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Endocrine pancreas

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228865/identification-of-beta-cell-dysfunction-at-the-pre-symptomatic-stage-of-diabetes-mellitus-by-novel-analytical-system-liquid-biopsy-measurements-in-femtograms
#1
REVIEW
Kurt Krapfenbauer
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is produced and progresses as a consequence of complex and gradual processes, in which a variety of alterations of the endocrine pancreas, are involved and which mainly result in beta cell failure. Those molecular alterations can be found in the bloodstream, which suggests that we could quantify specific biomarkers in plasma or serum by very sensitive methods before the onset diabetes mellitus is diagnosed. However, classical methods of protein analysis such as electrophoresis, Western blot, ELISA, and liquid chromatography are generally time-consuming, lab-intensive, and not sensitive enough to detect such alteration in a pre-symptomatic state of the disease...
December 2017: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222044/endocrine-system-on-chip-for-a-diabetes-treatment-model
#2
Dao Thi Thuy Nguyen, Danny van Noort, In-Kyung Jeong, Sungsu Park
The endocrine system is a collection of glands producing hormones which, among others, regulates metabolism, growth and development. One important group of endocrine diseases is diabetes, which is caused by a deficiency or diminished effectiveness of endogenous insulin. By using a microfluidic perfused 3D cell-culture chip, we developed an 'endocrine system on chip' to potentially be able to screen drugs for the treatment of diabetes by measuring insulin release over time. Insulin-secreting β-cells are located in the pancreas, while L-cells, located in the small intestines, stimulate insulin secretion...
February 21, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220294/chromogranin-a-regulates-vesicle-storage-and-mitochondrial-dynamics-to-influence-insulin-secretion
#3
Joshua Wollam, Sumana Mahata, Matthew Riopel, Angelina Hernandez-Carretero, Angshuman Biswas, Gautam K Bandyopadhyay, Nai-Wen Chi, Lee E Eiden, Nitish R Mahapatra, Angelo Corti, Nicholas J G Webster, Sushil K Mahata
Chromogranin A (CgA) is a prohormone and a granulogenic factor that regulates secretory pathways in neuroendocrine tissues. In β-cells of the endocrine pancreas, CgA is a major cargo in insulin secretory vesicles. The impact of CgA deficiency on the formation and exocytosis of insulin vesicles is yet to be investigated. In addition, no literature exists on the impact of CgA on mitochondrial function in β-cells. Using three different antibodies, we demonstrate that CgA is processed to vasostatin- and catestatin-containing fragments in pancreatic islet cells...
February 20, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218201/b-mode-and-contrast-enhancement-characteristics-of-small-nonincidental-neuroendocrine-pancreatic-tumors
#4
Barbara Braden, Christian Jenssen, Mirko D'Onofrio, Michael Hocke, Uwe Will, Kathleen Möller, Andre Ignee, Yi Dong, Xin-Wu Cui, Adrian Sãftoiu, Christoph F Dietrich
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Imaging of the pancreas for detection of neuroendocrine tumors is indicated as surveillance in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) or if typical clinical symptoms combined with hormone production raise the suspicion of a neuroendocrine tumor. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is considered the best imaging modality to detect small pancreatic tumors. However, little is known about how small pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) present on EUS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this multicenter study, we retrospectively analyzed the endosonographic characteristics of small pNETs which had been detected due to typical biochemistry and clinical symptoms or during surveillance of MEN 1...
