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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242469/a-new-diploid-species-belonging-to-the-i-odontophrynus-i-i-americanus-i-species-group-anura-odontophrynidae-from-the-espinha%C3%A3-o-range-brazil
#1
Pedro Carvalho Rocha, Letícia Moreira Ferraz DE Sena, Tiago Leite Pezzuti, Felipe Sá Fortes Leite, Marta Svartman, Sergio Daniel Rosset, Diego Baldo, Paulo Christiano DE Anchietta Garcia
The Odontophrynus americanus species group is a complex of diploid and tetraploid species hardly distinguished by morphological characters. It currently consists of three allopatric diploid species (i.e. O. cordobae, O. lavillai, and O. maisuma) and one widely distributed tetraploid species (i.e. O. americanus). We herein describe a new diploid allopatric species from campo rupestre, a typical phytophysiognomy of the Espinhaço Range, Brazil. The new species is distinguishable by the diploid complement of 2n = 2x = 22 chromosomes, small to medium-sized dorsal dark brown blotches with low contrast on a light brown background, light mid-dorsal stripe absent or greatly interrupted in most specimens with yellowish coloration as the background of both head and flanks of the body, advertisement call with dominant frequency of 840-1080 Hz, pulse rate of 90...
October 6, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238556/reliable-effective-number-of-breeders-adult-census-size-ratios-in-seasonal-breeding-species-opportunity-for-integrative-demographic-inferences-based-on-capture-mark-recapture-data-and-multilocus-genotypes
#2
Gregorio Sánchez-Montes, Jinliang Wang, Arturo H Ariño, José Luis Vizmanos, Iñigo Martínez-Solano
The ratio of the effective number of breeders (Nb) to the adult census size (Na), Nb/Na, approximates the departure from the standard capacity of a population to maintain genetic diversity in one reproductive season. This information is relevant for assessing population status, understanding evolutionary processes operating at local scales, and unraveling how life-history traits affect these processes. However, our knowledge on Nb/Na ratios in nature is limited because estimation of both parameters is challenging...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238530/body-size-variation-in-aquatic-consumers-causes-pervasive-community-effects-independent-of-mean-body-size
#3
Bradley E Carlson, Tracy Langkilde
Intraspecific phenotypic variation is a significant component of biodiversity. Body size, for example, is variable and critical for structuring communities. We need to understand how homogenous and variably sized populations differ in their ecological responses or effects if we are to have a robust understanding of communities. We manipulated body size variation in consumer (tadpole) populations in mesocosms (both with and without predators), keeping mean size and density of these consumers constant. Size-variable consumer populations exhibited stronger antipredator responses (reduced activity), which had a cascading effect of increasing the biomass of the consumer's resources...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223398/epha7-regulates-claudin6-and-pronephros-development-in-xenopus
#4
Jian Sun, Xiaolei Wang, Yu Shi, Jiejing Li, Chaocui Li, Zhaoying Shi, Yonglong Chen, Bingyu Mao
Eph/ephrin molecules are widely expressed during embryonic development, and function in a variety of developmental processes. Here we studied the roles of the Eph receptor EphA7 and its soluble form in Xenopus pronephros development. EphA7 is specifically expressed in pronephric tubules at tadpole stages and knockdown of EphA7 by a translation blocking morpholino led to defects in tubule cell differentiation and morphogenesis. A soluble form of EphA7 (sEphA7) was also identified. Interestingly, the membrane level of claudin6 (CLDN6), a tetraspan transmembrane tight junction protein, was dramatically reduced in the translation blocking morpholino injected embryos, but not when a splicing morpholino was used, which blocks only the full length EphA7...
December 6, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222836/biochemical-and-structural-insights-into-a-thermostable-cellobiohydrolase-from-myceliophthora-thermophila
#5
Marco Antonio Seiki Kadowaki, Paula Higasi, Mariana Ortiz de Godoy, Rolf A Prade, Igor Polikarpov
Cellobiohydrolases hydrolyze cellulose, a linear polymer with glucose monomers linked exclusively by β-1,4 glycosidic linkages. The widespread hydrogen bonding network tethers individual cellulose polymers forming crystalline cellulose, which prevent the access of hydrolytic enzymes and water molecules. The most abundant enzyme secreted by Myceliophthora thermophila M77 in response to the presence of biomass is the cellobiohydrolase MtCel7A, which is composed by a GH7-catalytic domain (CD), a linker and a CBM1-type carbohydrate binding module...
