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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223561/microglia-and-astrocyte-activation-in-the-spinal-cord-of-lame-horses
#1
Constanza S Meneses, Heine Y Müller, Daniel E Herzberg, Benjamin Uberti, Marianne P Werner, Hedie A Bustamante
OBJECTIVE: To determine the microglial and astrocyte response to painful lameness in horses. STUDY DESIGN: Ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression, cell density and morphology were determined through immunofluorescence within the dorsal horn of equine spinal cord. ANIMALS: A total of five adult horses with acute or chronic unilateral lameness, previously scheduled for euthanasia...
November 2, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223144/role-of-carbon-monoxide-in-neurovascular-repair-processing
#2
REVIEW
Yoon Kyung Choi
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous molecule produced from heme by heme oxygenase (HO). Endogenous CO production occurring at low concentrations is thought to have several useful biological roles. In mammals, especially humans, a proper neurovascular unit comprising endothelial cells, pericytes, astrocytes, microglia, and neurons is essential for the homeostasis and survival of the central nervous system (CNS). In addition, the regeneration of neurovascular systems from neural stem cells and endothelial precursor cells after CNS diseases is responsible for functional repair...
December 8, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217476/sumo1-impact-on-alzheimer-disease-pathology-in-an-amyloid-depositing-mouse-model
#3
Erin Knock, Shinsuke Matsuzaki, Hironori Takamura, Kanayo Satoh, Grace Rooke, Kyung Han, Hong Zhang, Agnieszka Staniszewski, Taiichi Katayama, Ottavio Arancio, Paul E Fraser
Small ubiquitin-related modifiers (SUMOs) conjugated or bound to target proteins can affect protein trafficking, processing and solubility. SUMOylation has been suggested to play a role in the amyloid plaque and neurofibrillary tangle pathology of Alzheimer disease (AD) and related neurodegenerative diseases. The current study examines the impact of SUMO1 on processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) leading to the production and deposition of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide. An in vivo model of these pathways was developed by the generation of double transgenic mice over-expressing human SUMO1 and a mutant APP...
December 4, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210074/white-matter-degeneration-in-vascular-and-other-ageing-related-dementias
#4
REVIEW
Yoshika Hase, Karen Horsburgh, Masafumi Ihara, Raj N Kalaria
Advances in neuroimaging have enabled greater understanding of the progression of cerebral degenerative processes associated with ageing-related dementias. Leukoaraiosis or rarefied white matter (WM) originally described on computed tomography is one of the most prominent changes which occurs in older age. White matter hyperintensities (WMH) evident on magnetic resonance imaging have become commonplace to describe WM changes in relation to cognitive dysfunction, types of stroke injury, cerebral small vessel disease and neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207277/laser-captured-microglia-in-the-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-brain-reveal-unique-regional-expression-profiles-and-suggest-a-potential-role-for-hepatitis-b-in-the-alzheimer-s-brain
#5
Diego Mastroeni, Jennifer Nolz, Shobana Sekar, Elaine Delvaux, Geidy Serrano, Lori Cuyugan, Winnie S Liang, Thomas G Beach, Joseph Rogers, Paul D Coleman
Expression array data from dozens of laboratories, including our own, show significant changes in expression of many genes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients compared with normal controls. These data typically rely on brain homogenates, and information about transcripts specific to microglia and other central nervous system (CNS) cell types, which far outnumber microglia-specific transcripts, is lost. We therefore used single-cell laser capture methods to assess the full range of microglia-specific expression changes that occur in different brain regions (substantia nigra and hippocampus CA1) and disease states (AD, Parkinson's disease, and normal controls)...
