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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654938/numerical-study-of-bubble-area-evolution-during-acoustic-droplet-vaporization-enhanced-hifu-treatment
#1
Ying Xin, Aili Zhang, Lisa X Xu, J Brian Fowlkes
Acoustic Droplet Vaporization (ADV) has the potential to shorten treatment time of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) while minimizing the possible effects of microbubbles along the propagation path. Distribution of the bubbles formed from the droplets during the treatment is the major factor shaping the therapeutic region. A numerical model was proposed to simulate the bubble area evolution during this treatment. Using a linear acoustic equation to describe the ultrasound field, a threshold range was defined that determines the amount of bubbles vaporized in the treated area...
June 25, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653338/a-method-for-detailed-movement-pattern-analysis-of-tadpole-startle-response
#2
Kasra Zarei, Karen L Elliott, Sanam Zarei, Bernd Fritzsch, James H J Buchholz
Prolonged space flight, specifically microgravity, presents a problem for space exploration. Animal models with altered connections of the vestibular ear, and thus altered gravity sensation, would allow the examination of the effects of microgravity and how various countermeasures can establish normal function. We describe an experimental apparatus to monitor the effects of ear manipulations to generate asymmetric gravity input on the tadpole escape response. To perform the movement pattern analysis, an imaging apparatus was developed that uses a high-speed camera to obtain time-resolved, high-resolution images of tadpole movements...
June 27, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648371/impacts-of-tannery-effluent-on-development-and-morphological-characters-in-a-neotropical-tadpole
#3
Mateus Flores Montalvão, André Luis da Silva Castro, Aline Sueli de Lima Rodrigues, Bruna de Oliveira Mendes, Guilherme Malafaia
Previous studies have shown the contamination of rivers and streams caused by tannery effluents (TE). However, the effects of TE on amphibians are still unknown. Thus, we evaluated whether the TE, even at low concentrations (0.2%), could cause asymmetric development (inferred through the fluctuating asymmetry indices (FA)) and changes in morphological characteristics of Physalaemus cuvieri larvae. Accordingly, the tadpoles were distributed in groups non-exposed (n=160) and exposed (n=160) to this TE, for 15days...
June 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645030/uptake-and-tissue-distributions-of-cadmium-selenium-and-zinc-in-striped-marsh-frog-tadpoles-exposed-during-early-post-embryonic-development
#4
Chantal M Lanctôt, Tom Cresswell, Steven D Melvin
Metals and metalloids released through anthropogenic activities can accumulate in aquatic organisms, resulting in adverse effects in sensitive species. We investigated the influence of feeding regime and exposure complexity (i.e., mixture) on bioaccumulation kinetics and body distribution of common metal(loid) pollutants in Limnodynastes peronii during early post-embryonic development. Tadpoles were exposed to radiolabelled (109)Cd, (75)Se and (65)Zn alone and in a mixture for 4 days, followed by 3 days depuration in clean water...
June 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641410/modeling-aquatic-toxicity-through-chromatographic-systems
#5
Alejandro Fernandez-Pumarega, Susana Amézqueta, Sandra Farré, Laura Muñoz-Pascual, Michael H Abraham, Elisabet Fuguet, Marti Roses
Environmental risk assessment requires information about the toxicity of the growing number of chemical products coming from different origins that can contaminate water and become toxicants to aquatic species or other living beings via the trophic chain. Direct toxicity measurements using sensitive aquatic species can be carried out but they may become expensive and ethically questionable. Literature refers to the use of chromatographic measurements that correlate to the toxic effect of a compound over a specific aquatic species as an alternative to get toxicity information...
June 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640343/the-peculiar-breeding-biology-of-the-amazonian-frog-allobates-subfolionidificans-aromobatidae
#6
Jesus R D Souza, Igor L Kaefer, Albertina P Lima
Allobates subfolionidificans is a vulnerable and endemic leaf-litter frog from the state of Acre, Brazilian Amazonia. We monitored a population of A. subfolionidificans through regular censuses and mark-recapture of 181 individuals during an entire breeding season to characterize its reproductive behavior. The space use of A. subfolionidificans individuals differed between sexes, with males using smaller and more segregated spaces. Males defended territories and were aggressive against same-sex individuals, which was not the case in females...
April 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634053/using-short-term-bioassays-to-evaluate-the-endocrine-disrupting-capacity-of-the-pesticides-linuron-and-fenoxycarb
#7
Petra Spirhanzlova, Bert De Groef, Freda E Nicholson, Sylvia V H Grommen, Giulia Marras, Anthony Sébillot, Barbara A Demeneix, Sophie Pallud-Mothré, Gregory F Lemkine, Andrew J Tindall, David Du Pasquier
Several short-term whole-organism bioassays based on transgenic aquatic models are now under validation by the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) to become standardized test guidelines for the evaluation of the endocrine activity of substances. Evaluation of the endocrine disrupting capacity of pesticides will be a domain of applicability of these future reference tests. The herbicide linuron and the insecticide fenoxycarb are two chemicals commonly used in agricultural practices...
