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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740398/neurosteroids-in-adult-hippocampus-of-male-and-female-rodents-biosynthesis-and-actions-of-sex-steroids
#1
REVIEW
Yasushi Hojo, Suguru Kawato
The brain is not only the target of steroid hormones but also is able to locally synthesize steroids de novo . Evidence of the local production of steroids in the brain has been accumulating in various vertebrates, including teleost fish, amphibia, birds, rodents, non-human primates, and humans. In this review, we mainly focus on the local production of sex steroids in the hippocampal neurons of adult rodents (rats and mice), a center for learning and memory. From the data of the hippocampus of adult male rats, hippocampal principal neurons [pyramidal cells in CA1-CA3 and granule cells in dentate gyrus (DG)] have a complete system for biosynthesis of sex steroids...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723580/the-pupillary-light-responses-of-animals-a-review-of-their-distribution-dynamics-mechanisms-and-functions
#2
REVIEW
Ronald H Douglas
The timecourse and extent of changes in pupil area in response to light are reviewed in all classes of vertebrate and cephalopods. Although the speed and extent of these responses vary, most species, except the majority of teleost fish, show extensive changes in pupil area related to light exposure. The neuromuscular pathways underlying light-evoked pupil constriction are described and found to be relatively conserved, although the precise autonomic mechanisms differ somewhat between species. In mammals, illumination of only one eye is known to cause constriction in the unilluminated pupil...
April 30, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720413/urea-hydrolysis-by-gut-bacteria-in-a-hibernating-frog-evidence-for-urea-nitrogen-recycling-in-amphibia
#3
James M Wiebler, Kevin D Kohl, Richard E Lee, Jon P Costanzo
Gut bacteria that produce urease, the enzyme hydrolysing urea, contribute to nitrogen balance in diverse vertebrates, although the presence of this system of urea-nitrogen recycling in Amphibia is as yet unknown. Our studies of the wood frog ( Rana sylvatica ), a terrestrial species that accrues urea in winter, documented robust urease activity by enteric symbionts and hence potential to recoup nitrogen from the urea it produces. Ureolytic capacity in hibernating (non-feeding) frogs, whose guts hosted an approximately 33% smaller bacterial population, exceeded that of active (feeding) frogs, possibly due to an inductive effect of high urea on urease expression and/or remodelling of the microbial community...
May 16, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693434/oxygen-limitation-at-the-larval-stage-and-the-evolution-of-maternal-investment-per-offspring-in-aquatic-environments
#4
Njal Rollinson, Locke Rowe
Oxygen limitation and surface area to volume relationships of the egg were long thought to constrain egg size in aquatic environments, but more recent evidence indicates that egg size per se does not influence oxygen availability to embryos. Here, we suggest that investment per offspring is nevertheless constrained in aquatic anamniotes by virtue of oxygen transport in free-living larvae. Drawing on the well-supported assumption that oxygen limitation is relatively pronounced in aquatic versus terrestrial environments and that oxygen limitation is particularly severe in warm aquatic environments, we employ comparative methods in the Amphibia to investigate this problem...
May 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690454/a-new-puddle-frog-genus-phrynobatrachus-amphibia-anura-phrynobatrachidae-from-the-eastern-part-of-the-upper-guinea-biodiversity-hotspot-west-africa
#5
Tokouaho Flora Kpan, N'goran Germain KouamÉ, Michael F Barej, Patrick joËl Adeba, Mike Emmrich, Caleb Ofori-Boateng, Mark-Oliver RÖdel
We describe a new species of Phrynobatrachus from swamp forests in the southern border region of Ivory Coast and Ghana. The new species differs from all other known West African Phrynobatrachus by the combination of adult snout-vent-length being between 20 and 30 mm; absence of a spiny tubercle on the eyelid; presence of a dark face mask; a black throat in adult males; narrow and partly indistinct scapular ridges or comma shaped warts; distinct spinulae on males' throats and dorsal surfaces; pronounced pedal webbing; round finger- and toe tips, not enlarged to discs; a white belly with small blackish spots in both sexes; more than one wide dark cross bar on hind legs; and rosé to reddish colour on ventral parts of hind legs in both sexes...
