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Endocrine pancreas

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329921/neuroendocrine-tumors-in-the-stomach-duodenum-and-pancreas-accompanied-by-novel-men1-gene-mutation
#1
Min A Yang, Woong Ki Lee, Hong Shik Shin, Sung Hyun Park, Byung Sun Kim, Ji Woong Kim, Jin Woong Cho, So Hee Yun
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome is a relatively rare disease, characterized by the occurrence of multiple endocrine tumors in the parathyroid and pituitary glands as well as the pancreas. Here, we report a case of MEN1 with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) in the stomach, duodenum, and pancreas. A 53-year-old man visited our hospital to manage gastric NET. Five years prior to his visit, he had undergone surgery for incidental meningioma. His brother had pancreatic nodules and a history of surgery for adrenal adenoma...
March 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327291/solid-pseudopapillary-neoplasm-of-the-pancreas-a-clinicopathological-review-of-20-cases-including-rare-examples
#2
Ayca Ersen, Anil Aysal Agalar, Erdener Ozer, Cihan Agalar, Tarkan Unek, Tufan Egeli, Mucahit Ozbilgin, Ibrahim Astarcioglu, Mustafa Olguner, Funda Obuz, Ozgul Sagol
AIMS: Solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) is an uncommon malignant tumor of the pancreas with a favorable prognosis unlike other pancreatic neoplasms. We investigated the clinicopathological features of 20 patients with SPN in details. METHODS: The patients diagnosed as SPN in Dokuz Eylul University Hospital between January 2005 and March 2016 were reviewed in terms of clinical and histopathological data. RESULTS: Mean age of the patients was 33...
November 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327131/transcriptome-analysis-of-pancreatic-cells-across-distant-species-highlights-novel-important-regulator-genes
#3
Estefania Tarifeño-Saldivia, Arnaud Lavergne, Alice Bernard, Keerthana Padamata, David Bergemann, Marianne L Voz, Isabelle Manfroid, Bernard Peers
BACKGROUND: Defining the transcriptome and the genetic pathways of pancreatic cells is of great interest for elucidating the molecular attributes of pancreas disorders such as diabetes and cancer. As the function of the different pancreatic cell types has been maintained during vertebrate evolution, the comparison of their transcriptomes across distant vertebrate species is a means to pinpoint genes under strong evolutionary constraints due to their crucial function, which have therefore preserved their selective expression in these pancreatic cell types...
March 21, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324008/vessel-network-architecture-of-adult-human-islets-promotes-distinct-cell-cell-interactions-in-situ-and-is-altered-after-transplantation
#4
Christian M Cohrs, Chunguang Chen, Stephan R Jahn, Julia Stertmann, Helena Chmelova, Jürgen Weitz, Andrea Bähr, Nikolai Klymiuk, Anja Steffen, Barbara Ludwig, Virginia Kamvissi, Eckhard Wolf, Stefan R Bornstein, Michele Solimena, Stephan Speier
Islet cell hormone release is modulated by signals from endothelial and endocrine cells within the islet. However, models of intra-islet vascularization and paracrine cell signaling are mostly based on rodent pancreas. We here assessed for the first time the architecture and endocrine cell interaction of the vascular network in unperturbed human islets in situ and their potential to re-establish their endogenous vascular network after transplantation in vivo. We prepared pancreas tissue slices of fresh tissue obtained from non-diabetic patients undergoing partial pancreatectomy...
January 27, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323968/impaired-glycine-mia-in-type-2-diabetes-and-potential-mechanisms-contributing-to-glucose-homeostasis
#5
Richard Yan-Do, Patrick E MacDonald
The onset and/or progression of type 2 diabetes (T2D) can be prevented if intervention is early enough. As such, much effort has been placed on the search for indicators predictive of pre-diabetes and disease onset or progression. An increasing body of evidence suggests that changes in plasma glycine may be one such biomarker. Circulating glycine levels are consistently low in patients with T2D. Levels of this non-essential amino acid correlate negatively with obesity and insulin resistance. Plasma glycine correlates positively with glucose disposal, and rises with interventions such as exercise and bariatric surgery that improve glucose homeostasis...
March 15, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317048/acth-producing-neuroendocrine-tumor-of-the-pancreas-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#6
Justin Byun, Sung Hyun Kim, Hyang Sook Jeong, Yumie Rhee, Woo Jung Lee, Chang Moo Kang
Tumors that arise from the endocrine pancreas, or the islets of pancreas, are called pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Pancreatic NET have an incidence of <0.1 per one million persons, and can lead to secretion of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Herein, we presented a case of patient with Cushing's syndrome as a result of ACTH-producing pancreatic NET, who underwent successful laparoscopic distal pancreatosplenectomy. A 40-year-old Korean female patient with ophthalmologic discomfort, osteoporosis, and unexplained hypokalemia was admitted to our hospital...