June 17, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625407/xenopus-fv3-host-pathogen-interactions-and-immune-evasion
#8
Robert Jacques, Eva-Stina Edholm, Sanchez Jazz, Torres-Luquis Odalys, De Jesús Andino Francisco
We first review fundamental insights into anti-ranavirus immunity learned with the Xenopus laevis/ranavirus FV3 model that are generally applicable to ectothermic vertebrates. We then further investigate FV3 genes involved in immune evasion. Focusing on FV3 knockout (KO) mutants defective for a putative viral caspase activation and recruitment domain-containing (CARD)-like protein (Δ64R-FV3), a β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase homolog (Δ52L-FV3), and an immediate-early18kDa protein (FV3-Δ18K), we assessed the involvement of these viral genes in replication, dissemination and interaction with peritoneal macrophages in tadpole and adult frogs...
June 15, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616171/is-bigger-really-better-relative-and-absolute-body-size-influence-individual-growth-rate-under-competition
#9
Josh Van Buskirk, Eva Cereghetti, Julia S Hess
Models suggest that the mechanism of competition can influence the growth advantage associated with being large (in absolute body size or relative to other individuals in the population). Large size is advantageous under interference, but disadvantageous under exploitative competition. We addressed this prediction in a laboratory experiment on Rana temporaria tadpoles competing for limited food. There were 166 target individuals spanning a 10-fold range in body mass reared for 3 days with three other individuals that were either the same size, half as large, or twice as large as the target...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610604/age-and-environment-dependent-changes-in-chemical-defences-of-larval-and-post-metamorphic-toads
#10
Bálint Üveges, Gábor Fera, Ágnes M Móricz, Dániel Krüzselyi, Veronika Bókony, Attila Hettyey
BACKGROUND: Chemical defences are widespread in animals, but how their production is adjusted to ecological conditions is poorly known. Optimal defence theory predicts that inducible defences are favoured over constitutive defences when toxin production is costly and the need for it varies across environments. However, if some environmental changes occur predictably (e.g. coupled to transitions during ontogeny), whereas others are unpredictable (e.g. predation, food availability), changes in defences may have constitutive as well as plastic elements...
June 13, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610274/tadpole-of-the-critically-endangered-sterling-s-toothed-toad-i-oreolalax-sterlingae-i
#11
Jodi J L Rowley, Benjamin Tapley, Nguyen Thanh Chung, Ronald Altig
Sterling's Toothed Toad, Oreolalax sterlingae (Nguyen et al. 2013), was described from near the summit of the highest peak in Vietnam, Mount Fansipan, Lao Cai Province. The species is the only member of the genus in Vietnam and is presently known from a single stream system on Mount Fansipan at about 2800 m elevation. The closest congener occurs more than 200 km away in China (Fei et al. 2010), and the relationship of O. sterlingae within the genus is not known. Because of its extremely small range and profound habitat modifications and pollution at the site, O...
May 31, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610048/the-phytotelm-tadpoles-of-i-microhyla-i-i-arboricola-i-anura-microhylidae-from-vietnam-with-comments-on-reproductive-biology-and-development
#12
Anna B Vassilieva, Vitaly L Trounov, Nikolay A Jr Poyarkov, Eduard A Galoyan
The reproductive biology of Microhyla arboricola (Microhylidae) was studied in two regions of the southern Annamite Mountains in Vietnam. M. arboricola is an obligate phytotelm-breeder that reproduces in water-filled tree hollows in montane evergreen forests. Clutches are attached above the water level in the hollows and contain 5-37 pigmented, relatively large eggs. Larvae hatch at markedly advanced stages and develop in water until metamorphosis is completed. The developing tadpoles are obligately oophagous and feed on conspecific eggs and embryos...
March 28, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608158/surface-water-mitigates-the-anti-metamorphic-effects-of-elevated-perchlorate-concentrations-in-new-mexico-spadefoot-toad-larvae-spea-multiplicata
#13
Melissa A Sandoz, Mike Wages, Kim J Wooten, Sheree L Clendening, Lucas R Smith, Brian Mulhearn, Philip N Smith
Perchlorate (ClO4(-)) has potential to negatively impact amphibian populations by inhibiting thyroid hormone production, and thus metamorphosis in developing larvae. However, variability exists in species sensitivity, and there is evidence suggesting that natural surface waters can mitigate the anti-metamorphic potential of perchlorate. New Mexico spadefoot toad tadpoles, Spea multiplicata, were exposed to natural surface waters spiked with nominal concentrations of 0, 1000, 1350, 1710, 3000, 5110, and 8000 μg/L perchlorate ion for up to 42 days...
