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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439453/competition-and-feeding-ecology-in-two-sympatric-xenopus-species-anura-pipidae
#1
Solveig Vogt, F André de Villiers, Flora Ihlow, Dennis Rödder, John Measey
The widespread African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) occurs in sympatry with the IUCN Endangered Cape platanna (Xenopus gilli) throughout its entire range in the south-western Cape, South Africa. In order to investigate aspects of the interspecific competition between populations of X. laevis and X. gilli, an assessment of their niche differentiation was conducted through a comprehensive study on food composition and trophic niche structure at two study sites: the Cape of Good Hope (CoGH) and Kleinmond. A total of 399 stomach contents of X...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438699/cryptic-diversity-in-amazonian-frogs-integrative-taxonomy-of-the-genus-anomaloglossus-amphibia-anura-aromobatidae-reveals-a-unique-case-of-diversification-within-the-guiana-shield
#2
Jean-Pierre Vacher, Philippe J R Kok, Miguel T Rodrigues, Jucivaldo Dias Lima, Andy Lorenzini, Quentin Martinez, Manon Fallet, Elodie A Courtois, Michel Blanc, Philippe Gaucher, Maël Dewynter, Rawien Jairam, Paul Ouboter, Christophe Thébaud, Antoine Fouquet
Lack of resolution on species boundaries and distribution can hamper inferences in many fields of biology, notably biogeography and conservation biology. This is particularly true in megadiverse and under-surveyed regions such as Amazonia, where species richness remains vastly underestimated. Recently, integrative approaches using a combination of phenotypic and molecular phylogenetics evidence have proved extremely successful in reducing knowledge gaps, especially in animal groups displaying high levels of cryptic diversity like amphibians...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431762/effects-of-a-common-insecticide-on-wetland-communities-with-varying-quality-of-leaf-litter-inputs
#3
A B Stoler, B M Mattes, W D Hintz, D K Jones, L Lind, M S Schuler, R A Relyea
Chemical contamination of aquatic systems often co-occurs with dramatic changes in surrounding terrestrial vegetation. Plant leaf litter serves as a crucial resource input to many freshwater systems, and changes in litter species composition can alter the attributes of freshwater communities. However, little is known how variation in litter inputs interacts with chemical contaminants. We investigated the ecological effects resulting from changes in tree leaf litter inputs to freshwater communities, and how those changes might interact with the timing of insecticide contamination...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428841/reproductive-traits-associated-with-species-turnover-of-amphibians-in-amazonia-and-its-andean-slopes
#4
Octavio Jiménez-Robles, Juan M Guayasamin, Santiago R Ron, Ignacio De la Riva
Assembly of ecological communities is important for the conservation of ecosystems, predicting perturbation impacts, and understanding the origin and loss of biodiversity. We tested how amphibian communities are assembled by neutral and niche-based mechanisms, such as habitat filtering. Species richness, β-diversities, and reproductive traits of amphibians were evaluated at local scale in seven habitats at different elevation and disturbance levels in Wisui Biological Station, Morona-Santiago, Ecuador, on the foothills of the Cordillera del Kutukú; and at regional scale using 109 localities across evergreen forests of Amazonia and its Andean slopes (0-3,900 m a...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423270/bioaccumulation-and-biodistribution-of-selenium-in-metamorphosing-tadpoles
#5
Chantal M Lanctot, Tom Cresswell, Paul D Callaghan, Steven D Melvin
Selenium is an important macronutrient with a very narrow margin between essentiality and toxicity. Amphibians are hypothesized to be particularly sensitive due to the potential for metamorphosis-driven mobilization, which could transfer or concentrate contaminant burdens within specific organs. We explored the potential role of tissue degeneration and remodeling during anuran metamorphosis as a mechanism for altering tissue-specific Se burdens. Limnodynastes peronii tadpoles were exposed to dissolved (75)Se (as selenite) for 7 days and depurated until completion of metamorphosis...
April 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421438/analysis-of-fatty-acid-composition-revealed-differences-in-the-diets-of-tadpoles-of-two-amphibian-species
#6
Yu Yu Dgebuadze, N N Sushchik, I V Bashinskiy, O N Makhutova, G S Kalacheva, V V Osipov, M I Gladyshev
The study of the composition of fatty acid markers of tadpoles of cohabiting amphibian species for the first time revealed differences in their diets: the moor frog Rana arvalis prefers bacteria not associated with plant detritus, whereas the diet of the common spadefoot Pelobates fuscus is based on cyanobacteria, green algae, diatoms, and possibly higher plants. Major differences in the fatty acid composition are determined by the difference in the percentage of eicosapentaenoic and myristic acids.