December 8, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222721/are-the-adverse-effects-of-stressors-on-amphibians-mediated-by-their-effects-on-stress-hormones
#6
Caitlin R Gabor, Sarah A Knutie, Elizabeth A Roznik, Jason R Rohr
Adverse effects of anthropogenic changes on biodiversity might be mediated by their impacts on the stress response of organisms. To test this hypothesis, we crossed exposure to metyrapone, a synthesis inhibitor of the stress hormone corticosterone, with exposure to the herbicide atrazine and the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) to assess whether the effects of these stressors on tadpoles and post-metamorphic frogs were mediated by corticosterone. Metyrapone countered atrazine- and Bd-induced corticosterone elevations...
December 8, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218708/three-dimensional-reconstruction-of-the-cranial-and-anterior-spinal-nerves-in-early-tadpoles-of-xenopus-laevis-pipidae-anura
#7
Benjamin Naumann, Lennart Olsson
Xenopus laevis is one of the most widely used model organism in neurobiology. It is therefore surprising, that no detailed and complete description of the cranial nerves exists for this species. Using classical histological sectioning in combination with fluorescent whole mount antibody staining and micro-computed tomography we prepared a detailed innervation map and a freely-rotatable 3D model of the cranial nerves and anterior-most spinal nerves of early X. laevis tadpoles. Our results confirm earlier descriptions of the pre-otic cranial nerves and present the first detailed description of the post-otic cranial nerves...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217629/map-like-navigation-from-distances-exceeding-routine-movements-in-the-three-striped-poison-frog-ameerega-trivittata
#8
Andrius Pašukonis, Matthias-Claudio Loretto, Walter Hödl
Most animals move in dense habitats where distant landmarks are limited, but how they find their way around remains poorly understood. Poison frogs inhabit the rainforest understory where they shuttle tadpoles from small territories to widespread pools. Recent studies revealed their excellent spatial memory and the ability to home back from several hundred meters. It remains unclear if this homing ability is restricted to the areas that had been previously explored or if it allows the frogs to navigate from areas outside their direct experience...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210297/modern-morphological-methods-for-tadpole-studies-a-comparison-of-micro-ct-and-clearing-and-staining-protocols-modified-for-frog-larvae
#9
M Krings, H Müller, M J Heneka, D Rödder
Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanning and three-dimensional reconstruction have revolutionized morphological studies. Whereas species descriptions and comparative studies formerly were based on external appearance and dissection, we now can visualize muscles, skeleton and viscera in intact animals. In most cases, visualization of internal structures depends on appropriate staining methods. Staining with iodine, phosphotungstic acid (PTA) and osmium tetroxide are established methods, but some problems remain...
December 6, 2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202290/insights-about-the-toxic-effects-of-tannery-effluent-on-lithobates-catesbeianus-tadpoles
#10
Diogo Ferreira do Amaral, Mateus Flores Montalvão, Bruna de Oliveira Mendes, Joyce Moreira de Souza, Thales Quintão Chagas, Aline Sueli de Lima Rodrigues, Guilherme Malafaia
Tannery industries are considered highly polluting due to the large production of polluted wastewater [untreated tannery effluent (UTE)]. Although previous studies have already shown the consequences from fish, birds and mammals' exposure to this pollutant, little is known about its toxicological effect on representatives of class amphibian. Thus, we aim at assessing whether short-term UTE exposure, even at low concentrations (0.2% UTE diluted in water), would be able to induce behavioral, morphological and cyto-genotoxic changes in L...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200771/syringoid-eccrine-carcinoma-of-the-thigh
#11
Yong-Yon Won, Dong-Woo Suh, Bark-Lynn Lew, Woo-Young Sim
Syringoid eccrine carcinoma (SEC) is a rare cutaneous malignant tumor thought to be derived from eccrine sweat apparatus. It is usually present in the head, neck and trunk region, and often occurs in the fourth to seventh decades of life. A 94-year-old male patient visited our department with an 80-year history of a lesion showing a 2×2 cm sized well-demarcated round shaped erythematous to pinkish colored nodule with ulcer on his left thigh. Histological findings revealed a tumor consisted mainly of numerous small cords and nests forming luminal or tubular structures and tumor cells showing variable atypia...