November 1, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201010/microglia-and-brain-plasticity-in-acute-psychosis-and-schizophrenia-illness-course-a-meta-review
#6
REVIEW
Livia J De Picker, Manuel Morrens, Steven A Chance, Delphine Boche
Objective: Schizophrenia poses a tremendous health, social, and economic burden upon patients and society, indicating current treatment options remain inadequate. Recent findings from several lines of evidence have pointed to the importance of immune system involvement in not only premorbid neurodevelopmental but also subsequent symptom generation and aging processes of brain change in schizophrenia. In this meta-review, we use the summarized evidence from recent quantitative systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses of several subspecialties to critically evaluate the hypothesis that immune-related processes shape the symptomatic presentation and illness course of schizophrenia, both directly and indirectly through altered neuroplasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197626/microglia-key-players-in-neurodevelopment-and-neuronal-plasticity
#7
Luba Sominsky, Simone De Luca, Sarah J Spencer
Microglia are the primary innate immune cells in the CNS. Since their initial discovery and characterization, decades of research have revealed their unique roles not only in maintaining immune homeostasis, but also being indispensable to brain development and cognitive function. As such, microglia drive synaptogenesis, synaptic pruning, neurogenesis and neuronal activity. Microglia-specific mutations are implicated in several neurodevelopmental disorders, and dysregulation of microglial function is strongly linked to several pathologies, including cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196883/magnesium-lithospermate-b-suppresses-lipopolysaccharide-induced-neuroinflammation-in-bv2-microglial-cells-and-attenuates-neurodegeneration-in-lipopolysaccharide-injected-mice
#8
Yaojun Tai, Yujiao Qiu, Zhicheng Bao
Chronic inflammation in the brain plays a critical role in major neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and multiple sclerosis (MS). Microglia, the resident macrophages and intrinsic components of the central nervous system (CNS), appear to be the main effectors in this pathological process. Magnesium lithospermate B (MLB) is one of the major bioactive components of Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae, which has been documented to protect neurons against multiple types of neuronal injury...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196462/p38-mapk-inhibits-autophagy-and-promotes-microglial-inflammatory-responses-by-phosphorylating-ulk1
#9
Yingli He, Hua She, Ting Zhang, Haidong Xu, Lihong Cheng, Manuel Yepes, Yingren Zhao, Zixu Mao
Inflammation and autophagy are two critical cellular processes. The relationship between these two processes is complex and includes the suppression of inflammation by autophagy. However, the signaling mechanisms that relieve this autophagy-mediated inhibition of inflammation to permit a beneficial inflammatory response remain unknown. We find that LPS triggers p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent phosphorylation of ULK1 in microglial cells. This phosphorylation inhibited ULK1 kinase activity, preventing it from binding to the downstream effector ATG13, and reduced autophagy in microglia...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196167/cathepsin-b-links-oxidative-stress-to-the-activation-of-nlrp3-inflammasome
#10
Hua Bai, Bo Yang, Wenfeng Yu, Yan Xiao, Dejun Yu, Qifang Zhang
Oxidative stress-mediated activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in microglia is critical in the development of neurodegerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson disease (PD). However, the mechanism underlying oxidative stress activates NLRP3 inflammasome remains exclusive. Here we demonstrated cathepsin B (CTSB) as a regulator of the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome by H2O2. H2O2 induced IL-1β secretion in NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent manner. H2O2 treatment increased CTSB activity, which in turn activated NLRP3 inflammasome, and subsequently processed pro-caspase-1 cleavage into caspase-1, resulting in IL-1 β secretion...
November 28, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196144/spatio-temporal-expression-of-hexokinase-3-in-the-injured-female-rat-spinal-cords
#11
Yu-Hong Lin, Yan Wu, Ying Wang, Zong-Feng Yao, Jie Tang, Rui Wang, Lin Shen, Shu-Qin Ding, Jian-Guo Hu, He-Zuo Lü
Hexokinase-3 (HK3) is a member of hexokinase family, which can catalyze the first step of glucose metabolism. It can increase ATP levels, reduce the production of reactive oxygen species, increase mitochondrial biogenesis, protect mitochondrial membrane potential and play an antioxidant role. However, the change of its expression in spinal cord after injury is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the spatio-temporal expression of HK3 in the spinal cords by using a spinal cord injury (SCI) model in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats...
November 28, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191088/the-delaying-effect-of-alpha-glycerophosphocholine-on-senescence-transthyretin-deposition-and-osteoarthritis-in-senescence-accelerated-mouse-prone-8-mice
#12
Kiminori Matsubara, Mayumi Okuda, Sachi Shibata, Shigeru Miyaki, Takeshi Ohkubo, Hanae Izu, Tsutomu Fujii
Administration of alpha-glycerophosphocholine (GPC), a choline compound in food, is expected to contribute to human health. In this study, we evaluated its effect on aging in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice. Male SAMP8 mice had free access to a commercial stock diet and drinking water with or without GPC (0.07 mg/ml). Mice in the GPC group had significantly lower total senescence grading score than that of the control group at 36 weeks of age. Administration of GPC decreased the deposition of transthyretin (TTR), an amyloidogenic protein, in the brain...
December 1, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188488/lipopolysaccharide-induced-microglia-activation-promotes-the-survival-of-midbrain-dopaminergic-neurons-in-vitro
#13
Xiaolai Zhou, Björn Spittau
Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and respond to a variety of endogenous and exogenous stimuli in order to restore cell and tissue homeostasis. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of these exogenous stimuli, constitutes a major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, and binds to the microglial pattern recognition receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). LPS-induced microglia activation is believed to promote neurodegeneration by release of neurotoxic factors such as interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor α, or nitric oxide...
November 29, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185100/spatial-distribution-of-cd115-and-cd11b-cells-and-their-temporal-activation-during-oxygen-induced-retinopathy-in-mice
#14
Claudia Brockmann, Sabrina Dege, Sergio Crespo-Garcia, Norbert Kociok, Tobias Brockmann, Olaf Strauß, Antonia M Joussen
PURPOSE: The model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) is widely used to analyze pathomechanisms in retinal neovascularization. Previous studies have shown that macrophages (MP) play a key role in vessel formation in OIR, the influence of microglia (MG) having been discussed. The aim of our study was to analyze the spatial and temporal distribution and activation of MP/MG expressing CD115 and CD11b during the process of neovascularization in OIR. METHODS: We used MacGreen mice expressing the green fluorescence protein (GFP) under the promoter for CD115...