January 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421137/the-effect-of-temperature-on-development-and-behaviour-of-relict-leopard-frog-tadpoles
#7
Jeffrey A Goldstein, Karin von Seckendorr Hoff, Stanley D Hillyard
Relict leopard frog (Rana [Lithobates] onca) tadpoles were obtained shortly after hatching at Gosner stage 25 and raised in aquaria maintained at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C. Development was arrested in the 15°C group, and survivorship declined to 64% after 191 days. However, 80% of the surviving larvae remained alive after the temperature was increased to 25°C. Of these, 96% reached metamorphosis. Survivorship of the 20, 25 and 30°C acclimation groups was 82, 94 and 66%, respectively, whereas none survived at 35°C...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419566/perirhinal-accumulation-of-neuronal-alpha-synuclein-in-a-multiple-system-atrophy-patient-with-dementia
#8
Mari Saito, Makoto Hara, Momoko Ebashi, Akihiko Morita, Kyoko Okada, Taku Homma, Masahiko Sugitani, Kentaro Endo, Toshiki Uchihara, Satoshi Kamei
We report the case of a 79-year-old Japanese woman who developed cerebellar ataxia followed by rigidity, dysautonomia and cognitive disorders, and was thus clinically diagnosed as having possible MSA with dementia. Neuropathological findings demonstrated not only olivopontocerebellar and striatonigral degeneration with frequent glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs), but also degenerative changes in the parahippocampal region, accentuated in the anterior portion of perirhinal cortex, where neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) and NFTs were numerous while GCIs were limited...
April 16, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409414/survival-and-development-of-bullfrog-tadpoles-in-microcosms-treated-with-abamectin
#9
Ana M Vasconcelos, Michiel A Daam, Juliana C de Resende, Maressa P Casali-Pereira, Evaldo L G Espíndola
As compared to other aquatic taxonomic groups, few studies have been conducted so far evaluating the potential risks of pesticides to amphibians. Furthermore, most existing studies with amphibians consist of acute laboratory toxicity tests that mostly only evaluated single peak pesticide exposure. In the present study, potential chronic effects of single and repeated abamectin applications on the survival and development of L. catesbeianus tadpoles under (semi-) field conditions were evaluated. To this end, tadpoles were housed in microcosms treated with single or repeated applications of abamectin (as the commercial product Vertimec® 18 EC)...
April 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409413/impact-of-ammonium-nitrate-and-sodium-nitrate-on-tadpoles-of-alytes-obstetricans
#10
Núria Garriga, A Montori, G A Llorente
The presence of pesticides, herbicides and fertilisers negatively affect aquatic communities in general, and particularly amphibians in their larval phase, even though sensitivity to pollutants is highly variable among species. The Llobregat Delta (Barcelona, Spain) has experienced a decline of amphibian populations, possibly related to the reduction in water quality due to the high levels of farming activity, but also to habitat loss and alteration. We studied the effects of increasing ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrate levels on the survival and growth rate of Alytes obstetricans tadpoles under experimental conditions...
April 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409343/use-of-xenopus-frogs-to-study-renal-development-repair
#11
Shoshoni T Droz, Kelly A McLaughlin
The Xenopus genus includes several members of aquatic frogs native to Africa but is perhaps best known for the species Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis. These species were popularized as model organisms from as early as the 1800s and have been instrumental in expanding several biological fields including cell biology, environmental toxicology, regenerative biology, and developmental biology. In fact, much of what we know about the formation and maturation of the vertebrate renal system has been acquired by examining the intricate genetic and morphological patterns that epitomize nephrogenesis in Xenopus...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405303/evaluating-multiple-spatial-scales-to-understand-the-distribution-of-anuran-beta-diversity-in-the-brazilian-atlantic-forest
#12
Lara G Melchior, Denise de C Rossa-Feres, Fernando R da Silva
We partitioned the total beta diversity in the species composition of anuran tadpoles to evaluate if species replacement and nestedness components are congruent at different spatial resolutions in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We alternated the sampling grain and extent of the study area (among ponds at a site, among ponds within regions, among sites within regions, and among sites within regions pooled together) to assess the importance of anuran beta diversity components. We then performed variation partitioning to evaluate the congruence of environmental descriptors and geographical distance in explaining the spatial distribution of the species replacement and nestedness components...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401306/toolbox-in-a-tadpole-xenopus-for-kidney-research
#13
REVIEW
Maike Getwan, Soeren S Lienkamp
Xenopus is a versatile model organism increasingly used to study organogenesis and genetic diseases. The rapid embryonic development, targeted injections, loss- and gain-of-function experiments and an increasing supply of tools for functional in vivo analysis are unique advantages of the Xenopus system. Here, we review the vast array of methods available that have facilitated its transition into a translational model. We will focus primarily on how these methods have been employed in the study of kidney development, renal function and kidney disease...
