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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637301/eden-evolutionary-dynamics-within-environments
#1
Philipp C Münch, Bärbel Stecher, Alice C McHardy
Summary: Metagenomics revolutionized the field of microbial ecology, giving access to Gb-sized datasets of microbial communities under natural conditions. This enables fine-grained analyses of the functions of community members, studies of their association with phenotypes and environments, as well as of their microevolution and adaptation to changing environmental conditions. However, phylogenetic methods for studying adaptation and evolutionary dynamics are not able to cope with big data...
June 16, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637230/perceived-stress-and-its-relationship-with-chronic-conditions-and-multimorbidity-among-229-293-community-dwelling-adults-in-44-low-and-middle-income-countries
#2
Davy Vancampfort, Ai Koyanagi, Philip B Ward, Nicola Veronese, André F Carvalho, Marco Solmi, James Mugisha, Simon Rosenbaum, Marc De Hert, Brendon Stubbs
This study assessed the association of chronic conditions and multimorbidity with perceived stress among community-dwelling adults in 44 low- and middle-income countries. Data were analyzed from the World Health Survey (2002-2004) including 229,293 adults. A perceived stress score [range 0 (lowest stress) -100 (highest stress)] was computed based on two questions from the Perceived Stress Scale. Eleven chronic conditions were assessed. Multivariable linear regression analyses were conducted to explore the associations...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637053/a-new-analytical-method-for-characterizing-nonlinear-visual-processes-with-stimuli-of-arbitrary-distribution-theory-and-applications
#3
Ryusuke Hayashi, Osamu Watanabe, Hiroki Yokoyama, Shin'ya Nishida
Characterization of the functional relationship between sensory inputs and neuronal or observers' perceptual responses is one of the fundamental goals of systems neuroscience and psychophysics. Conventional methods, such as reverse correlation and spike-triggered data analyses are limited in their ability to resolve complex and inherently nonlinear neuronal/perceptual processes because these methods require input stimuli to be Gaussian with a zero mean. Recent studies have shown that analyses based on a generalized linear model (GLM) do not require such specific input characteristics and have advantages over conventional methods...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637051/teaching-transnasal-endoscopy-to-graduate-students-without-a-hospital-or-simulation-laboratory-pool-noodles-and-cadavers
#4
Shari Salzhauer Berkowitz
Purpose: This study reports on a training opportunity in endoscopy in which speech-language pathology graduate students use inanimate objects and cadavers. Best practices for transnasal endoscopy in vivo require a physician to be nearby, but many graduate programs do not have this access. Method: Endoscopy was offered as a graduate elective. Students (13 women) initially learned to manipulate the endoscope through the lumen of a swimming pool noodle that was embedded with trinkets...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637001/a-novel-method-to-generate-salmonella-typhi-ty21a-ghosts-exploiting-the-%C3%AE-phage-holin-endolysin-system
#5
Gayeon Won, Boram Kim, John Hwa Lee
Human typhoid fever caused by Salmonella Typhi still poses a severe global disease burden in developing countries despite the availability of commercial vaccines. In this study, we constructed a non-living S. Typhi Ty21a vaccine candidate by employing a lambda (λ) phage-derived holin-endolysin system to efficiently construct bacterial ghosts. The lysis plasmid pJHL464 harbors an R lysis cassette that is stringently regulated by dual promoters containing cI857/λPR and ParaBAD/araC components. The plasmid was introduced into an asd gene-deleted S...
June 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636642/in-vivo-evaluation-of-inter-operator-reproducibility-of-digital-dental-and-conventional-impression-techniques
#6
Emi Kamimura, Shinpei Tanaka, Masayuki Takaba, Keita Tachi, Kazuyoshi Baba
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the inter-operator reproducibility of three-dimensional (3D) images of teeth captured by a digital impression technique to a conventional impression technique in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve participants with complete natural dentition were included in this study. A digital impression of the mandibular molars of these participants was made by two operators with different levels of clinical experience, 3 or 16 years, using an intra-oral scanner (Lava COS, 3M ESPE)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636468/do-ligamentum-teres-tears-portend-inferior-outcomes-in-patients-with-borderline-dysplasia-undergoing-hip-arthroscopic-surgery-a-match-controlled-study-with-a-minimum-2-year-follow-up
#7
Edwin O Chaharbakhshi, Itay Perets, Lyall Ashberg, Brian Mu, Christopher Lenkeit, Benjamin G Domb
BACKGROUND: Arthroscopic surgery in borderline dysplastic hips remains controversial, but the role of the ligamentum teres (LT) has not been studied in this setting. HYPOTHESIS: Borderline dysplastic patients with LT tears have worse short-term outcomes than those without LT tears. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: Data were prospectively collected on patients who underwent arthroscopic surgery between February 2008 and April 2014...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636126/bilateral-diffuse-uveal-melanocytic-proliferation-case-report-and-literature-review
#8
REVIEW
Kristian Klemp, Jens Folke Kiilgaard, Steffen Heegaard, Tove Nørgaard, Mette Klarskov Andersen, Jan Ulrik Prause
Bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation (BDUMP) is a rare paraneoplastic intraocular disease that causes progressive visual loss in patients driven by an IgG factor associated with an underlying malignancy. Characteristic ocular findings include exudative retinal detachment, rapid cataract formation and uveal melanocytic tumours. The awareness and documentation of BDUMP has increased during the past decade, and the increasing amount of data collected demonstrates the effect of treatment with plasmapheresis and the value of diagnostic tools in BDUMP such as genetic and immunologic investigations...