December 2017: Annals of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192759/sulfur-nanoparticles-with-novel-morphologies-coupled-with-brain-targeting-peptides-rvg-as-a-new-type-of-inhibitor-against-metal-induced-a%C3%AE-aggregation
#12
Jing Sun, Wenjie Xie, Xufeng Zhu, Mengmeng Xu, Jie Liu
Functionalized nanomaterials, which have been applied widely to inhibit amyloid-β protein (Aβ) aggregation, show an enormous potential in the field of prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A significant body of data has demonstrated that the morphology and size of nanomaterials have remarkable effects on their biological behaviors. In this paper, we proposed and designed three kinds of brain-targeting sulfur nanoparticles (RVG@Met@SNPs) with novel morphologies (volute-like, tadpole-like and sphere-like), and investigated the effect of different RVG@Met@SNPs on the Aβ-Cu2+ complex aggregation and their corresponding neurotoxicity...
December 1, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186423/improving-amphibian-genomic-resources-a-multi-tissue-reference-transcriptome-of-an-iconic-invader
#13
Mark F Richardson, Fernando Sequeira, Daniel Selechnik, Miguel Carneiro, Marcelo Vallinoto, Jack G Reid, Andrea J West, Michael R Crossland, Richard Shine, Lee A Rollins
Background: Cane toads (Rhinella marina) are an iconic invasive species introduced to four continents and well utilized for studies of rapid evolution in introduced environments. Despite the long introduction history of this species, its profound ecological impacts and its utility for demonstrating evolutionary principles, genetic information is sparse. Here we produce a de novo transcriptome spanning multiple tissues and life stages to enable investigation of the genetic basis of previously identified rapid phenotypic change over the introduced range...
November 27, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179150/effect-of-imidacloprid-on-the-survival-of-xenopus-tadpoles-challenged-with-wild-type-frog-virus-3
#14
Morgan A Hrynyk, Craig Brunetti, Leslie Kerr, Chris D Metcalfe
The sensitivity of amphibians to Ranavirus may be increased by exposure to other environmental stressors, including chemical contaminants. Neonicotinoid insecticides comprise 27% of the global insecticide market and have been detected in wetlands and other aquatic habitats. The present study focused on the effects of exposure of pre-metamorphic Xenopus laevis to the neonicotinoid, imidacloprid (IMI) on sensitivity to frog virus 3 (FV3) infection. It was hypothesized that exposure of tadpoles to IMI at sublethal concentrations of 1 and 500μgL-1 would increase FV3 related mortalities relative to tadpole mortalities in a control treatment with only the virus...
November 12, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174701/tadpoles-fed-supplemented-diet-with-probiotic-bacterium-isolated-from-the-intestinal-tract-of-bullfrog-lithobates-catesbeianus-haematology-cell-activity-and-electron-microscopy
#15
S A Pereira, G T Jerônimo, N C Marchiori, H M Oliveira, G F A Jesus, E C Schmidt, Z L Bouzon, F N Vieira, M L Martins, J L P Mouriño
The aim of this study is to select and isolate autochthonous bacteria with probiotic potential for use in a supplemented diet for bullfrog tadpoles, Lithobates catesbeianus. A total of 20 strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated. Nine out of these were used in the following in vitro assays: antagonism against pathogenic bacteria (ANT), antimicrobial activity from extracellular compounds (MIC), tolerance to bile salts (TBS), pH reduction, protease production, sensitivity to antimicrobial tetracycline, cell viability, growth rate and doubling time...