March 1, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690305/the-tenth-member-of-stout-newt-amphibia-salamandridae-pachytriton-description-of-a-new-species-from-guangdong-southern-china
#6
Chen Li, Zhiyong Yuan, Haibin Li, Yunke Wu
Field surveys of less-explored forests often lead to discoveries of new amphibian species. During a series of field surveys in early 2017 at Mt. Lianhua (the Lotus Mountain) of Lianhuashan-Baipenzhu Provincial Nature Reserve in southern China, we found an undocumented population of stout newt, genus Pachytriton. Based on its distinct morphological characters and large genetic divergence from congeners (uncorrected p-distance > 5% in either mitochondrial nd2 or cytb sequences), we describe this population as the tenth species of the genus: Pachytriton airobranchiatus sp...
March 21, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689958/the-advertisement-call-of-proceratophrys-branti-brand%C3%A3-o-caramaschi-vaz-silva-campos-2013-amphibia-anura-odontophrynidae
#7
Sheila Pereira De Andrade, Cezar Filho Rocha, Wilian Vaz-Silva
Proceratophrys Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920 currently comprises 40 species (Frost 2017) of which 15 are allocated into the Proceratophrys cristiceps species group (sensu Brandão et al. 2013). The species in this group are characterized by the absence of postocular swellings and, except for P. concavitympanum, are found in seasonally open habitats in Brazilian Cerrado and Caatinga morphoclimatic domains (Giaretta et al. 2000; Ávila et al. 2012; Teixeira Jr. et al. 2012; Brandão et al. 2013). Information on advertisement calls is available for 11 species of the group (Eterovick Sazima 1998; Nunes Juncá 2006; Brasileiro et al...
February 15, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689792/a-new-species-of-puddle-frog-genus-phrynobatrachus-amphibia-anura-phrynobatrachidae-from-ghana
#8
Caleb Ofori-Boateng, Adam D LeachÉ, Bright Obeng-Kankam, N'goran Germain KouamÉ, Annika Hillers, Mark-Oliver RÖdel
We describe a new species of Phrynobatrachus from the eastern part of the Upper Guinea forest region, Ghana, West Africa. Morphologically, the new species can be distinguished from all of its congeners by the combination of a slender body, short and pointed snout, a relatively warty dorsum, a black-spotted throat in both sexes, a gular flap in males, a dark spotted chest, a white-greyish venter with occasional blackish spots, rudimentary pedal webbing, none to slightly dilated finger tips and strongly delated toe tips, presence of both inner and outer metatarsal tubercles and absence of a dark face mask, eyelid tubercles and longer dorsal ridges...
January 21, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683110/a-new-species-of-the-genus-theloderma-tschudi-1838-amphibia-anura-rhacophoridae-from-tay-nguyen-plateau-central-vietnam
#9
Nikolay A Poyarkov, Ivan I Kropachev, Svetlana S Gogoleva, Nikolai L Orlov
A new species of small tree frog from a primary montane tropical forest of central Vietnam, Tay Nguyen Plateau, is described based on morphological, molecular, and acoustic evidence. The Golden Bug-Eyed Frog, Theloderma auratum sp. nov., is distinguishable from its congeners and other small rhacophorid species based on a combination of the following morphological attributes: (1) bony ridges on head absent; (2) smooth skin completely lacking calcified warts or asperities; (3) pointed elongated tapering snout; (4) vocal opening in males absent; (5) vomerine teeth absent; (6) males of small body size (SVL 21...
April 20, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683109/a-new-genus-and-three-new-species-of-miniaturized-microhylid-frogs-from-indochina-amphibia-anura-microhylidae-asterophryinae
#10
Nikolay A Poyarkov, Chatmongkon Suwannapoom, Parinya Pawangkhanant, Akrachai Aksornneam, Tang Van Duong, Dmitriy V Korost, Jing Che
We report on the discovery of a new genus of microhylid subfamily Asterophryinae from northern and eastern Indochina, containing three new species. Vietnamophryne Gen. nov. are secretive miniaturized frogs (SVL<21 mm) with a mostly semi-fossorial lifestyle. To assess phylogenetic relationships, we studied 12S rRNA-16S rRNA mtDNA fragments with a final alignment of 2?591 bp for 53 microhylid species. External morphology characters and osteological characteristics analyzed using micro-CT scanning were used for describing the new genus...
