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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470956/metabolomic-insights-into-the-effects-of-thyroid-hormone-on-rana-lithobates-catesbeiana-metamorphosis-using-whole-body-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-mass-spectrometry-imaging-maldi-msi
#1
Teesha C Luehr, Emily M Koide, Xiaodong Wang, Jun Han, Christoph H Borchers, Caren C Helbing
Anuran metamorphosis involves the transformation of an aquatic tadpole into a juvenile frog. This process is completely dependent upon thyroid hormones (THs). Although much research has been focused on changes in gene expression programs during this postembryonic developmental period, transitions in the metabolic profiles are relatively poorly understood. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MALDI-MSI) is a technique that generates highly multiplexed mass spectra while retaining spatial location information on a thin tissue section...
February 19, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465973/impact-of-daily-variable-temperatures-in-life-history-traits-of-tropical-anurans
#2
Manuel Hernando Bernal-Bautista, Jorge Luis Turriago-González, Francisco Antonio Villa-Navarro
Anuran embryos and tadpoles are daily exposed to wide thermal variations in their ponds, with maximum temperatures at midday. The aim of this research was to study the impact of three daily variable thermal environments (with maximum experimental temperatures between 10:00 and 16:00 hours), on the survival, developmental time and body size of metamorphs of four tropical anuran species from lowland habitats in Colombia. A total of 50 embryos (Gosner stage ten) to metamorphosis (Gosner stage 46) of Rhinella humboldti, Hypsiboas crepitans and Engystomops pustulosus were exposed to each one of the three daily variable temperature treatments: high temperature (mean = 27...
March 2017: Revista de Biología Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455088/parasite-susceptibility-in-an-amphibian-host-is-modified-by-salinization-and-predators
#3
Nicholas Buss, Jessica Hua
Secondary salinization represents a global threat to freshwater ecosystems. Salts, such as NaCl, can be toxic to freshwater organisms and may also modify the outcome of species interactions (e.g. host-parasite interactions). In nature, hosts and their parasites are embedded in complex communities where they face anthropogenic and biotic (i.e. predators) stressors that influence host-parasite interactions. As human populations grow, considering how anthropogenic and natural stressors interact to shape host-parasite interactions will become increasingly important...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453851/dicer-inactivation-stimulates-limb-regeneration-ability-in-xenopus-laevis
#4
Mengshi Zhang, Li Yang, Feng Yuan, Ying Chen, Gufa Lin
The ontogenetic decline of regeneration capacity in the anuran amphibian Xenopus makes it an excellent model for regeneration studies. However, the cause of the regeneration ability decline is not fully understood. MicroRNAs regulate animal development, and have been indicated in various regeneration situations. However, little is known about the role of microRNAs during limb regeneration in Xenopus. This study investigates the effect of Dicer, an enzyme responsible for microRNA maturation, on limb development and regeneration in Xenopus...
February 17, 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453162/the-effect-of-cadmium-exposure-on-diversity-of-intestinal-microbial-community-of-rana-chensinensis-tadpoles
#5
Danyang Mu, Jinhua Meng, Xiaoxue Bo, Minyao Wu, Hui Xiao, Hongyuan Wang
Cadmium is a natural and widely distributed toxicant, and can be commonly found in environment. Intestinal microbiota plays a very important role in maintaining its host's health. The effects of cadmium on the intestinal microbiota composition and stability of amphibians are little known. We exposed Rana chensinensis (R. chensinensis) embryos to different concentrations of cadmium (0, 112 and 448 μg Cd L -1 ) until they reached Gosner stage 38, and analyzed their microbial communities using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing...
February 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453063/-1-h-nmr-based-metabolomics-reveals-interactive-effects-between-the-carrier-solvent-methanol-and-a-pharmaceutical-mixture-in-an-amphibian-developmental-bioassay-with-limnodynastes-peronii
#6
Steven D Melvin, Oliver A H Jones, Anthony R Carroll, Frederic D L Leusch
Organic carrier solvents are used in aquatic toxicity testing to improve chemical solubility and facilitate the exploration of dose-response relationships. Both water- and solvent-control groups are normally included in these scenarios to ensure that the solvent itself has no effect on the test organism, but this fails to consider possible interactive effects between carrier solvents and contaminants of interest. We explored this topic by exposing Limnodynastes peronii tadpoles to a mixture of common water-soluble pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, metformin and valproic acid) in the presence and absence of the carrier solvent methanol, according to standard developmental bioassay methodology...