January 2017: Endoscopic Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207747/chronic-pancreatitis-multicentre-prospective-data-collection-and-analysis-by-the-hungarian-pancreatic-study-group
#5
Ákos Szücs, Tamás Marjai, Andrea Szentesi, Nelli Farkas, Andrea Párniczky, György Nagy, Balázs Kui, Tamás Takács, László Czakó, Zoltán Szepes, Balázs Csaba Németh, Áron Vincze, Gabriella Pár, Imre Szabó, Patrícia Sarlós, Anita Illés, Szilárd Gódi, Ferenc Izbéki, Judit Gervain, Adrienn Halász, Gyula Farkas, László Leindler, Dezső Kelemen, Róbert Papp, Richárd Szmola, Márta Varga, József Hamvas, János Novák, Barnabás Bod, Miklós Sahin-Tóth, Péter Hegyi
INTRODUCTION: Chronic pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease associated with structural and functional damage to the pancreas, causing pain, maldigestion and weight loss and thus worsening the quality of life. AIMS AND METHODS: Our aim was to find correlations from a multicentre database representing the epidemiological traits, diagnosis and treatment of the disease in Hungary. The Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group collected data prospectively from 2012 to 2014 on patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197897/middle-segment-preserving-pancreatectomy-for-metachronous-intraductal-papillary-mucinous-neoplasm-after-pancreatoduodenectomy-a-case-report
#6
Mihoko Yamada, Teiichi Sugiura, Yukiyasu Okamura, Takaaki Ito, Yusuke Yamamoto, Ryo Ashida, Katsuhiko Uesaka
Total pancreatectomy has occasionally been performed to treat patients with multiple lesions (such as intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN)) or patients who have undergone repeated pancreatic resection. However, deficiencies of the exocrine and endocrine functions worsen patients' quality of life. Recently, there have been several case reports citing middle segment-preserving pancreatectomy (MSPP) as a safe procedure and beneficial with respect to preservation of the exocrine and endocrine functions...
December 2017: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184214/modeling-pancreatic-endocrine-cell-adaptation-and-diabetes-in-the-zebrafish
#7
REVIEW
Lisette A Maddison, Wenbiao Chen
Glucose homeostasis is an important element of energy balance and is conserved in organisms from fruit fly to mammals. Central to the control of circulating glucose levels in vertebrates are the endocrine cells of the pancreas, particularly the insulin-producing β-cells and the glucagon producing α-cells. A feature of α- and β-cells is their plasticity, an ability to adapt, in function and number as a response to physiological and pathophysiological conditions of increased hormone demand. The molecular mechanisms underlying these adaptive responses that maintain glucose homeostasis are incompletely defined...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153594/dose-dependent-effect-of-bisphenol-a-on-insulin-signaling-molecules-in-cardiac-muscle-of-adult-male-rat
#8
Preethi Sivashanmugam, Vigneswari Mullainadhan, Balasubramanian Karundevi
Environmental contaminant, Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a xenoestrogen, an essential component used for the production of two classes of polymers such as polycarbonate and epoxy resin which disrupts the normal endocrine function. BPA has intense effects on mice endocrine pancreas, an essential tissue involved in glucose metabolism. It disrupts pancreatic β-cell insulin content, induces hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in male rats. Cardiac muscle is an insulin responsive organ and insulin has direct effects on glucose transport...
January 30, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150744/engineering-an-endocrine-neo-pancreas-by-repopulation-of-a-decellularized-rat-pancreas-with-islets-of-langerhans
#9
H Napierala, K-H Hillebrandt, N Haep, P Tang, M Tintemann, J Gassner, M Noesser, H Everwien, N Seiffert, M Kluge, E Teegen, D Polenz, S Lippert, D Geisel, A Reutzel Selke, N Raschzok, A Andreou, J Pratschke, I M Sauer, B Struecker
Decellularization of pancreata and repopulation of these non-immunogenic matrices with islets and endothelial cells could provide transplantable, endocrine Neo- Pancreata. In this study, rat pancreata were perfusion decellularized and repopulated with intact islets, comparing three perfusion routes (Artery, Portal Vein, Pancreatic Duct). Decellularization effectively removed all cellular components but conserved the pancreas specific extracellular matrix. Digital subtraction angiography of the matrices showed a conserved integrity of the decellularized vascular system but a contrast emersion into the parenchyma via the decellularized pancreatic duct...
February 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149063/acute-effects-of-mobile-phone-radiations-on-subtle-energy-levels-of-teenagers-using-electrophotonic-imaging-technique-a-randomized-controlled-study
#10
Hemant Bhargav, T M Srinivasan, Suman Bista, A Mooventhan, Vandana Suresh, Alex Hankey, H R Nagendra
BACKGROUND: Mobile phones induce radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) which has been found to affect subtle energy levels of adults through Electrophotonic Imaging (EPI) technique in a previous pilot study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 61 healthy right-handed healthy teenagers (22 males and 39 females) in the age range of 17.40 ± 0.24 years from educational institutes in Bengaluru. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: (1) (mobile phone in ON mode [MPON] at right ear) and (2) mobile phone in OFF mode (MPOF)...
