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C5 inhibitor

Raquel T Lima, Diana Sousa, Ana M Paiva, Andreia Palmeira, João Barbosa, Madalena Pedro, Madalena M Pinto, Emília Sousa, M Helena Vasconcelos
(1) Background: Our previous studies unveiled the hit thioxanthone TXA1 as an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein (drug efflux pump) and of human tumor cells growth, namely of melanoma cells. Since TXA1 is structurally similar to lucanthone (an autophagy inhibitor and apoptosis inducer) and to N(10)-substituted phenoxazines (isosteres of thioxanthones, and autophagy inducers), this study aimed at further assessing its cytotoxic mechanism and evaluating its potential as an autophagy modulator in A375-C5 melanoma cells; (2) Methods: Flow cytometry with propidium iodide (PI) for cell cycle profile analysis; Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, flow cytometry with Annexin V/PI labeling and Western blot for apoptosis analysis were conducted...
October 10, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Verónica Prado, Emilio Lence, Paul Thompson, Alastair R Hawkins, Concepción González-Bello
Shikimate kinase (SK), the fifth enzyme of the aromatic amino acid biosynthesis, is a recognized target for antibiotic drug discovery. The potential of the distinct dynamic apolar gap, which isolates the natural substrate from the solvent environment for catalysis, and the motion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Helicobacter pylori SK enzymes, which was observed by molecular dynamics simulations, was explored for inhibition selectivity. The results of the biochemical and computational studies reveal that the incorporation of bulky groups at position C5 of 5-aminoshikimic acid and the natural substrate enhances the selectivity for the H...
October 4, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Nathalie Niyonzima, Bente Halvorsen, Bjørnar Sporsheim, Peter Garred, Pål Aukrust, Tom Eirik Mollnes, Terje Espevik
In the host a diverse collection of endogenous danger signals is constantly generated consisting of waste material as protein aggregates or crystalline materials that are recognized and handled by soluble pattern recognition receptors and phagocytic cells of the innate immune system. These signals may under certain circumstances drive processes leading to adverse inflammation. One example is cholesterol crystals (CC) that accumulate in the vessel wall during early phases of atherogenesis and represent an important endogenous danger signal promoting inflammation...
September 28, 2016: Molecular Immunology
Monika Jusko, Beata Miedziak, David Ermert, Michal Magda, Ben C King, Ewa Bielecka, Kristian Riesbeck, Sigrun Eick, Jan Potempa, Anna M Blom
Periodontal disease is one of the most common inflammatory infectious diseases worldwide and it is associated with other syndromes, such as cardiovascular disease or rheumatoid arthritis. Recent advances in sequencing allowed for identification of novel periodontopathogens such as Gram-positive Filifactor alocis, but its virulence mechanisms remain largely unknown. We confirmed that F. alocis is a prevalent species in periodontitis patients, and we also observed strong correlation of this bacterium with clinical parameters, highlighting its role in the pathogenesis of the disease...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Kheir Eddine Kerboua, Fatma Haiba, Djamila Batouche
Treatment of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) by the complement C5 inhibitor eculizumab (Soliris®) is highly effective but unfortunately, associated with an economic pressure on the health care systems even in high incomes countries. Despite spacing infusions has been proposed as the unique solution to minimize this economic impact, no reliable laboratory assays are available to tailor such therapy optimization. We aimed to propose and evaluate a complement composite marker for eculizumab efficacy monitoring in aHUS...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
Nadine Kuhn, Christoph Q Schmidt, Martin Schlapschy, Arne Skerra
The Ornithodoros moubata Complement Inhibitor (OmCI) binds complement component 5 (C5) with high affinity and, thus, selectively prevents proteolytic activation of the terminal lytic complement pathway. A recombinant version of OmCI (also known as Coversin and rEV576) has proven efficacious in several animal models of complement-mediated diseases and successfully completed a phase Ia clinical trial. Coversin is a small 17 kDa lipocalin protein which has a very short plasma half-life if not bound to C5; therefore, the drug requires frequent dosing...
September 26, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
(no author information available yet)
This policy statement provides recommendations for the prevention of serogroup B meningococcal disease through the use of 2 newly licensed serogroup B meningococcal vaccines: MenB-FHbp (Trumenba; Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, a subsidiary of Pfizer, Philadelphia, PA) and MenB-4C (Bexsero; Novartis Vaccines, Siena, Italy). Both vaccines are approved for use in persons 10 through 25 years of age. MenB-FHbp is licensed as a 2- or 3-dose series, and MenB-4C is licensed as a 2-dose series for all groups. Either vaccine is recommended for routine use in persons 10 years and older who are at increased risk of serogroup B meningococcal disease (category A recommendation)...