February 10, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442555/direct-intertectal-inputs-are-an-integral-component-of-the-bilateral-sensorimotor-circuit-for-behavior-in-xenopus-tadpoles
#7
Abigail C Gambrill, Regina L Faulkner, Hollis T Cline
The circuit controlling visually-guided behavior in non-mammalian vertebrates, like Xenopus tadpoles, includes retinal projections to the contralateral optic tectum, where visual information is processed, and tectal motor outputs projecting ipsilaterally to hindbrain and spinal cord. Tadpoles have an intertectal commissure whose function is unknown, but it might transfer information between the tectal lobes. Differences in visual experience between the two eyes have profound effects on the development and function of visual circuits in animals with binocular vision, but the effects on animals with fully-crossed retinal projections are not clear...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413693/uv-b-affects-the-immune-system-and-promotes-nuclear-abnormalities-in-pigmented-and-non-pigmented-bullfrog-tadpoles
#8
Lilian Franco-Belussi, Lara Zácari Fanali, Classius De Oliveira
Ultra-Violet (UV) radiation is a stressor of the immune system and causes DNA damage. Leukocytes can change in response to environmental changes in anurans, making them an important biomarker of stressful situations. The initial barrier against UV in ectothermic animals is melanin-containing cells in skin and in their internal organs. Here, we tested the effects of UV exposure on immune cells and DNA integrity in pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles of Lithobates catesbeianus. We used an inflammation model with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Escherichia coli to test synergic effects of UV and LPS...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412139/role-of-the-visual-experience-dependent-nascent-proteome-in-neuronal-plasticity
#9
Han-Hsuan Liu, Daniel B Mcclatchy, Lucio Schiapparelli, Wanhua Shen, John R Yates, Hollis T Cline
Experience-dependent synaptic plasticity refines brain circuits during development. To identify novel protein synthesis-dependent mechanisms contributing to experience-dependent plasticity, we conducted a quantitative proteomic screen of the nascent proteome in response to visual experience in Xenopus optic tectum using bio-orthogonal metabolic labeling (BONCAT). We identified 83 differentially synthesized candidate plasticity proteins (CPPs). The CPPs form strongly interconnected networks and are annotated to a variety of biological functions, including RNA splicing, protein translation, and chromatin remodeling...
February 7, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411448/host-associated-bacterial-community-succession-during-amphibian-development
#10
Tiffany L Prest, Abigail K Kimball, Jordan G Kueneman, Valerie J McKenzie
Amphibians undergo significant developmental changes during their life cycle, as they typically move from a primarily aquatic environment to a more terrestrial one. Amphibian skin is a mucosal tissue that assembles communities of symbiotic microbiota. However, it is currently not well understood as to where amphibians acquire their skin symbionts, and whether the sources of microbial symbionts change throughout development. In this study, we utilized data collected from four wild boreal toad populations (Anaxyrus boreas); specifically, we sampled the skin bacterial communities during toad development, including eggs, tadpoles, subadults, and adults as well as environmental sources of bacteria (water, aquatic sediment, and soil)...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405266/nanos3-of-the-frog-rana-rugosa-molecular-cloning-and-characterization
#11
Maho Kodama, Madoka Yoshida, Masami Endo, Tohru Kobayashi, Akira Oike, Shigeki Yasumasu, Masahisa Nakamura
Nanos is expressed in the primordial germ cells (PGCs) and also the germ cells of a variety of organisms as diverse as Drosophila, medaka fish, Xenopus and mouse. In Nanos3-deficient mice, PGCs fail to incorporate into the gonad and the size of the testis and ovary is thereby dramatically reduced. To elucidate the role of Nanos in an amphibian species, we cloned Nanos3 cDNA from the testis of the R. rugosa frog. RT-PCR analysis showed strong expression of Nanos3 mRNA in the testis of adult R. rugosa frogs, but expression was not sexually dimorphic during gonadal differentiation...
February 5, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404229/clinical-implications-of-a-novel-iron-containing-fiducial-marker-in-radiotherapy-for-liver-tumors-an-initial-experience
#12
Hiroshi Doi, Shogo Harui, Hiroki Nakajima, Akira Ando, Keiji Kamino, Masayuki Fujiwara, Takayoshi Nakajima, Shinichi Ikura, Tsukasa Aihara, Naoki Yamanaka
A 0.5%-iron-containing fiducial marker, Gold AnchorTM (Naslund Medical AB, Huddinge, Sweden), has been recently developed. Herein, we report our initial experiences with the clinical use of the Gold AnchorTM (GA) in radiotherapy for liver tumors. Data of four consecutive patients with liver tumors, including two liver metastases and two hepatocellular carcinomas, were retrospectively analyzed. The GA was percutaneously placed under local anesthesia, close to the tumor. Gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed after the placement of the GA...
December 1, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399866/tooth-germ-initiation-patterns-in-a-developing-dentition-an-in-vivo-study-of-xenopus-laevis-tadpoles
#13
Denis O Lamoureux, Aaron R H LeBlanc, Michael W Caldwell
The transparency of soft tissue in Xenopus laevis tadpoles and the anterior-posterior orientation of their developing tooth germs in the upper jaw offer a unique opportunity for the in vivo charting of the first 15-20 days of the developing dentition. Twenty-two X. laevis tadpoles were anesthetized daily and their mouths opened to record the first appearance, position, and development of tooth germs in the upper jaw. The initiation patterns revealed considerable variability between animals, and even between the jaw quadrants in the same animal...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397473/acute-and-chronic-toxicity-of-pesticides-on-tadpoles-of-physalaemus-cuvieri-anura-leptodactylidae
#14
Juliana Wrubleswski, Francisco Wilson Reichert, Leandro Galon, Paulo Afonso Hartmann, Marilia Teresinha Hartmann
Brazil is the largest consumer of pesticides in the world. However, knowledge on how these pesticides affect wildlife is scarce. Among the vertebrates, amphibians are particularly important in research to assess the impact of pesticides because of the correlation between pesticide and the decline of these species. This study aimed to evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of commercial formulations of pesticides, i.e., atrazine (herbicide), cypermethrin (insecticide), and tebuconazole (fungicide) in Physalaemus cuvieri tadpoles...