January 2017: International Journal of Yoga
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146100/echovirus-6-infects-human-exocrine-and-endocrine-pancreatic-cells-and-induces-pro-inflammatory-innate-immune-response
#11
Luis Sarmiento, Gun Frisk, Mahesh Anagandula, Monika Hodik, Ilaria Barchetta, Eitan Netanyah, Eduardo Cabrera-Rode, Corrado M Cilio
Human enteroviruses (HEV), especially coxsackievirus serotype B (CVB) and echovirus (E), have been associated with diseases of both the exocrine and endocrine pancreas, but so far evidence on HEV infection in human pancreas has been reported only in islets and ductal cells. This study aimed to investigate the capability of echovirus strains to infect human exocrine and endocrine pancreatic cells. Infection of explanted human islets and exocrine cells with seven field strains of E6 caused cytopathic effect, virus titer increase and production of HEV protein VP1 in both cell types...
January 30, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137218/metabolic-and-cardiovascular-actions-of-nesfatin-1-implications-in-health-and-disease
#12
Naresh Ramesh, Kavishankar Gawli, Venkatakiran Pasupulleti, Suraj Unniappan
BACKGROUND: Metabolic homeostasis is achieved by proper functioning of a complex endocrine milieu, comprising of signals arising from the brain and peripheral tissues. Our knowledge of the factors regulating such balance is rapidly evolving, as new signaling molecules are characterized. Of central interest is nesfatin-1, owing to its multifunctional tissue specific actions regulating food intake, body weight, blood glucose and cardiac functions. METHOD: This review discusses the tissue/system wide distribution and actions of nesfatin-1 in regulating metabolic and cardiovascular functions in healthy conditions and diseases...
January 30, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134848/insulin-production-and-resistance-in-different-models-of-diet-induced-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome
#13
Salamah M Alwahsh, Benjamin J Dwyer, Shareen Forbes, David H van Thiel, Philip J Starkey Lewis, Giuliano Ramadori
The role of the liver and the endocrine pancreas in development of hyperinsulinemia in different types of obesity remains unclear. Sedentary rats (160 g) were fed a low-fat-diet (LFD, chow 13% kcal fat), high-fat-diet (HFD, 35% fat), or HFD+ 30% ethanol+ 30% fructose (HF-EFr, 22% fat). Overnight-fasted rats were culled after one, four or eight weeks. Pancreatic and hepatic mRNAs were isolated for subsequent RT-PCR analysis. After eight weeks, body weights increased three-fold in the LFD group, 2.8-fold in the HFD group, and 2...
January 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129847/analysis-of-pancreatic-disease-in-zebrafish
#14
S C Eames Nalle, K F Franse, M D Kinkel
One of the appeals of the zebrafish model is the relative ease of studying disease progression from embryonic or larval stages through to adulthood. Because of this, the zebrafish has become an important model for postembryonic pancreatic disease, particularly diabetes and pancreatic cancer. Here we present methods for using the adult zebrafish to analyze pancreas function and structure, with an emphasis on the endocrine pancreas and the beta cells. The methods include fasting, weighing adults, and anesthetizing adults, and intraperitoneal injection of glucose based on body weight...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129231/specific-radiological-imaging-findings-in-patients-with-hereditary-pancreatitis-during-a-long-follow-up-of-disease
#15
Aura A J van Esch, Joost P H Drenth, John J Hermans
OBJECTIVES: Hereditary pancreatitis (HP) is characterized by recurrent episodes of inflammation of the pancreas. Radiological imaging is used to diagnose HP and to monitor complications. The aim of this study was to describe specific imaging findings in HP. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data of HP patients with serial imaging and reviewed all radiological imaging studies (transabdominal ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging)...