September 2016: Pediatrics
Labe A Black, Celestine J Thomas, Gwendolyn N Nix, Michelle C Terwilliger, Stephen R Sprang, J B Alexander Ross
Resistance to Inhibitors of Cholinesterase A (Ric-8A) is a 60-kDa cytosolic protein that has chaperone and guanine nucleotide exchange (GEF) activity toward heterotrimeric G protein α subunits of the i, q, and 12/13 classes, catalyzing the release of GDP from Gα and subsequent binding of GTP. In the absence of GTP or GTP analogs, and subsequent to GDP release, Gα forms a stable nucleotide-free complex with Ric-8A. In this study, time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy measurements were employed to detect local motions of Gαi1 labeled at selected sites with Alexa 488 (C5) fluorescent dye (Ax) in the GDP, GTPγS (collectively, GXP), and Ric-8A-bound states...
August 23, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Lihua Bao, Patrick N Cunningham, Richard J Quigg
BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder caused by loss of tolerance to self-antigens, the production of autoantibodies and deposition of complement-fixing immune complexes (ICs) in injured tissues. SLE is characterized by a wide range of clinical manifestations and targeted organs, with lupus nephritis being one of the most serious complications. The complement system consists of three pathways and is tightly controlled by a set of regulatory proteins to prevent injudicious complement activation on host tissue...
September 2015: Kidney Diseases
Ha T Do, Nenggang Zhang, Debananda Pati, Scott R Gilbertson
Due to the oncogenic activity of cohesin protease, separase in human cancer cells, modulation of separase enzymatic activity could constitute a new therapeutic strategy for targeting resistant, separase-overexpressing aneuploid tumors. Herein, we report the synthesis, structural information, and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of separase inhibitors based on modification of the lead molecule 2,2-dimethyl-5-nitro-2H-benzimidazole-1,3-dioxide, named Sepin-1, (1) identified from a high-throughput-screen...
September 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Anna-Luisa Volk, Francis Jingxin Hu, Magnus M Berglund, Erik Nordling, Patrik Strömberg, Mathias Uhlen, Johan Rockberg
The complement component 5 (C5)-binding antibody eculizumab is used to treat patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). As recently reported there is a need for a precise classification of eculizumab responsive patients to allow for a safe and cost-effective treatment. To allow for such stratification, knowledge of the precise binding site of the drug on its target is crucial. Using a structural epitope mapping strategy based on bacterial surface display, flow cytometric sorting and validation via haemolytic activity testing, we identified six residues essential for binding of eculizumab to C5...
2016: Scientific Reports
Arnaud Devresse, Selda Aydin, Moglie Le Quintrec, Nathalie Demoulin, Patrick Stordeur, Catherine Lambert, Sara Gastoldi, Yves Pirson, Michel Jadoul, Johann Morelle
BACKGROUND: Scleroderma renal crisis (SRC) is a life-threatening complication of systemic sclerosis characterized by abrupt onset of hypertension, thrombotic microangiopathy, and kidney injury. The mechanisms of the disease remain ill-defined, but a growing body of evidence suggests that activation of the complement system may be involved. METHODS: Here, we report the case of a patient presenting with severe SRC and strong evidence of complement activation, both in serum and in the kidney, in the absence of genetic defect of the complement system...
July 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Assem Barakat, Mohammad Shahidul Islam, Abdullah Mohammed Al-Majid, Hazem A Ghabbour, Sammer Yousuf, Mahwish Ashraf, Nimra Naveed Shaikh, M Iqbal Choudhary, Ruqaiya Khalil, Zaheer Ul-Haq
This paper describes a facile protocol, efficient, and environmentally benign for the synthesis a series of barbiturate acid substituted at C5 position 3a-o. The desired compounds subjected in vitro for different set of bioassays including against anti-oxidant (DPPH and super oxide scavenger assays), anti-cancer, α-glucosidase and β-glucuronidase inhibitions. Compound 3m (IC50=22.9±0.5μM) found to be potent α-glucosidase enzyme inhibitors and showed more activity than standard acarbose (IC50=841±1.73μM)...