April 11, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397836/efhd2-swiprosin-1-is-a-common-genetic-determinator-for-sensation-seeking-low-anxiety-and-alcohol-addiction
#14
D Mielenz, M Reichel, T Jia, E B Quinlan, T Stöckl, M Mettang, D Zilske, E Kirmizi-Alsan, P Schönberger, M Praetner, S E Huber, D Amato, M Schwarz, P Purohit, S Brachs, J Spranger, A Hess, C Büttner, A B Ekici, F Perez-Branguli, B Winner, V Rauschenberger, T Banaschewski, A L W Bokde, C Büchel, P J Conrod, S Desrivières, H Flor, V Frouin, J Gallinat, H Garavan, P Gowland, A Heinz, J-L Martinot, H Lemaitre, F Nees, T Paus, M N Smolka, A Schambony, T Bäuerle, V Eulenburg, C Alzheimer, A Lourdusamy, G Schumann, C P Müller
In many societies, the majority of adults regularly consume alcohol. However, only a small proportion develops alcohol addiction. Individuals at risk often show a high sensation-seeking/low-anxiety behavioural phenotype. Here we asked which role EF hand domain containing 2 (EFhd2; Swiprosin-1) plays in the control of alcohol addiction-associated behaviours. EFhd2 knockout (KO) mice drink more alcohol than controls and spontaneously escalate their consumption. This coincided with a sensation-seeking and low-anxiety phenotype...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397603/masculinization-related-genes-and-cell-mass-structures-during-early-gonadal-differentiation-in-the-african-clawed-frog-xenopus-laevis
#15
Mikako Wada, Kazuko Fujitani, Kei Tamura, Shuuji Mawaribuchi, Yosuke Kamata, Nobuhiko Takamatsu, Michihiko Ito
The African clawed frog Xenopus laevis has a female heterogametic ZZ/ZW-type sex-determining system. We previously discovered a W-linked female sex-determining gene dm-W that is involved in ovary formation, probably through the up-regulation of the estrogen synthesis genes cyp19a1 and foxl2. We also reported that a unique "mass-in-line structure", which disappears from ZZ gonads during early testicular development, might serve as the basis for ovary differentiation in ZW gonads. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying early masculinization are poorly understood...
April 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374149/multiple-origins-of-embryonic-and-tadpole-myeloid-cells-in-xenopus-laevis
#16
Yasutaka Imai, Keisuke Ishida, Maya Nemoto, Keisuke Nakata, Takashi Kato, Mitsugu Maéno
Rabbit anti-serum against a myeloid-cell-specific peroxidase (Mpo) of Xenopus laevis was generated to identify myeloid cells in adult and larval animals. Smears of blood samples from adult hematopoietic organs were co-stained with Mpo and with XL-2, a mouse monoclonal antibody against a leukocyte common antigen. Lymphocytes found in the thymus and spleen were XL-2(+)Mpo(-) and granulocytes found in peripheral blood cells and the spleen were XL-2(+)Mpo(+), indicating that double-staining with these two antibodies allowed classification of the leukocyte lineages...
April 3, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371902/antifungal-efficacy-of-f10sc-veterinary-disinfectant-against-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis
#17
M S de Jong, R van Dyk, C Weldon
The Infectious disease chytridiomycosis, which is caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, has been identified as one of the most important drivers of amphibian declines and extinction. In vitro B. dendrobatidis is susceptible to a range of disinfectants, but not all have been tested on animals and some that have been proven effective have harmful side effects on the surrounding environment or the animals being treated. We tested the efficacy of F10SC veterinary disinfectant to treat B...
March 24, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371026/interaction-and-developmental-activation-of-two-neuroendocrine-systems-that-regulate-light-mediated-skin-pigmentation
#18
Gabriel E Bertolesi, Yi Nong Song, Karen Atkinson-Leadbeater, Jung-Lynn Jonathan Yang, Sarah McFarlane
Lower vertebrates use rapid light-regulated changes in skin colour for camouflage (background adaptation) or during circadian variation in irradiance levels. Two neuroendocrine systems, the eye/alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and the pineal complex/melatonin circuits, regulate the process through their respective dispersion and aggregation of pigment granules (melanosomes) in skin melanophores. During development, Xenopus laevis tadpoles raised on a black background or in the dark perceive less light sensed by the eye and darken in response to increased α-MSH secretion...
March 30, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370269/eye-ontogeny-in-pleurodema-bufoninum-a-comparison-with-pleurodema-somuncurense-anura-leptodactylidae
#19
Clara Volonteri, Diego A Barrasso, Leonardo Cotichelli, Néstor G Basso, Gladys N Hermida
Vision is one of the main sensory systems in amphibians, and the eye structure is highly associated with habitat conditions. The ontogeny, as well as the adult structure, of the eye has been studied in only a few species. The life change after metamorphosis is accompanied by changes in the visual environment. The aim of this work is to describe the eye ontogeny of Pleurodema bufoninum and to compare it with that of Pleurodema somuncurense. Specimens of both Pleurodema species were processed for histology analysis at different stages of development, including the tadpole, postmetamorphic, and adult forms...
April 2, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365461/age-dependent-changes-in-sensitivity-to-a-pesticide-in-tadpoles-of-the-common-toad-bufo-bufo
#20
Zsanett Mikó, János Ujszegi, Attila Hettyey
The worldwide en masse application of pesticides and the frequently reported malign effects on several non-target organisms underpin the importance of ecotoxicological research on these anthropogenic pollutants. Previous studies showed that sensitivity to herbicides can vary widely depending on additional stress factors, on the species and even on the population investigated. However, there is little information about how sensitivity changes during ontogeny, and how the duration of exposure is linked to the magnitude of malign effects, even though this knowledge would be important for the interpretation of toxicity test results and for formulating recommendations regarding the timing of pesticide application...
March 21, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
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