June 21, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634789/detection-and-grading-of-prostate-cancer-using-temporal-enhanced-ultrasound-combining-deep-neural-networks-and-tissue-mimicking-simulations
#9
Shekoofeh Azizi, Sharareh Bayat, Pingkun Yan, Amir Tahmasebi, Guy Nir, Jin Tae Kwak, Sheng Xu, Storey Wilson, Kenneth A Iczkowski, M Scott Lucia, Larry Goldenberg, Septimiu E Salcudean, Peter A Pinto, Bradford Wood, Purang Abolmaesumi, Parvin Mousavi
PURPOSE  : Temporal Enhanced Ultrasound (TeUS) has been proposed as a new paradigm for tissue characterization based on a sequence of ultrasound radio frequency (RF) data. We previously used TeUS to successfully address the problem of prostate cancer detection in the fusion biopsies. METHODS  : In this paper, we use TeUS to address the problem of grading prostate cancer in a clinical study of 197 biopsy cores from 132 patients. Our method involves capturing high-level latent features of TeUS with a deep learning approach followed by distribution learning to cluster aggressive cancer in a biopsy core...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634788/consistent-reconstruction-of-4d-fetal-heart-ultrasound-images-to-cope-with-fetal-motion
#10
Christine Tanner, Barbara Flach, Céline Eggenberger, Oliver Mattausch, Michael Bajka, Orcun Goksel
PURPOSE: 4D ultrasound imaging of the fetal heart relies on reconstructions from B-mode images. In the presence of fetal motion, current approaches suffer from artifacts, which are unrecoverable for single sweeps. METHODS: We propose to use many sweeps and exploit the resulting redundancy to automatically recover from motion by reconstructing a 4D image which is consistent in phase, space, and time. An interactive visualization framework to view animated ultrasound slices from 4D reconstructions on arbitrary planes was developed using a magnetically tracked mock probe...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634784/attentional-weights-in-vision-as-products-of-spatial-and-nonspatial-components
#11
Maria Nordfang, Camilla Staugaard, Claus Bundesen
The relationship between visual attentional selection of items in particular spatial locations and selection by nonspatial criteria was investigated in a partial report experiment with report of letters (as many as possible) from brief postmasked exposures of circular arrays of letters and digits. The data were fitted by mathematical models based on Bundesen's (Psychological Review, 97, 523-547, 1990) theory of visual attention (TVA). Both attentional weights of targets (letters) and attentional weights of distractors (digits) showed strong variations across the eight possible target locations, but for each of the ten participants, the ratio of the weight of a distractor at a given location to the weight of a target at the same location was approximately constant...
June 20, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634685/poor-predictive-value-of-positive-interim-fdg-pet-ct-in-primary-mediastinal-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#12
Julien Lazarovici, Marie Terroir, Julia Arfi-Rouche, Jean-Marie Michot, Sacha Mussot, Valentina Florea, Maria-Rosa Ghigna, Peggy Dartigues, Cynthia Petrovanu, Alina Danu, Christophe Fermé, Vincent Ribrag, David Ghez
PURPOSE: Though commonly used to assess response to therapy, the prognostic value of interim FDG-PET/CT in Primary Mediastinal Large B-cell Lymphoma (PMBCL) is unclear. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study on 36 consecutive patients treated at our institution for a PMBCL between 2006 and 2014. All patients with a positive interim FDG-PET/CT had undergone histological restaging consisting either in a surgical debulking of the residual lesion (15 patients) or a CT-guided core needle biopsy (two patients)...
June 21, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634675/wild-capuchin-monkeys-anticipate-the-amount-of-ripe-fruit-in-natural-trees
#13
María Paula Tujague, Charles H Janson
Tropical forests have a high diversity of tree species which have very low densities and vary across time in their seasons of peak fruiting and maturation rates. As evidence of the ability of primates to track or anticipate changes in fruit production at individual trees, researchers have used the increased speed of primate groups toward more rewarding food patches. We analyzed the speed of approach to natural trees of wild capuchin monkeys under the effect of scramble competition, after excluding any plausible visual, olfactory and auditory cues...