June 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582396/participation-of-androgen-and-its-receptor-in-sex-determination-of-an-amphibian-species
#14
Akira Oike, Maho Kodama, Shigeki Yasumasu, Takashi Yamamoto, Yoriko Nakamura, Etsuro Ito, Masahisa Nakamura
INTRODUCTION: In the Japanese frog Rana (R.) rugosa the androgen receptor (AR) gene on the W chromosome (W-AR) is barely expressed. Previously we showed that incomplete female-to-male sex-reversal occurred in Z-AR transgenic female frogs. To date, however, there is no report showing that AR with androgens can determine genetically programed male sex fate in any vertebrate species. Here, we examined whether AR together with androgens functions as a sex determinant in an amphibian species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576973/caspase-9-has-a-non-apoptotic-function-in-xenopus-embryonic-primitive-blood-formation
#15
Hong Thi Tran, Mathias Fransen, Dionysia Dimitrakopoulou, Griet Van Imschoot, Nicolas Willemarck, Kris Vleminckx
Caspases constitute a family of cysteine proteases centrally involved in programmed cell death, which is an integral part of normal embryonic and fetal development. However, it has become clear that specific caspases also have functions independent of cell death. In order to identify novel apoptotic and non-apoptotic developmental caspase functions we designed and transgenically integrated novel fluorescent caspase-reporter constructs in developing Xenopus embryos and tadpoles. This model organism has an external development, hence allowing direct and continuous monitoring...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571838/-spasm-of-iris-dilator-muscle-or-tadpole-shaped-pupil
#16
C Deschasse, F Baudin, P H Gabrielle, A M Bron, C Creuzot-Garcher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 29, 2017: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552016/syringoid-eccrine-carcinoma-of-the-foot-report-of-a-rare-cutaneous-adnexal-neoplasm
#17
Woo Cheal Cho, Brian Wagner, Melissa Gulosh, Zendee Elaba
Syringoid eccrine carcinoma is a rare malignant adnexal tumor that typically presents in the head and neck region. Involvement of the extremities is uncommon, with only a few cases reported in the literature. Here, we report our experience with a rare case of syringoid eccrine carcinoma occurring on the plantar surface of the right foot in a 47-year-old African American woman. Histologically, incisional biopsy revealed a tumor consisting of tubulocystic structures lined by basaloid cells with an infiltrative growth pattern, extending from the reticular dermis to the deep biopsy margin...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550169/the-gliotransmitter-d-serine-promotes-synapse-maturation-and-axonal-stabilization-in-vivo
#18
Marion R Van Horn, Arielle Strasser, Lois S Miraucourt, Loredano Pollegioni, Edward S Ruthazer
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is thought to play a key role in the refinement of connectivity in developing neural circuits. Pharmacological blockade or genetic loss-of-function manipulations that prevent NMDAR function during development result in the disorganization of topographic axonal projections. However, because NMDARs contribute to overall glutamatergic neurotransmission, such loss-of-function experiments fail to adequately distinguish between the roles played by NMDARs and neural activity in general...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548249/m%C3%A3-ller-glial-cell-reactivation-in-xenopus-models-of-retinal-degeneration
#19
Rahul Langhe, Albert Chesneau, Gabriele Colozza, Magdalena Hidalgo, Divya Ail, Morgane Locker, Muriel Perron
A striking aspect of tissue regeneration is its uneven distribution among different animal classes, both in terms of modalities and efficiency. The retina does not escape the rule, exhibiting extraordinary self-repair properties in anamniote species but extremely limited ones in mammals. Among cellular sources prone to contribute to retinal regeneration are Müller glial cells, which in teleosts have been known for a decade to re-acquire a stem/progenitor state and regenerate retinal neurons following injury...
August 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539392/sodium-pump-regulation-of-locomotor-control-circuits
#20
Laurence David Picton, HongYan Zhang, Keith Thomas Sillar
Sodium pumps are ubiquitously expressed membrane proteins that extrude three N(a+) ions in exchange for two K(+) ions using ATP as an energy source. Recent studies have illuminated additional, dynamic roles for sodium pumps in regulating the excitability of neuronal networks in an activity-dependent fashion. Here we review their role in a novel form of short-term memory within rhythmic locomotor networks. The data we review derives mainly from recent studies on Xenopus tadpoles and neonatal mice. The role and underlying mechanisms of pump action broadly match previously published data from an invertebrate, the Drosophila larva...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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