April 20, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680942/morphological-and-molecular-evidence-for-a-new-species-of-the-genus-cosmocercoides-wilkie-1930-ascaridida-cosmocercidae-from-the-asiatic-toad-bufo-gargarizans-cantor-amphibia-anura
#11
Hui-Xia Chen, Lu-Ping Zhang, Minoru Nakao, Liang Li
A new cosmocercid species, Cosmocercoides qingtianensis sp. n., collected from the intestine of the Asiatic toad Bufo gargarizans Cantor (Amphibia: Anura) is described using integrated approaches, including light and scanning electron microscopy, and sequencing and analyzing the ribosomal [small ribosomal DNA (18S) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)] and mitochondrial [cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1)] target regions, respectively. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by the combination of the following morphological characters, including the large body size, the presence of lateral alae and somatic papillae in both sexes, the length of spicules, the particular morphology and length of gubernaculum, the number, arrangement and morphology of caudal rosettes, the presence of large medioventral precloacal papilla and the long tail...
April 21, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664937/correction-hidden-species-diversity-in-sylvirana-nigrovittata-amphibia-ranidae-highlights-the-importance-of-taxonomic-revisions-in-biodiversity-conservation
#12
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0192766.].
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587286/chromosome-banding-in-amphibia-xxxvii-y-autosome-translocations-in-anura
#13
Michael Schmid, Claus Steinlein
A detailed cytogenetic study on anurans belonging to the unranked taxon Terraranae revealed the existence of microscopically recognizable XY♂/XX♀ or ZZ♂/ZW♀ sex chromosomes in 11 species. Furthermore, in some species Y-autosome translocations were found, of which 5 could be confirmed. The male individuals carrying the Y-autosome translocations still coexist with the males showing the original karyotypes. The present report gives an overview on the mitotic and meiotic structure, staining and banding properties, functional importance, and similarities and differences of these Y-autosome translocations which are very rare in vertebrates...
March 22, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573614/effects-of-glyphosate-and-its-commercial-formulation-roundup-%C3%A2-ultramax-on-liver-histology-of-tadpoles-of-the-neotropical-frog-leptodactylus-latrans-amphibia-anura
#14
Nadia C Bach, Damián J G Marino, Guillermo S Natale, Gustavo M Somoza
In the last years, the agricultural expansion has led to an increased use of pesticides, with glyphosate as the most widely used worldwide. This is also the situation in Argentina, where glyphosate formulations are the most commercialized herbicides. It is known that glyphosate formulations are much more toxic than the active ingredient, and this difference in toxicity can be attributed to the adjuvants present in the formula. In this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare sub-lethal histological effects of the glyphosate formulation Roundup Ultramax and glyphosate active ingredient on Leptodactylus latrans tadpoles at Gosner-stage 36...
March 17, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544223/chromosome-banding-in-amphibia-xxxvi-multimorphic-sex-chromosomes-and-an-enigmatic-sex-determination-in-eleutherodactylus-johnstonei-anura-eleutherodactylidae
#15
Michael Schmid, Claus Steinlein
A detailed cytogenetic study on the leaf litter frog Eleutherodactylus johnstonei from 14 different Caribbean islands and the mainlands of Venezuela and Guyana revealed the existence of multimorphic XY♂/XX♀ sex chromosomes 14. Their male sex determination and development depends either on the presence of 2 telocentric chromosomes 14 (XtYt), or on 1 submetacentric chromosome 14 (Xsm) plus 1 telocentric chromosome 14 (Yt), or on the presence of 2 submetacentric chromosomes 14 (XsmYsm). The female sex determination and development requires either the presence of 2 telocentric chromosomes 14 (XtXt) or 2 submetacentric chromosomes 14 (XsmXsm)...