June 20, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634543/cannabis-and-cognitive-functioning-in-multiple-sclerosis-the-role-of-gender
#14
Viral P Patel, Anthony Feinstein
BACKGROUND: Cognitive function in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) is associated with gender differences and the use of smoked/ingested cannabis. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this report is to explore a possible gender-cannabis interaction associated with cognitive dysfunction in PwMS. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was undertaken of cognitive data collected from 140 PwMS. A general linear model was conducted to determine gender and cannabis effects on processing speed (SDMT), verbal (CVLT-II) and visual (BVMT-R) memory, and executive functions (D-KEFS), while controlling for age and years of education...
April 2017: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634448/from-behavioral-facilitation-to-inhibition-the-neuronal-correlates-of-the-orienting-and-reorienting-of-auditory-attention
#15
Faith M Hanlon, Andrew B Dodd, Josef M Ling, Juan R Bustillo, Christopher C Abbott, Andrew R Mayer
Successful adaptive behavior relies on the ability to automatically (bottom-up) orient attention to different locations in the environment. This results in a biphasic pattern in which reaction times (RT) are faster for stimuli that occur in the same spatial location (valid) for the first few hundred milliseconds, which is termed facilitation. This is followed by faster RT for stimuli that appear in novel locations (invalid) after longer delays, termed inhibition of return. The neuronal areas and networks involved in the transition between states of facilitation and inhibition remain poorly understood, especially for auditory stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634444/experience-dependency-of-reliance-on-local-visual-and-idiothetic-cues-for-spatial-representations-created-in-the-absence-of-distal-information
#16
Fabian Draht, Sijie Zhang, Abdelrahman Rayan, Fabian Schönfeld, Laurenz Wiskott, Denise Manahan-Vaughan
Spatial encoding in the hippocampus is based on a range of different input sources. To generate spatial representations, reliable sensory cues from the external environment are integrated with idiothetic cues, derived from self-movement, that enable path integration and directional perception. In this study, we examined to what extent idiothetic cues significantly contribute to spatial representations and navigation: we recorded place cells while rodents navigated towards two visually identical chambers in 180° orientation via two different paths in darkness and in the absence of reliable auditory or olfactory cues...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634086/towards-building-a-more-complex-view-of-the-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-recent-advances-in-understanding-its-role
#17
REVIEW
Masoud Ghodrati, Seyed-Mahdi Khaligh-Razavi, Sidney R Lehky
The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) has often been treated in the past as a linear filter that adds little to retinal processing of visual inputs. Here we review anatomical, neurophysiological, brain imaging, and modeling studies that have in recent years built up a much more complex view of LGN. These include effects related to nonlinear dendritic processing, cortical feedback, synchrony and oscillations across LGN populations, as well as involvement of LGN in higher level cognitive processing Although recent studies have provided valuable insights into early visual processing including the role of LGN, a unified model of LGN responses to real-world objects has not yet been developed...
June 17, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633934/the-impact-of-ordinate-scaling-on-the-visual-analysis-of-single-case-data
#18
Evan H Dart, Keith C Radley
Visual analysis is the primary method for detecting the presence of treatment effects in graphically displayed single-case data and it is often referred to as the "gold standard." Although researchers have developed standards for the application of visual analysis (e.g., Horner et al., 2005), over- and underestimation of effect size magnitude is not uncommon among analysts. Several characteristics have been identified as potential contributors to these errors; however, researchers have largely focused on characteristics of the data itself (e...
August 2017: Journal of School Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633908/dynamics-of-the-cell-division-orientation-of-granule-cell-precursors-during-cerebellar-development
#19
Satoshi Miyashita, Toma Adachi, Mariko Yamashita, Takayuki Sota, Mikio Hoshino
The cerebellar granule cell (GC) system provides a good model for studying neuronal development. In the external granule layer (EGL), granule cell precursors (GCPs) rapidly and continuously divide to produce numerous GCs as well as GCPs. In some brain regions, the orientation of cell division affects daughter cell fate, thus the direction of GCP division is related to whether it produces a GCP or a GC. Therefore, we tried to characterize the orientation of GCP division from embryonic to postnatal stages and to identify an environmental cue that regulates the orientation...
June 17, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633887/visual-integration-of-fear-and-anger-emotional-cues-by-children-on-the-autism-spectrum-and-neurotypical-peers-an-eeg-study
#20
Evie Malaia, Debbie Cockerham, Katherine Rublein
Communication deficits in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are often related to inefficient interpretation of emotional cues, which are conveyed visually through both facial expressions and body language (Apicella et al., 2012). The present study examined ASD behavioral and ERP responses to emotional expressions of anger and fear, as conveyed by the face and body. Behavioral results showed significantly faster response times for the ASD than for the typically developing (TD) group when processing fear, but not anger, in isolated face expressions, isolated body expressions, and in the integration of the two...
June 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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