October 2016: Bioorganic Chemistry
Antonio Risitano
Since its introduction in the clinic, the first complement inhibitor eculizumab has changed the paradigm of PNH treatment. However, a ten-year experience has also taught us that there are same pitfalls which represent a challenge to improve the current anti-complement treatment. The most obvious unmet clinical need remain residual anemia, because one third of patients remains transfusion-dependent, and an additional third still lives with moderate anemia. It has been demonstrated that uncontrolled activation of early steps of the complement plays a major role in this reduced clinical benefit, making C3-mediated extravascular hemolysis the next challenge of PNH treatment...
July 11, 2016: Current Drug Targets
Ornella Di Pietro, Nelson Alencar, Gerard Esteban, Elisabet Viayna, Natalia Szałaj, Javier Vázquez, Jordi Juárez-Jiménez, Irene Sola, Belén Pérez, Montse Solé, Mercedes Unzeta, Diego Muñoz-Torrero, F Javier Luque
Different azides and alkynes have been coupled via Cu-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar Huisgen cycloaddition to afford a novel family of N1- and C5-substituted 1,2,3-triazole derivatives that feature the propargylamine group typical of irreversible MAO-B inhibitors at the C4-side chain of the triazole ring. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated against human MAO-A and MAO-B. Structure-activity relationships and molecular modeling were utilized to gain insight into the structural and chemical features that enhance the binding affinity and selectivity between the two enzyme isoforms...
June 28, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Geng-Min Lin, He G Sun, Hung-Wen Liu
Uridine 5'-diphosphate-5-fluorogalactopyranose (UDP-5F-Galp, 7) was synthesized, and its effect on UDP-Galp mutase (UGM) was investigated. UGM facilitated the hydrolysis of 7 to yield UDP and 5-oxogalactose (24), but no 11 was detected. (19)F NMR and trapping experiments demonstrated that the reaction involves the initial formation of a substrate-cofactor adduct followed by decomposition of the resulting C5 gem-fluorohydrin to generate a 5-oxo intermediate (10). The results support the current mechanistic proposal for UGM and suggest new directions for designing mechanism-based inhibitors...
July 15, 2016: Organic Letters
Melissa Gómez, Alberto González, Claudio A Sáez, Alejandra Moenne
The marine macroalga Ulva compressa (Chlorophyceae) is a cosmopolitan species, tolerant to heavy metals, in particular to copper. U. compressa was cultivated with 10 μM copper for 12 h and membrane depolarization events were detected. First, seven depolarization events occurred at 4, 8, 12-13, 80, and 86 min, and at 5 and 9 h of copper exposure. Second, bathocuproine sulphonate, a specific copper-chelating compound, was added before incorporating copper to the culture medium. Copper-induced depolarizations were inhibited by bathocuproine at 4, 8, 12-13, 80, and 86 min, but not at 5 and 9 h, indicating that initial events are due to copper ions entry...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
R Anders, M Grohmann, T H Lindner, C Bergmann, J Halbritter
We report on the case of a 32-year-old female patient who initially presented with oliguric acute renal failure, hemolytic anemia with moderate thrombocytopenia and subsequently developed a transient ischemic attack in the cerebellum. The kidney biopsy revealed clinically suspected atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome (aHUS), which was confirmed by intraglomerular thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Treatment with plasmapheresis and sustained administration of the C5 inhibitor eculizumab resulted in hematological remission but without improvement of kidney function...
June 29, 2016: Der Internist
Antonio M Risitano, Serena Marotta
The introduction in the clinic of anti-complement agents represented a major achievement which gave to physicians a novel etiologic treatment for different human diseases. Indeed, the first anti-complement agent eculizumab has changed the treatment paradigm of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), dramatically impacting its severe clinical course. In addition, eculizumab is the first agent approved for atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (aHUS), a life-threatening inherited thrombotic microangiopathy. Nevertheless, such remarkable milestone in medicine has brought to the fore additional challenges for the scientific community...
June 2016: Seminars in Immunology
Trieu N Trinh, Eileen A McLaughlin, Mohammed K Abdel-Hamid, Christopher P Gordon, Ilana R Bernstein, Victoria Pye, Peter Cossar, Jennette A Sakoff, Adam McCluskey
A series of quinolone-2-(1H)-ones derived from the Ugi-Knoevenagel three- and four-component reaction were prepared exhibiting low micromolar cytotoxicity against a panel of eight human cancer cell lines known to possess the Hedgehog Signalling Pathway (HSP) components, as well as the seminoma TCAM-2 cell line. A focused SAR study was conducted and revealed core characteristics of the quinolone-2-(1H)-ones required for cytotoxicity. These requirements included a C3-tethered indole moiety, an indole C5-methyl moiety, an aliphatic tail or an ester, as well as an additional aromatic moiety...
July 14, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
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