March 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119131/dnmt1-activity-is-dispensable-in-%C3%AE-cells-but-is-essential-for-%C3%AE-cell-homeostasis
#16
Nicolas Damond, Fabrizio Thorel, Seung K Kim, Pedro L Herrera
In addition to β-cells, pancreatic islets contain α- and δ-cells, which respectively produce glucagon and somatostatin. The reprogramming of these two endocrine cell types into insulin producers, as observed after a massive β-cell ablation in mice, may help restoring a functional β-cell mass in type 1 diabetes. Yet, the spontaneous α-to-β and δ-to-β conversion processes are relatively inefficient in adult animals and the underlying epigenetic mechanisms remain unclear. Several studies indicate that the conserved chromatin modifiers DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) and Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2) are important for pancreas development and restrict islet cell plasticity...
January 22, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118981/monitoring-p53-by-mdm2-and-mdmx-is-required-for-endocrine-pancreas-development-and-function-in-a-spatio-temporal-manner
#17
Yiwei Zhang, Shelya X Zeng, Qian Hao, Hua Lu
Although p53 is not essential for normal embryonic development, it plays a pivotal role in many biological and pathological processes, including cell fate determination-dependent and independent events and diseases. The expression and activity of p53 largely depend on its two biological inhibitors, MDM2 and MDMX, which have been shown to form a complex in order to tightly control p53 to an undetectable level during early stages of embryonic development. However, more delicate studies using conditional gene-modification mouse models show that MDM2 and MDMX may function separately or synergistically on p53 regulation during later stages of embryonic development and adulthood in a cell and tissue-specific manner...
January 22, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117808/effective-isolation-of-functional-islets-from-neonatal-mouse-pancreas
#18
Chen Huang, Guoqiang Gu
Perfusion-based islet-isolation protocols from large mammalian pancreata are well established. Such protocols are readily conducted in many laboratories due to the large size of the pancreatic duct that allows for ready collagenase injection and subsequent tissue perfusion. In contrast, islet isolation from small pancreata, like that of neonatal mice, is challenging because perfusion is not readily achievable in the small pancreata. Here we describe a detailed simple procedure that recovers substantial numbers of islets from newly born mice with visual assistance...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115475/serum-trypsinogen-levels-in-type-1-diabetes
#19
Xia Li, Martha Campbell-Thompson, Clive H Wasserfall, Kieran McGrail, Amanda Posgai, Andrew R Schultz, Todd M Brusko, Jonathan Shuster, Faming Liang, Andrew Muir, Desmond Schatz, Michael J Haller, Mark A Atkinson
OBJECTIVE: The pancreas in type 1 diabetes exhibits decreased size (weight/volume) and abnormal exocrine morphology. Serum trypsinogen levels are an established marker of pancreatic exocrine function. As such, we hypothesized that trypsinogen levels may be reduced in patients with pre-type 1 diabetes and type 1 diabetes compared with healthy control subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Serum trypsinogen levels were determined in 100 persons with type 1 diabetes (72 new-onset, 28 established), 99 autoantibody-positive (AAb+) subjects at varying levels of risk for developing this disease, 87 AAb-negative (AAb-) control subjects, 91 AAb- relatives with type 1 diabetes, and 18 patients with type 2 diabetes...
January 23, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109546/influence-of-feeding-habits-in-the-endocrine-pancreas-of-insectivore-bat-pteronotus-personatus-and-nectarivore-bat-anoura-geoffroyi-a-comparative-stereological-and-immunohistochemical-study
#20
Clarice Machado-Santos, Júlio Cesar Fraulob Aquino, Patrício Adriano da Rocha, Marcelo Abidu-Figueiredo, Lycia de Brito-Gitirana, Armando Sales
Pteronotus personatus as an insectivore bat and has a diet that consists of a high protein diet, whereas the diet of Anoura geoffroyi, a predominantly nectarivore bat, is rich in simple sugars like sucrose, glucose and fructose. Considering that diet influences the activation of different pathways, which may influence morphological adaptations in the gastrointestinal system, the aim of this study was to compare the morphology of the endocrine pancreas in P. personatus and A. geoffroyi. For this, histological, stereological and immunohistochemical methods were used...
January 16, 2017: Tissue & Cell
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