February 2017: Ann Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296236/development-of-the-endocrine-pancreas-in-the-beagle-dog-from-fetal-to-adult-life
#7
Emilie Bricout-Neveu, Severine Pechberty, Karine Reynaud, Cindy Maenhoudt, Marie José Lecomte, Philippe Ravassard, Paul Czernichow
Our objectives were to describe, in Beagle dogs, the ontogenesis of beta (insulin-producing) and alpha (glucagon-producing) cells from fetal to early postnatal life and adulthood. In addition, to have some insight into interspecies comparison, Beagle dog pancreases were compared to pancreases from a Labrador and Chow Chow. At midgestation, the epithelium was dense, beta cells scarce, and alpha cells numerous and concentrated in the center of the pancreatic bud. From 36 to 45 days post conception (pc), beta cell numbers increased and the epithelium expanded and branched out...
March 14, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291165/preoperative-treatment-with-folfirinox-and-successful-resection-for-a-patient-with-mixed-acinar-endocrine-carcinoma-of-the-pancreas
#8
Motokazu Sugimoto, O Joe Hines, David W Dawson, V Raman Muthusamy, Howard A Reber, Timothy R Donahue
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286566/gastrointestinal-manifestations-of-mitochondrial-disorders-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Josef Finsterer, Marlies Frank
Mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) due to respiratory-chain defects or nonrespiratory chain defects are usually multisystem conditions [mitochondrial multiorgan disorder syndrome (MIMODS)] affecting the central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nervous system, eyes, ears, endocrine organs, heart, kidneys, bone marrow, lungs, arteries, and also the intestinal tract. Frequent gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations of MIDs include poor appetite, gastroesophageal sphincter dysfunction, constipation, dysphagia, vomiting, gastroparesis, GI pseudo-obstruction, diarrhea, or pancreatitis and hepatopathy...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280376/single-donor-islet-transplantation-in-type-1-diabetes-patient-selection-and-special-considerations
#10
REVIEW
Jacob A Tatum, Max O Meneveau, Kenneth L Brayman
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disorder of the endocrine pancreas that currently affects millions of people in the United States. Although the disease can be managed with exogenous insulin administration, the ultimate cure for the condition lies in restoring a patient's ability to produce their own insulin. Islet cell allotransplantation provides a means of endogenous insulin production. Though far from perfected, islet transplants are now a proven treatment for type 1 diabetics. However, proper patient selection is critical for achieving optimal outcomes...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275047/the-new-biology-and-pharmacology-of-glucagon
#11
REVIEW
T D Müller, B Finan, C Clemmensen, R D DiMarchi, M H Tschöp
In the last two decades we have witnessed sizable progress in defining the role of gastrointestinal signals in the control of glucose and energy homeostasis. Specifically, the molecular basis of the huge metabolic benefits in bariatric surgery is emerging while novel incretin-based medicines based on endogenous hormones such as glucagon-like peptide 1 and pancreas-derived amylin are improving diabetes management. These and related developments have fostered the discovery of novel insights into endocrine control of systemic metabolism, and in particular a deeper understanding of the importance of communication across vital organs, and specifically the gut-brain-pancreas-liver network...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272982/role-of-alpha-lipoic-acid-in-ameliorating-cyclosporine-a-induced-pancreatic-injury-in-albino-rats-a-structural-ultrastructural-and-morphometric-study
#12
Hala F Abd-Ellah, Nadia R A Abou-Zeid
The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) against cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced pancreatic toxicity in rats. Thirty-two male albino rats were divided into four equal groups. Group I treated orally (per os, p.o.) with vehicles and served as control; Group II received α-LA (100 mg/kg b.w. /day, p.o.) for 21 days; Group III received CsA (25 mg/kg b.w./day, p.o.) for 21 days; and Group IV received α-LA 1 hr before oral treatment by CsA for 21 days. Histological examination of the pancreas of CsA-treated rats showed marked changes represented by wide interlobular septae that contained congested blood vessels, cytoplasmic vacuolation of some acinar cells, and distortion of the other cells...
March 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272344/nutritional-and-metabolic-derangements-in-pancreatic-cancer-and-pancreatic-resection
#13
REVIEW
Taylor M Gilliland, Nicole Villafane-Ferriol, Kevin P Shah, Rohan M Shah, Hop S Tran Cao, Nader N Massarweh, Eric J Silberfein, Eugene A Choi, Cary Hsu, Amy L McElhany, Omar Barakat, William Fisher, George Van Buren
Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. The disease and its treatment can cause significant nutritional impairments that often adversely impact patient quality of life (QOL). The pancreas has both exocrine and endocrine functions and, in the setting of cancer, both systems may be affected. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) manifests as weight loss and steatorrhea, while endocrine insufficiency may result in diabetes mellitus. Surgical resection, a central component of pancreatic cancer treatment, may induce or exacerbate these dysfunctions...
