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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338095/the-effect-of-microbial-mats-in-the-decay-of-anurans-with-implications-for-understanding-taphonomic-processes-in-the-fossil-record
#1
M Iniesto, I Villalba, A D Buscalioni, M C Guerrero, A I López-Archilla
The pattern and sequence of the decomposition of the Pipidae African dwarf frog (Hymenochirus boettgeri) is tracked in an experiment with microbial mats in order to explore soft tissue preservation over three years. Frog decay in microbial mats is preceded by rapid entombment (25-30 days) and mediated by the formation of a sarcophagus, which is built by a complex microbial community. The frog carcasses maintained a variety of soft tissues for years. Labile organic structures show greater durability within the mat, cells maintain their general shape (bone marrow cells and adipocytes), and muscles and connective tissues (adipose and fibrous tendons) exhibit their original organic structures...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331009/the-modulation-of-two-motor-behaviours-by-persistent-sodium-currents-in-xenopus-laevis-tadpoles
#2
Erik Svensson, Hugo Jeffreys, Wen-Chang Li
Persistent sodium currents (INaP) are common in neuronal circuitries and they have been implicated in several diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and epilepsy. However, the role of INaP in the regulation of specific behaviours is still poorly understood. Here we have characterized INaP and investigated its role in the swimming and struggling behaviour of Xenopus tadpoles. INaP was identified in three groups of neurons, namely sensory Rohon-Beard neurons (RB neurons), descending interneurons (dINs), and non-dINs (neurons rhythmically active in swimming)...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324024/thyroid-hormone-receptor-%C3%AE-controls-developmental-timing-and-regulates-the-rate-and-coordination-of-tissue-specific-metamorphosis-in-xenopus-tropicalis
#3
Luan Wen, Yuki Shibata, Dan Su, Liezhen Fu, Nga Luu, Yun-Bo Shi
Thyroid hormone (T3) receptor (TR) mediates the effects of T3 on organ metabolism and animal development. There are two TR genes, TRα and TRβ, in all vertebrates. During animal development, TRα expression is activated earlier than zygotic T3 synthesis and secretion into the plasma, implicating a developmental role of TRα both in the presence and absence of T3. Using T3-dependend amphibian metamorphosis as a model, we have previously proposed a dual functional model for TRs, in particular TRα, during development...
March 14, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323943/growth-development-and-intestinal-remodeling-occurs-in-the-absence-of-thyroid-hormone-receptor-alpha-in-tadpoles-of-xenopus-tropicalis
#4
Jinyoung Choi, Atsuko Ishizuya-Oka, Daniel R Buchholz
During development in all vertebrates, thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are expressed before as well as during and after the peak in plasma thyroid hormone (TH) levels. Previously, we established a role for unliganded TRα in gene repression and developmental timing using tadpoles of TRα knockout (TRαKO) frogs. Here, we examined the role of liganded TRα on growth, development, and intestinal remodeling during natural and TH-induced metamorphosis. Disrupted TRα had little effect on growth during the larval period, but after metamorphosis TRαKO juveniles grew more slowly than wild-type (WT) juveniles...
March 2, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321941/tadpole-begging-reveals-high-quality
#5
Matthew B Dugas, Stephanie A Strickler, Jennifer L Stynoski
Parents can benefit from allocating limited resources non-randomly among offspring, and offspring solicitation (i.e., begging) is often hypothesized to evolve because it contains information valuable to choosy parents. We tested the predictions of three 'honest begging' hypotheses -Signal of Need, Signal of Quality, and Signal of Hunger - in the tadpoles of a terrestrial frog (Oophaga pumilio). In this frog, mothers provision tadpoles with trophic eggs, and when mothers visit, tadpoles perform a putative begging signal by stiffening their bodies and vibrating rapidly...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317844/subtle-effects-of-environmental-stress-observed-in-the-early-life-stages-of-the-common-frog-rana-temporaria
#6
Rebecca Strong, Francis L Martin, Kevin C Jones, Richard F Shore, Crispin J Halsall
Worldwide amphibian populations are declining due to habitat loss, disease and pollution. Vulnerability to environmental contaminants such as pesticides will be dependent on the species, the sensitivity of the ontogenic life stage and hence the timing of exposure and the exposure pathway. Herein we investigated the biochemical tissue 'fingerprint' in spawn and early-stage tadpoles of the Common frog, Rana temporaria, using attenuated total reflection-Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy with the objective of observing differences in the biochemical constituents of the respective amphibian tissues due to varying water quality in urban and agricultural ponds...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316792/jak-stat-pathway-activation-in-response-to-spinal-cord-injury-in-regenerative-and-non-regenerative-stages-of-xenopus-laevis
#7
Victor S Tapia, Mauricio Herrera-Rojas, Juan Larrain
Xenopus laevis tadpoles can regenerate the spinal cord after injury but this capability is lost during metamorphosis. Comparative studies between pre-metamorphic and metamorphic Xenopus stages can aid towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of spinal cord regeneration. Analysis of a previous transcriptome-wide study suggests that, in response to injury, the JAK-STAT pathway is differentially activated in regenerative and non-regenerative stages. We characterized the activation of the JAK-STAT pathway and found that regenerative tadpoles have an early and transient activation...
