clinically more like small-cell carcinoma of the lung. Objective. To present the case of a 62-year-old man with an aggressive pancreatic NET, with liver, splenic and bone metastases who underwent multidisciplinary treatment including several lines of chemotherapy, somatostatin analogs and radiotherapy...
January 2018: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686968/circulating-pander-concentration-is-associated-with-increased-hba1c-and-fasting-blood-glucose-in-type-2-diabetic-subjects
#15
Catherine B MarElia, Melanie N Kuehl, Tiffany A Shemwell, Amy C Alman, Brant R Burkhardt
Aim: PANcreatic-DERived factor (PANDER, FAM3B) is a novel hormone that regulates glucose levels via interaction with both the endocrine pancreas and liver. Prior studies examining PANDER were primarily conducted in murine models or in vitro but little is known regarding the circulating concentration of PANDER in humans, especially with regard to the association of type 2 diabetes (T2D) or overall glycemic regulation. To address this limitation, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of circulating serum PANDER concentration in association with other hormones that serve as either markers of insulin resistance (insulin and adiponectin) or to metabolic parameters of glycemic control such as fasting HbA1c and blood glucose (FBG)...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical & Translational Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683975/prediction-of-insulin-secretion-ability-with-microcirculation-evaluated-by-contrast-enhanced-ultrasonography-in-pancreas-transplantation
#16
Naohiro Aida, Takashi Kenmochi, Taihei Ito, Toru Nishikawa, Izumi Hiratsuka, Megumi Shibata, Atsushi Suzuki, Midori Hasegawa, Akihiro Kawai, Mamoru Kusaka, Kiyotaka Hoshinaga, Hisahiro Matsubara
OBJECTIVES: Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography can evaluate microcirculation. Thus, we used contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in evaluating pancreas graft perfusion and examined the relationship between graft circulation and function. METHODS: Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography was performed in 17 cases within 24 hours and at 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after transplantation (Tx). The time between the time to peak intensity in the parenchyma and that in the vein was defined as delta-Tp(P-V)...
May 2018: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683974/pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors-and-intraductal-papillary-mucinous-neoplasm-of-the-pancreas-a-systematic-review
#17
Alba Manuel-Vazquez, José Manuel Ramia, Raquel Latorre-Fragua, Ainhoa Valle-Rubio, Vladimir Arteaga-Peralta, Carmen Ramiro-Pérez, Roberto de la Plaza-Llamas
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify factors that explain the association of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (IPMNs-PNETs), radiological characteristics, and factors that might guide therapy. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the literature to search for articles on concurrent IPMN-PNET, mixed endocrine-exocrine pancreatic tumors, and/or PNET with an intraductal growth pattern. RESULTS: A review of the literature suggests that there is some confusion about association of IPMNs-PNETs...
May 2018: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683968/functional-correlation-between-the-pancreas-and-the-small-intestine-in-humans-the-first-evaluation-using-a-newly-developed-enteroscopy
#18
Daijuro Hayashi, Yoshiki Hirooka, Hiroki Kawashima, Eizaburo Ohno, Takuya Ishikawa, Takamichi Kuwahara, Manabu Kawai, Takeshi Yamamura, Kazuhiro Furukawa, Kohei Funasaka, Masanao Nakamura, Ryoji Miyahara, Osamu Watanabe, Masatoshi Ishigami, Senju Hashimoto, Hidemi Goto
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate a functional correlation between the pancreas and the small intestine and the association of this relationship with nutritional status, using magnifying enteroscopy. METHODS: The subjects were adults aged 20 years or older who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. An endoscope was inserted into the jejunum, and 10% glucose was sprayed under magnifying observation to evaluate changes in blood flow in the villous capillary network...
April 19, 2018: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678923/eje-prize-2018-a-gut-feeling-about-glucagon
#19
Filip Krag Knop
Hyperglucagonaemia (in the fasting as well as in the postprandial state) is considered a core pathophysiological component of diabetes and to contribute substantially to the hyperglycaemic state of diabetes. Hyperglucagonaemia is usually viewed upon as a consequence of pancreatic alpha cell insensitivity to the glucagon-suppressive effects of glucose and insulin. Since we observed that the well-known hyperglucagonaemic response to oral glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes is exchanged by normal suppression of plasma glucagon levels following isoglycaemic intravenous glucose administration in these patients, we have been focusing on the gut and gut-derived factors as potential mediators of diabetic hyperglucagonaemia...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675407/pancreatic-aquaporin-7-a-novel-target-for-anti-diabetic-drugs
#20
REVIEW
Leire Méndez-Giménez, Silvia Ezquerro, Inês V da Silva, Graça Soveral, Gema Frühbeck, Amaia Rodríguez
Aquaporins comprise a family of 13 members of water channels (AQP0-12) that facilitate a rapid transport of water across cell membranes. In some cases, these pores are also permeated by small solutes, particularly glycerol, urea or nitric oxide, among other solutes. Several aquaporins have been identified in the pancreas, an exocrine and endocrine organ that plays an essential role in the onset of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The exocrine pancreas, which accounts for 90% of the total pancreas, secretes daily large volumes of a near-isotonic fluid containing digestive enzymes into the duodenum...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
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