2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538432/hidden-species-diversity-in-sylvirana-nigrovittata-amphibia-ranidae-highlights-the-importance-of-taxonomic-revisions-in-biodiversity-conservation
#16
Jennifer A Sheridan, Bryan L Stuart
Accurately delimiting species and their geographic ranges is imperative for conservation, especially in areas experiencing rapid habitat loss. Southeast Asia currently has one of the highest rates of deforestation in the world, is home to multiple biodiversity hotspots, and the majority of its countries have developing economies with limited resources for biodiversity conservation. Thus, accurately delimiting species and their ranges is particularly important in this region. We examined genetic and morphological variation in the widespread frog species Sylvirana nigrovittata (and its long-treated junior synonym S...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507835/-psychrophrynella-glauca-sp-n-a-new-species-of-terrestrial-breeding-frogs-amphibia-anura-strabomantidae-from-the-montane-forests-of-the-amazonian-andes-of-puno-peru
#17
Alessandro Catenazzi, Alex Ttito
We describe a new species of small strabomantid frog (genus Psychrophrynella ) from a humid montane forest in the Peruvian Department of Puno. Specimens were collected at 2,225 m a.s.l. in the leaf litter of primary montane forest near Thiuni, along the Macusani-San Gabán road, in the province of Carabaya. The new species is assigned to Psychrophrynella on the basis of morphological similarity, including presence of a tubercle on the inner edge of the tarsus, and call composed of multiple notes. We also include genetic distances for 16S rRNA partial sequences between the new species and other strabomantid frogs...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497587/a-striking-new-genus-and-species-of-cave-dwelling-frog-amphibia-anura-microhylidae-asterophryinae-from-thailand
#18
Chatmongkon Suwannapoom, Montri Sumontha, Jitthep Tunprasert, Thiti Ruangsuwan, Parinya Pawangkhanant, Dmitriy V Korost, Nikolay A Poyarkov
We report on a discovery of Siamophryne troglodytes Gen. et sp. nov., a new troglophilous genus and species of microhylid frog from a limestone cave in the tropical forests of western Thailand. To assess its phylogenetic relationships we studied the 12S rRNA-16S rRNA mtDNA fragment with final alignment comprising up to 2,591 bp for 56 microhylid species. Morphological characterization of the new genus is based on examination of external morphology and analysis of osteological characteristics using microCT-scanning...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444174/chromosome-evolution-in-cophomantini-amphibia-anura-hylinae
#19
Juan M Ferro, Dario E Cardozo, Pablo Suárez, Juan M Boeris, Ailin Blasco-Zúñiga, Gastón Barbero, Anderson Gomes, Thiago Gazoni, William Costa, Cleusa Y Nagamachi, Miryan Rivera, Patricia P Parise-Maltempi, John E Wiley, Julio C Pieczarka, Celio F B Haddad, Julián Faivovich, Diego Baldo
The hylid tribe Cophomantini is a diverse clade of Neotropical treefrogs composed of the genera Aplastodiscus, Boana, Bokermannohyla, Hyloscirtus, and Myersiohyla. The phylogenetic relationships of Cophomantini have been comprehensively reviewed in the literature, providing a suitable framework for the study of chromosome evolution. Employing different banding techniques, we studied the chromosomes of 25 species of Boana and 3 of Hyloscirtus; thus providing, for the first time, data for Hyloscirtus and for 15 species of Boana...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351080/ultrastructure-of-digenean-trematode-eggs-platyhelminthes-neoophora-a-review-emphasizing-new-comparative-data-on-four-european-microphalloidea
#20
David Bruce Conn, Zdzisław Świderski, Jordi Miquel
Despite their tremendous diversity and their medical and veterinary importance, details of egg ultrastructure among the digenean trematodes has been studied rather little. The available literature is spread over several decades and several species, but has not been adequately reviewed to reveal patterns of similarity and divergence. We present this review to synthesize and analyse what is known from the available literature reporting studies using both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
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