February 2017: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315524/a-cellular-mechanism-for-inverse-effectiveness-in-multisensory-integration
#8
Torrey Ls Truszkowski, Oscar A Carrillo, Julia Bleier, Carolina Ramirez-Vizcarrondo, Molly McQuillan, Christopher P Truszkowski, Arseny S Khakhalin, Carlos D Aizenman
To build a coherent view of the external world, an organism needs to integrate multiple types of sensory information from different sources, a process known as multisensory integration (MSI). In a prior study (Felch et al. 2016) we showed that the temporal dependence of MSI in the optic tectum of Xenopus laevis tadpoles is mediated by the network dynamics of the recruitment of local inhibition by sensory input. This was one of the first cellular-level mechanisms described for MSI. Here we expand this cellular level view of MSI by focusing on the principle of inverse effectiveness, another central feature of MSI stating that the amount of multisensory enhancement observed inversely depends on the size of unisensory responses...
March 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291946/enantioselective-bioaccumulation-tissue-distribution-and-toxic-effects-of-myclobutanil-enantiomers-in-pelophylax-nigromaculatus-tadpole
#9
Cheng Cheng, Shanshan Di, Li Chen, Wenjun Zhang, Jinling Diao, Zhiqiang Zhou
The research on the enantioselective behavior of chiral pesticides on amphibian has received growing attention, because amphibian is experiencing population decline and amphibian metamorphosis shares many similarities with human fetal development. In this study, the enantioselective behavior of myclobutanil on Pelophylax nigromaculatus tadpole was studied. The antioxidant enzyme (SOD, GST) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were investigated to assess the different toxic effects when tadpoles were exposed to myclobutanil enantiomers for 96 h...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283464/searching-for-hormonal-facilitators-are-vasotocin-and-mesotocin-involved-in-parental-care-behaviors-in-poison-frogs
#10
Lisa M Schulte, Kyle Summers
Although the involvement of peptide hormones in parental care behaviors is well investigated in vertebrates, in amphibians the physiological basis of parental care is largely unknown. This is all the more surprising as parental care behaviors in these tetrapods are remarkably diverse. The poison frog Ranitomeya imitator performs biparental care, including clutch guarding, tadpole transportation and nutrient provisioning. Here we tested whether the nonapeptides arginine-vasotocin (AVT) and mesotocin (MT) are involved in clutch guarding and tadpole transportation in these frogs...
March 7, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277949/metabolic-rate-of-diploid-and-triploid-edible-frog-pelophylax-esculentus-correlates-inversely-with-cell-size-in-tadpoles-but-not-in-frogs
#11
Adam Hermaniuk, Mariusz Rybacki, Jan R E Taylor
In multicellular organisms, cell size may have crucial consequences for basic parameters, such as body size and whole-body metabolic rate (MR). The hypothesis predicts that animals composed of smaller cells (a higher membrane surface-to-cell volume ratio) should have a higher mass-specific MR because a large part of their energy is used to maintain cell membranes and ionic gradients. In this article, we investigated the link between cell size and MR in diploid and triploid tadpoles and froglets of the hybridogenetic frog Pelophylax esculentus...
March 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271408/moving-or-being-moved-that-makes-a-difference
#12
Hans Straka, Boris P Chagnaud
During head/body movements, gaze stability is ensured by transformation of motion-related sensory signals into respective motor commands. Passively induced motion in all vertebrates including amphibians evokes a robust vestibulo-ocular reflex, suggesting an equally important role of this motor reaction during actively induced motion. However, during self-induced movements including locomotion, motor efference copies offer a convenient additional substrate for counteracting retinal image displacements. During such locomotor activity in Xenopus laevis tadpoles, spinal central pattern generator-derived efference copies elicit spatio-temporally specific eye movements, which are functionally appropriate to offset swimming-related retinal image displacements...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266608/human-amniotic-fluid-contaminants-alter-thyroid-hormone-signalling-and-early-brain-development-in-xenopus-embryos
#13
Jean-Baptiste Fini, Bilal B Mughal, Sébastien Le Mével, Michelle Leemans, Mélodie Lettmann, Petra Spirhanzlova, Pierre Affaticati, Arnim Jenett, Barbara A Demeneix
Thyroid hormones are essential for normal brain development in vertebrates. In humans, abnormal maternal thyroid hormone levels during early pregnancy are associated with decreased offspring IQ and modified brain structure. As numerous environmental chemicals disrupt thyroid hormone signalling, we questioned whether exposure to ubiquitous chemicals affects thyroid hormone responses during early neurogenesis. We established a mixture of 15 common chemicals at concentrations reported in human amniotic fluid. An in vivo larval reporter (GFP) assay served to determine integrated thyroid hormone transcriptional responses...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254054/re-evaluation-of-thyroid-hormone-signaling-antagonism-of-tetrabromobisphenol-a-for-validating-the-t3-induced-xenopus-metamorphosis-assay
#14
Yao Wang, Yuanyuan Li, Zhanfen Qin, Wuji Wei
We developed the T3-induced Xenopus metamorphosis assay, which is supposed to be able to sensitively detect thyroid hormone (TH) signaling disruption of chemicals. The present study aimed to validate the T3-induced Xenopus metamorphosis assay by re-evaluating the TH signaling antagonism of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a known TH signaling disruptor. According to the assay we developed, Xenopus tadpoles at stage 52 were exposed to 10-500nmol/L TBBPA in the presence of 1nmol/L T3. After 96hr of exposure, TBBPA in the range of 10-500nmol/L was found to significantly inhibit T3-induced morphological changes of Xenopus tadpoles in a concentration-dependent manner in term of body weight and four morphological endpoints including head area (HA), mouth width (MW), unilateral brain width/brain length (ULBW/BL), and hind-limb length/snout-vent length (HLL/SVL)...