November 28, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184485/globular-adiponectin-limits-microglia-pro-inflammatory-phenotype-through-an-adipor1-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#15
Sarah Nicolas, Julie Cazareth, Hadi Zarif, Alice Guyon, Catherine Heurteaux, Joëlle Chabry, Agnès Petit-Paitel
We recently reported that increased levels of Adiponectin (ApN) in the brain led to microglia phenotype and activation state regulation, thus reducing both global brain inflammation and depressive-like behaviors in mice. Apart from this, little is known on ApN molecular effects on microglia, although these cells are crucial in both physiological and pathological processes. Here we fill this gap by studying the effects and targets of ApN toward neuroinflammation. Our findings suggest that ApN deficiency in mice leads to a higher sensitivity of mice to neuroinflammation that is due to enhanced microglia responsiveness to a pro-inflammatory challenge...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183796/heat-shock-protein-70-suppresses-neuroinflammation-induced-by-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-astrocytes
#16
Wen-Wen Yu, Sheng-Nan Cao, Cai-Xia Zang, Lu Wang, Han-Yu Yang, Xiu-Qi Bao, Dan Zhang
Neuroinflammation triggered by activation of glial cells plays an important role in the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD). Besides microglia, astrocytes are also critical in initiating and perpetuating inflammatory process associated with PD. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is originally described as intracellular chaperone, however, recent study revealed that it had anti-inflammatory effects as well. The present study is designed to investigate whether Hsp70 mediates neuroinflammation in astrocytes...
November 25, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181664/immunomorphological-changes-in-the-olfactory-bulbs-of-rats-after-intranasal-administration-of-rotenone
#17
D N Voronkov, K A Kutukova, M V Ivanov, R M Khudoerkov
Changes in the structure of the olfactory bulbs after long-term intranasal administration of pesticide rotenone, a classical inductor of parkinsonism, to rats were studied by the methods of immunomorphology. In rats intranasally receiving rotenone in a dose of 2.5 mg/kg every other day over 2 weeks, a decrease in the density of dopaminergic neurons and the area of astrocyte processes in the olfactory bulbs, activation of microglia in the glomerular layer, and enhanced α-synuclein phosphorylation and its accumulation in the bodies of mitral layer neurons were observed...
November 27, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180839/triggering-receptor-expressed-on-myeloid-cells-2-overexpression-inhibits-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-lipopolysaccharide-stimulated-microglia
#18
Xiaobao Zhang, Fang Yan, Jizheng Cui, Yong Wu, Hengfei Luan, Miaomiao Yin, Zhibin Zhao, Jiying Feng, Jinwei Zhang
Microglia play an important role in mediating inflammatory processes in the central nervous system (CNS). Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is a microglia-specific receptor and could decrease neuropathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the detailed mechanism remains unclear. This study was designed to elucidate the effect of TREM2 on microglia. We showed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation significantly increases proinflammatory cytokines and suppressed TREM2 in microglia...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179727/mild-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-ameliorates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-neuroinflammation-and-cognitive-impairment-via-regulation-of-microglial-polarization
#19
Yi-Wei Wang, Qin Zhou, Xiang Zhang, Qing-Qing Qian, Jia-Wen Xu, Peng-Fei Ni, Yan-Ning Qian
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation, which ultimately leads to neuronal loss, is considered to play a crucial role in numerous neurodegenerative diseases. The neuroinflammatory process is characterized by the activation of glial cells such as microglia. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is commonly associated with impairments in neuronal function and cognition, but its relationship and role in neurodegeneration is still controversial. Recently, it was confirmed that nonharmful levels of ER stress protected against experimental Parkinson's disease...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178139/phagocytic-clearance-of-presynaptic-dystrophies-by-reactive-astrocytes-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Angela Gomez-Arboledas, Jose C Davila, Elisabeth Sanchez-Mejias, Victoria Navarro, Cristina Nuñez-Diaz, Raquel Sanchez-Varo, Maria Virtudes Sanchez-Mico, Laura Trujillo-Estrada, Juan Jose Fernandez-Valenzuela, Marisa Vizuete, Joan X Comella, Elena Galea, Javier Vitorica, Antonia Gutierrez
Reactive astrogliosis, a complex process characterized by cell hypertrophy and upregulation of components of intermediate filaments, is a common feature in brains of Alzheimer's patients. Reactive astrocytes are found in close association with neuritic plaques; however, the precise role of these glial cells in disease pathogenesis is unknown. In this study, using immunohistochemical techniques and light and electron microscopy, we report that plaque-associated reactive astrocytes enwrap, engulf and may digest presynaptic dystrophies in the hippocampus of amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1 (APP/PS1) mice...
November 27, 2017: Glia
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