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Kamil Gruntmejer, Dorota Konietzko-Meier, Adam Bodzioch
In this study, 21 skull bones of Metoposaurus krasiejowensis from the Late Triassic of Poland were investigated histologically. Dermal bones show a diploë structure, with an ornamented external surface. The ridges consist of mostly well vascularized parallel-fibered bone; the valleys are built of an avascular layer of lamellar bone. The thick middle region consists of cancellous bone, with varying porosity. The thin and less vascularized internal cortex consists of parallel-fibered bone. The numerous Sharpey's fibers and ISF are present in all bones...
2016: PeerJ
Liliya Nazlamova, Anna Noble, Frank R Schubert, John McGeehan, Fiona Myers, Matt Guille, Garry Scarlett
Vesicle shuttling is critical for many cellular and organismal processes, including embryonic development. GDI proteins contribute to vesicle shuttling by regulating the activity of Rab GTPases, controlling their cycling between the inactive cytosol and active membrane bound states. While identifying genes controlled by A-form DNA sequences we discovered a previously unknown member of the GDI family, GDI3. The GDI3 gene is found only in amphibians and fish and is developmentally expressed in Xenopus from neurula stages onwards in the neural plate, and subsequently in both dorsal and anterior structures...
November 9, 2016: Gene
Fabian Baier, Edith Gruber, Thomas Hein, Elisabeth Bondar-Kunze, Marina Ivanković, Axel Mentler, Carsten A Brühl, Bernhard Spangl, Johann G Zaller
BACKGROUND: Glyphosate-based herbicides are the most widely used pesticides in agriculture, horticulture, municipalities and private gardens that can potentially contaminate nearby water bodies inhabited by amphibians and algae. Moreover, the development and diversity of these aquatic organisms could also be affected by human-induced climate change that might lead to more periods with extreme temperatures. However, to what extent non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians or algae are altered by varying temperature is not well known...
2016: PeerJ
Kalyani Sanagavarapu, Tanja Weiffert, Niamh Ní Mhurchú, David O'Connell, Sara Linse
Secretagogin is a calcium-sensor protein with six EF-hands. It is widely expressed in neurons and neuro-endocrine cells of a broad range of vertebrates including mammals, fishes and amphibia. The protein plays a role in secretion and interacts with several vesicle-associated proteins. In this work, we have studied the contribution of calcium binding and disulfide-bond formation to the stability of the secretagogin structure towards thermal and urea denaturation. SDS-PAGE analysis of secretagogin in reducing and non-reducing conditions identified a tendency of the protein to form dimers in a redox-dependent manner...
2016: PloS One
Jia Jia, Ke-Qin Gao
A new fossil salamander, Nuominerpeton aquilonaris (gen. et sp. nov.), is named and described based on specimens from the Lower Cretaceous Guanghua Formation of Inner Mongolia, China. The new discovery documents a far northern occurrence of Early Cretaceous salamanders in China, extending the geographic distribution for the Mesozoic fossil record of the group from the Jehol area (40th-45th parallel north) to near the 49th parallel north. The new salamander is characterized by having the orbitosphenoid semicircular in shape; coracoid plate of the scapulocoracoid greatly expanded with a convex ventral and posterior border; ossification of two centralia in carpus and tarsus; and first digit being about half the length of the second digit in both manus and pes...
2016: PeerJ
Fathy Abdel-Ghaffar, Rewaida Abdel-Gaber, Sherein Maher, Nashwa El Deeb, Reem Kamel, Saleh Al Quraishy, Heinz Mehlhorn
Myxozoans are one of the most economically important groups of protozoan parasites causing many serious diseases of their hosts. In the present study, a total of 60 live adult male specimens of the marsh frog Rana ridibunda have been randomly captured during the period of January-December 2015 in different areas at Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt and were examined for infection by myxosporidian parasites. A total of 48 (80.0 %) out of 60 frog specimens were found to be infected with Myxobolus species. Parasitic infection was restricted to the testicular tissue of the examined frogs...