February 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392150/a-multichannel-computer-driven-system-to-raise-aquatic-embryos-under-selectable-hypoxic-conditions
#15
Sanjeeva Metikala, Herbert Neuhaus, Thomas Hollemann
The formation of a functional cardiovascular system is an essential step in the early vertebrate embryo. Nevertheless, the effect of hypoxia on the developmental program of organisms was studied rarely. In particular, this holds true for vertebrate embryos that depend on a functional placenta for proper development and had not been studied in this respect due to the obvious limitation. We established a protocol to culture aquatic embryos, which enabled us to culture a high number of Xenopus embryos until tadpole stage under defined hypoxic conditions in four hypoxia chambers simultaneously, employing a computerized system...
2018: Hypoxia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388154/exposure-to-the-antifouling-chemical-medetomidine-slows-development-reduces-body-mass-and-delays-metamorphosis-in-wood-frog-lithobates-sylvaticus-tadpoles
#16
Janine M Barr, Julia R Palmucci, Olivia J Lambert, Peter P Fong
Antifouling chemicals have a long history of causing toxicity to aquatic organisms. We measured growth and developmental timing in wood frog tadpoles exposed to the antifouling chemical medetomidine (10 nM-10 μM) starting at two different developmental stages in static renewal experiments. For tadpoles hatched from egg masses and exposed for 3 weeks to 100 nM and 1 μM, head width/total body length ratio was significantly shorter compared to control. For field-collected tadpoles at Gosner stage 24-25 and exposed for 2 weeks, 1 and 10 μM medetomidine significantly slowed development as measured by Gosner stage...
January 31, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367176/the-morphological-changes-and-molecular-biomarker-responses-in-the-liver-of-fluoride-exposed-bufo-gargarizans-larvae
#17
Xiaoxue Bo, Danyang Mu, Minyao Wu, Hui Xiao, Hongyuan Wang
The goal of the current study was to evaluate the negative influences of fluoride on liver of Bufo gargarizans larvae. B. gargarizans larvae were treated with 42.4mgF-/L for 0, 24, 48 and 72h at Gosner stage 37. The morphological changes and responses of molecular biomarkers involved in lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and apoptosis were examined in liver. Disappearance of cell boundaries, degeneration of hepatic parenchyma cells and significant increase in the number of melanomacrophage centres and the quantity of lipid droplets were found in the liver treated with 42...
January 20, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358559/can-embryonic-skipper-frogs-euphlyctis-cyanophlyctis-learn-to-recognise-kairomones-in-the-absence-of-a-nervous-system
#18
Swapnil C Supekar, Narahari P Gramapurohit
In this study, we used larval Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis to determine the predator recognition mechanism. We conducted a series of experiments to determine if larval E. cyanophlyctis have the innate ability to recognise predatory odour (kairomones) as a threat or if they learn to do so during ontogeny. In the case of learning, we wanted to determine the developmental window during which learning is accomplished. Further, we tested the antipredator response of predator- naive as well as predator-experienced tadpoles to chemical cues of different origins in order to assess if they exhibit differential responses...
September 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358558/high-temperatures-influence-sexual-development-differentially-in-male-and-female-tadpoles-of-the-indian-skipper-frog-euphlyctis-cyanophlyctis
#19
Samadhan Krushna Phuge
Although sex determination in amphibians is believed to be a genetic process, environmental factors such as temperature are known to influence the sex differentiation and development. Extremely low and high temperatures influence gonadal development and sex ratio in amphibians but the mechanism of action is not known. In the present study, effect of different temperatures on gonadal development, sex ratio and metamorphosis was studied in the Indian skipper frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis. The embryos of Gosner stage 7 were exposed to 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30 and 32 degrees C up to tadpole stage 42...
September 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358338/quantitative-proteomics-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-a-regenerative-and-a-non-regenerative-stage-in-the-frog%C3%A2-xenopus-laevis
#20
Dasfne Lee-Liu, Liangliang Sun, Norman J Dovichi, Juan Larraín
The capacity to regenerate the spinal cord after an injury is a coveted trait that only a limited group of non-mammalian organisms can achieve. In Xenopus laevis, this capacity is only present during larval or tadpole stages, but is absent during postmetamorphic frog stages. This provides an excellent model for comparative studies between a regenerative and a non-regenerative stage to identify the cellular and molecular mechanisms that explain this difference in regenerative potential. Here, we used iTRAQ chemistry to obtain a quantitative proteome of the spinal cord 1 day after a transection injury in regenerative and non-regenerative stage animals, and used sham operated animals as controls...
January 22, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
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