February 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248437/sublethal-effects-on-wood-frogs-chronically-exposed-to-environmentally-relevant-concentrations-of-two-neonicotinoid-insecticides
#15
Stacey A Robinson, Sarah D Richardson, Rebecca L Dalton, France Maisonneuve, Vance L Trudeau, Bruce D Pauli, Stacey S Y Lee-Jenkins
Neonicotinoids are prophylactically used globally on a variety of crops, and there is concern for the potential impacts of neonicotinoids on aquatic ecosystems. The intensive use of pesticides on crops has been identified as a contributor to population declines of amphibians, but currently little is known regarding the sublethal effects of chronic neonicotinoid exposure on amphibians. The objective of the present study was to characterize the sublethal effect(s) of exposure to 3 environmentally relevant concentrations (1 μg/L, 10 μg/L, and 100 μg/L) of 2 neonicotinoids on larval wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) using outdoor mesocosms...
March 1, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242374/effects-of-a-glyphosate-based-herbicide-and-predation-threat-on-the-behaviour-of-agile-frog-tadpoles
#16
Zsanett Mikó, János Ujszegi, Zoltán Gál, Attila Hettyey
The widespread application of pesticides emphasises the importance of understanding the impacts of these chemicals on natural communities. The most commonly applied broad-spectrum herbicides in the world are glyphosate-based herbicides, which have been suggested to induce significant behavioural changes in non-target organisms even at low environmental concentrations. To scrutinize the behavioural effects of herbicide-exposure we exposed agile frog (Rana dalmatina) tadpoles in an outdoor mesocosm experiment to three concentrations of a glyphosate-based herbicide (0, 2 and 6...
February 24, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241160/the-tadpole-pupil
#17
Kavita Aggarwal, Göran Darius Hildebrand
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239185/the-significance-of-spatial-memory-for-water-finding-in-a-tadpole-transporting-frog
#18
Andrius Pašukonis, Katharina Trenkwalder, Max Ringler, Eva Ringler, Rosanna Mangione, Jolanda Steininger, Ian Warrington, Walter Hödl
The ability to associate environmental cues with valuable resources strongly increases the chances of finding them again, and thus memory often guides animal movement. For example, many temperate region amphibians show strong breeding site fidelity and will return to the same areas even after the ponds have been destroyed. In contrast, many tropical amphibians depend on exploitation of small, scattered and fluctuating resources such as ephemeral pools for reproduction. It remains unknown whether tropical amphibians rely on spatial memory for effective exploitation of their reproductive resources...
June 2016: Animal Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239184/sex-specific-offspring-discrimination-reflects-respective-risks-and-costs-of-misdirected-care-in-a-poison-frog
#19
Eva Ringler, Andrius Pašukonis, Max Ringler, Ludwig Huber
The ability to differentiate between one's own and foreign offspring ensures the exclusive allocation of costly parental care to only related progeny. The selective pressure to evolve offspring discrimination strategies is largely shaped by the likelihood and costs of offspring confusion. We hypothesize that males and females with different reproductive and spatial behaviours face different risks of confusing their own with others' offspring, and this should favour differential offspring discrimination strategies in the two sexes...
April 2016: Animal Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238879/immune-roles-of-amphibian-xenopus-laevis-tadpole-granulocytes-during-frog-virus-3-ranavirus-infections
#20
Daphne V Koubourli, Emily S Wendel, Amulya Yaparla, Jonathan R Ghaul, Leon Grayfer
Infections by Frog Virus 3 (FV3) and other ranaviruses (RVs) are contributing to the amphibian declines, while the mechanisms controlling anuran tadpole susceptibility and adult frog resistance to RVs, including the roles of polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs) during anti-FV3 responses, remain largely unknown. Since amphibian kidneys represent an important FV3 target, the inability of amphibian (Xenopus laevis) tadpoles to mount effective kidney inflammatory responses to FV3 is thought to contribute to their susceptibility...
February 24, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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