October 19, 2016: Parasitology Research
Carl Erik Olsen, Xiao-Chen Huang, Cecilie I C Hansen, Don Cipollini, Marian Ørgaard, Annemarie Matthes, Fernando Geu-Flores, Marcus A Koch, Niels Agerbirk
As a basis for future investigations of evolutionary trajectories and biosynthetic mechanisms underlying variations in glucosinolate structures, we screened members of the crucifer tribe Cardamineae by HPLC-MS/MS, isolated and identified glucosinolates by NMR, searched the literature for previous data for the tribe, and collected HPLC-MS/MS data for nearly all glucosinolates known from the tribe as well as some related structures (70 in total). This is a considerable proportion of the approximately 142 currently documented natural glucosinolates...
October 13, 2016: Phytochemistry
Truong Quang Nguyen, Cuong The Pham, Tao Thien Nguyen, Hai Ngoc Ngo, Thomas Ziegler
We describe a new species of Theloderma from northwestern Vietnam based on morphological differences and molecular divergence. Theloderma annae sp. nov. is distinguishable from its congeners on the basis of a combination of the following characters:  Size small, SVL 27.1-28.5 mm in males, 30.3-32.6 mm in females; head longer than wide;  vomerine teeth absent; snout long (SL/SVL 0.16-0.19); spines on upper eyelid absent;  tibiotarsal projection absent; dorsal skin smooth; dermal fringes on forearm and tarsus absent; dorsal surface grayish green; and throat and ventral surface of arms and thighs brown with white spots...
September 14, 2016: Zootaxa
Mi-Sook Min, Hae-Jun Baek, Jae-Young Song, Min Ho Chang, Nikolay A Jr Poyarkov
We describe a new species of lentic-breeding Hynobius salamander from the Naro Islands, near the village of Bongrae-myeon, Goheung-gun, Jeollanam-do, South Korea, on the basis of results of morphological, ecological and genetic analyses. Hynobius unisacculus sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following morphological attributes: (1) comparatively small size (adult SVL up to 61 mm; range 38.3-60.3 mm in males and 37.5-59.9 mm in females); (2) relatively slender short limbs; tips of fore- and hindlimbs adpressed on body never meeting, but separated by a large gap (gap of -3...
September 21, 2016: Zootaxa
Angeles R Romero-Mayén, Virginia León-Règagnon
Thirty-six Foleyellides mayenae n. sp. were recovered from the body cavity of Lithobates psilonota (Webb, 2001) and L. pustulosus (Boulenger, 1883) (Ranidae) from Jalisco and Nayarit, respectively. Foleyellides mayenae is the eleventh species described for the genus and the third for Mexican amphibians; it differs from the other species of the genus by the following combined characters: five pairs of caudal papillae, 1 pre-anal, 1 adanal and 3 post-cloacal, and the absence of a preanal plaque.
September 26, 2016: Zootaxa
Rafael C Menegucci, Marcus Thadeu T Santos, Rafael F De Magalhães, Ibere F Machado, Paulo C A Garcia, Tiago L Pezzuti
The genus Odontophrynus Reinhardt & Lütken comprises 11 species distributed throughout South and East of South America (Frost 2016) clustered in three phenetic groups: O. americanus, O. cultripes, and O. occidentalis (Savage & Cei 1965; Cei 1987; Caramaschi & Napoli 2012). Only the O. occidentalis group is recovered as monophyletic in the most recent phylogenetic hypotheses (Pyron & Wiens 2011; Pyron 2014). In these analyses, the O. cultripes group is not recovered and the monophyly of O. americanus group was not tested, since only one species of the group was included (Pyron & Wiens 2011; Pyron 2014)...
2016: Zootaxa
A Channing, J M Dehling, S Lötters, R Ernst
A molecular phylogeny of the Afrotropical anuran genus Amietia based on 323 16S sequences indicates that there are 19 species, including four not yet described. No genetic material was available for the nominal A. inyangae. We consider them to represent full species, and define them based on 16S genetic distances, as well as differences in morphology, tadpoles and advertisement call where known. An analysis based on two mitochondrial and two nuclear genes (12S, 16S, 28S and tyrosinase exon 1), from 122 samples, confirmed the phylogenetic relationships suggested by the 16S tree...