November 23, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159493/the-intestinal-microbiota-of-tadpoles-differs-from-those-of-syntopic-aquatic-invertebrates
#16
Mariana L Lyra, Molly C Bletz, Célio F B Haddad, Miguel Vences
Bacterial communities associated to eukaryotes play important roles in the physiology, development, and health of their hosts. Here, we examine the intestinal microbiota in tadpoles and aquatic invertebrates (insects and gastropods) to better understand the degree of specialization in the tadpole microbiotas. Samples were collected at the same time in one pond, and the V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was sequenced with Illumina amplicon sequencing. We found that bacterial richness and diversity were highest in two studied snail individuals, intermediate in tadpoles, and lowest in the four groups of aquatic insects...
November 20, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158976/intraspecific-variation-in-the-diet-of-the-mexican-garter-snake-thamnophis-eques
#17
Javier Manjarrez, Martha Pacheco-Tinoco, Crystian S Venegas-Barrera
The Mexican Garter Snake (Thamnophis eques) is a terrestrial-aquatic generalist that feeds on both aquatic and terrestrial prey. We describe size-related variation and sexual variation in the diet of T. eques through analysis of 262 samples of identifiable stomach contents in snakes from 23 locations on the Mexican Plateau. The snake T. eques we studied consumed mostly fish, followed in lesser amounts by leeches, earthworms, frogs, and tadpoles. Correspondence analysis suggested that the frequency of consumption of various prey items differed between the categories of age but not between sex of snakes, and the general pattern was a reduction of prey item diversity with size of snake...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148135/cadence-tracking-and-disturbance-rejection-in-functional-electrical-stimulation-cycling-for-paraplegic-subjects-a-case-study
#18
Lucas O da Fonseca, Antônio P L Bó, Juliana A Guimarães, Miguel E Gutierrez, Emerson Fachin-Martins
Functional electrical stimulation cycling has been proposed as an assistive technology with numerous health and fitness benefits for people with spinal cord injury, such as improvement in cardiovascular function, increase in muscular mass, and reduction of bone mass loss. However, some limitations, for example, lack of optimal control strategies that would delay fatigue, may still prevent this technology from achieving its full potential. In this work, we performed experiments on a person with complete spinal cord injury using a stationary tadpole trike when both cadence tracking and disturbance rejection were evaluated...
November 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146198/bisphenol-a-alternatives-bisphenol-s-and-bisphenol-f-interfere-with-thyroid-hormone-signaling-pathway-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#19
Yin-Feng Zhang, Xiao-Min Ren, Yuan-Yuan Li, Xiao-Fang Yao, Chuan-Hai Li, Zhan-Fen Qin, Liang-Hong Guo
The wide use of the alternatives to bisphenol A (BPA) has raised concerns about their potential toxicities. Considering the disrupting activity of BPA on thyroid hormone (TH) signaling, we investigated whether bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol F (BPF), two leading alternatives, could interfere with TH signaling pathway using a series of assays in vitro and in vivo. In the fluorescence competitive binding assay, we found BPS and BPF, like BPA, bound to TH receptors (TRα and TRβ), with the binding potencies an order of magnitude lower than BPA (BPA > BPF > BPS)...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142093/developmental-changes-in-spinal-neuronal-properties-motor-network-configuration-and-neuromodulation-at-free-swimming-stages-of-xenopus-frog-tadpoles
#20
Stephen Paul Currie, Keith Thomas Sillar
We describe a novel preparation of the isolated brainstem and spinal cord from pro-metamorphic tadpole stages of the South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) that permits whole cell patch-clamp recordings from neurons in the ventral spinal cord. Previous research on earlier stages of the same species has provided one of the most detailed understandings of the design and operation of a CPG circuit. Here we have addressed how development sculpts complexity from this more basic circuit. The preparation generates bouts of fictive swimming activity either spontaneously or in response to electrical stimulation of the optic tectum, allowing an investigation into how the neuronal properties, activity patterns and neuromodulation of locomotor rhythm generation change during development...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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