March 7, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270118/a-case-of-type-1-multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-with-esophageal-stricture-successfully-treated-with-endoscopic-balloon-dilation-and-local-steroid-injection-combined-with-surgical-resection-of-gastrinomas
#14
Hiroyuki Matsubayashi, Noboru Kawata, Naomi Kakushima, Masaki Tanaka, Kohei Takizawa, Yoshimi Kiyozumi, Yasue Horiuchi, Keiko Sasaki, Teiichi Sugiura, Katsuhiko Uesaka, Hiroyuki Ono
BACKGROUND: In type 1 multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN1), esophageal diseases association with excessive gastrin secretion in Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) sometimes develop. Here, we reported a case of MEN1/ZES, who developed dysphagia due to reflux esophagitis with severe esophageal stricture. Treatment for his esophageal stricture and ZES was discussed. CASE PRESENTATION: A 43-year-old man with progressive dysphagia and diarrhea was referred to the teaching hospital...
March 7, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258566/aquaporins-and-gland-secretion
#15
Christine Delporte
Aquaporins (AQPs ) are expressed in most exocrine and endocrine secretory glands. Consequently, summarizing the expression and functions of AQPs in secretory glands represents a daunting task considering the important number of glands present in the body, as well as the number of mammalian AQPs - thirteen. The roles played by AQPs in secretory processes have been investigated in many secretory glands. However, despite considerable research, additional studies are clearly needed to pursue our understanding of the role played by AQPs in secretory processes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258377/endoscopic-therapies-for-chronic-pancreatitis
#16
REVIEW
Jeffrey M Adler, Timothy B Gardner
Chronic pancreatitis is a fibroinflammatory disease of the pancreas leading to varying degrees of endocrine and exocrine dysfunction. Treatment options are generally designed to control the pain of chronic pancreatitis, and endoscopic therapy is one of the main treatment modalities. Herein, we describe the endoscopic management of pancreatic duct calculi and strictures, entrapment of the intrapancreatic bile duct, celiac plexus interventions, and drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts.
March 3, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248965/pancreas-lineage-allocation-and-specification-are-regulated-by-sphingosine-1-phosphate-signalling
#17
Ioannis Serafimidis, Eva Rodriguez-Aznar, Mathias Lesche, Kazuaki Yoshioka, Yoh Takuwa, Andreas Dahl, Duojia Pan, Anthony Gavalas
During development, progenitor expansion, lineage allocation, and implementation of differentiation programs need to be tightly coordinated so that different cell types are generated in the correct numbers for appropriate tissue size and function. Pancreatic dysfunction results in some of the most debilitating and fatal diseases, including pancreatic cancer and diabetes. Several transcription factors regulating pancreas lineage specification have been identified, and Notch signalling has been implicated in lineage allocation, but it remains unclear how these processes are coordinated...
March 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246291/-11-c-5-hydroxy-tryptophan-pet-for-assessment-of-islet-mass-during-progression-of-type-2-diabetes
#18
Lina Carlbom, Daniel Espes, Mark Lubberink, Mats Martinell, Lars Johansson, Håkan Ahlström, Per-Ola Carlsson, Olle Korsgren, Olof Eriksson
[(11)C]5-hydroxy-tryptophan ([(11)C]5-HTP) PET of the pancreas has been shown to be a surrogate imaging biomarker of pancreatic islet mass. The change in islet mass in different stages of type 2 diabetes (T2D) as measured by non-invasive imaging is currently unknown. Here, we describe a cross-sectional study where subjects at different stages of T2D development with expected stratification of pancreatic islet mass were examined in relation to non-diabetic individuals. The primary outcome was the [(11)C]5-HTP uptake and retention in pancreas, as a surrogate marker for the endogenous islet mass...
February 28, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228865/identification-of-beta-cell-dysfunction-at-the-pre-symptomatic-stage-of-diabetes-mellitus-by-novel-analytical-system-liquid-biopsy-measurements-in-femtograms
#19
REVIEW
Kurt Krapfenbauer
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is produced and progresses as a consequence of complex and gradual processes, in which a variety of alterations of the endocrine pancreas, are involved and which mainly result in beta cell failure. Those molecular alterations can be found in the bloodstream, which suggests that we could quantify specific biomarkers in plasma or serum by very sensitive methods before the onset diabetes mellitus is diagnosed. However, classical methods of protein analysis such as electrophoresis, Western blot, ELISA, and liquid chromatography are generally time-consuming, lab-intensive, and not sensitive enough to detect such alteration in a pre-symptomatic state of the disease...
December 2017: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222044/endocrine-system-on-chip-for-a-diabetes-treatment-model
#20
Dao Thi Thuy Nguyen, Danny van Noort, In-Kyung Jeong, Sungsu Park
The endocrine system is a collection of glands producing hormones which, among others, regulates metabolism, growth and development. One important group of endocrine diseases is diabetes, which is caused by a deficiency or diminished effectiveness of endogenous insulin. By using a microfluidic perfused 3D cell-culture chip, we developed an 'endocrine system on chip' to potentially be able to screen drugs for the treatment of diabetes by measuring insulin release over time. Insulin-secreting β-cells are located in the pancreas, while L-cells, located in the small intestines, stimulate insulin secretion...
February 21, 2017: Biofabrication
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