2016: Zootaxa
X Y Zang, J L Guo, X F Geng, P F Li, J Y Sun, Q W Wang, C S Xu
The Chinese fire-bellied newt, Cynops orientalis, belonging to Amphibia, Caudata, Salamandridae is a species endemic to China. The liver, which is an important digestive gland and the largest amphibian organ, has various functions, including detoxification, glycogen storage, protein synthesis, and hormone production. However, the newt liver has rarely been studied at the molecular level. We performed histomorphology and high-throughput proteomic analysis of the Chinese fire-bellied newt liver, using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Justyna P Olszewska, Andrew A Meharg, Kate V Heal, Manus Carey, Iain D M Gunn, Kate R Searle, Ian J Winfield, Bryan M Spears
Little is known about long-term ecological responses in lakes following red mud pollution. Among red mud contaminants, arsenic (As) is of considerable concern. Determination of the species of As accumulated in aquatic organisms provides important information about the biogeochemical cycling of the element and transfer through the aquatic food-web to higher organisms. We used coupled ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to assess As speciation in tissues of five macrophyte taxa in Kinghorn Loch, U...
September 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
D I Berman, E N Meshcheryakova, N A Bulakhova
Frozen Siberian salamander safely tolerates long (45 days) stay at-35°C. Short-term (3 days) cooling down to-50°C was tolerable for 40% of adult individuals; down to-55°C, for 80% of the underyearlings. Generally, the salamanders lose about 28% of the body mass during the pre-hibernating period (before winter, at temperatures as low as 0°C) and during the process of freezing (as low as-5°C). The body weight remained constant upon further cooling (to-35°C). The frozen salamanders have no physiological mechanisms protecting from sublimation...
May 2016: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
Alexander Shepack, Rudolf von May, Alex Ttito, Alessandro Catenazzi
We describe a new species of Pristimantis from the humid sub-montane forest of the Región Cusco in Peru. Pristimantis pluvialis sp. n. was collected in the Kosñipata and Entoro valleys at elevations from 740 to 1110 m a.s.l., near the borders of Manu National Park and within the Huachiperi Haramba Queros Conservation Concession. The new species can be distinguished from other members of the genus Pristimantis by its rostral tubercle, smooth dorsal skin, and by its advertisement call. Pristimantis lacrimosus and Pristimantis waoranii superficially most resemble the new species, but Pristimantis pluvialis sp...
2016: ZooKeys
Chan Jin Park, Sang Ha Song, Dae Han Kim, Myung Chan Gye
In an effort to evaluate the toxicity of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), a cationic surfactant in amphibians, we examined the developmental and acute toxicity of CPC in Bombina orientalis embryos and tadpoles. Embryonic exposure to 2.0μM (0.72mg/l) CPC for 7 days significantly decreased the survival rates and increased DNA damage in the intestine of developed tadpoles. Exposure to 1.5μM (0.54mg/l) CPC significantly decreased the growth of embryos and increased developmental abnormalities. The 168-h LC50 and EC50 values of CPC were 1...
August 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Rachunliu G Kamei, S D Biju
Extensive surveys at and around the type locality of Ichthyophis husaini Pillai & Ravichandran, 1999 (an 'unstriped' Ichthyophis) in North East India between 2008 and 2014 yielded tens of striped but no unstriped specimens of Ichthyophis. Contrary to the original description, we observed a lateral stripe on the holotype of I. husaini. The holotype of I. husaini is very similar to the holotype of the striped species I. garoensis Pillai & Ravichandran, 1999, which was collected from a locality only 20 km away from the type locality of I...
2016: Zootaxa
Karl-Heinz Jungfer, Vanessa K Verdade, Julián Faivovich, Miguel T Rodrigues
A new species of treefrog of the genus Osteocephalus is described from the Rio Abacaxis, a southern tributary of the Amazonas in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. This member of the O. buckleyi group is characterized by green dorsal colouration with irregular blotches of various shades of brown, light venter with tan spots and bold dark markings on the posterior surfaces of the thighs. It can be distinguished from its closest relative, O. helenae from the same general area, by the lack of an axillary membrane, a few indistinct tubercles on the proximal segment of Finger IV and single ulnar tubercles...
2016: Zootaxa
B Wielstra, J W Arntzen
Multilocus molecular data play a pivotal role in diagnosing cryptic species (i.e. genetically distinct but morphologically similar species). A multilocus phylogeographic survey has provided compelling evidence that Triturus ivanbureschi sensu lato comprises two distinct gene pools with restricted gene flow. We conclude that this taxon had better be treated as two distinct (albeit morphologically cryptic) species. The name T. ivanbureschi should be restricted to the western species, which is distributed in western Asiatic Turkey plus the south-eastern Balkan Peninsula...
2016: Zootaxa
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