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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674955/the-communication-between-the-immune-and-nervous-systems-the-role-of-il-1%C3%AE-in-synaptopathies
#1
REVIEW
Davide Pozzi, Elisabetta Menna, Alice Canzi, Genni Desiato, Cristina Mantovani, Michela Matteoli
In the last 15 years, groundbreaking genetic progress has underlined a convergence onto coherent synaptic pathways for most psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, which are now collectively called "synaptopathies." However, the modest size of inheritance detected so far indicates a multifactorial etiology for these disorders, underlining the key contribution of environmental effects to them. Inflammation is known to influence the risk and/or severity of a variety of synaptopathies. In particular, pro-inflammatory cytokines, produced and released in the brain by activated astrocytes and microglia, may play a pivotal role in these pathologies...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673550/complex-role-of-chemokine-mediators-in-animal-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Elodie Martin, Cécile Delarasse
Chemokines are a family of cytokines, first described to play a role in the immune system. However, neurons and glial cells also express chemokines and their receptors. In the central nervous system, chemokines are involved in several neural functions, in particular in the control of cell communications and neuronal activity. In pathological conditions, chemokines participate in neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative processes. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), chemokines play a role in the development of the two main lesions, amyloid β plaques and neurofibrillary tangles...
February 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672844/longitudinal-positron-emission-tomography-imaging-of-glial-cell-activation-in-a-mouse-model-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-toward-identification-of-optimal-treatment-windows
#3
Duc-Loc Nguyen, Catriona Wimberley, Charles Truillet, Benoit Jego, Fabien Caillé, Géraldine Pottier, Raphaël Boisgard, Irène Buvat, Viviane Bouilleret
OBJECTIVE: Mesiotemporal lobe epilepsy is the most common type of drug-resistant partial epilepsy, with a specific history that often begins with status epilepticus due to various neurological insults followed by a silent period. During this period, before the first seizure occurs, a specific lesion develops, described as unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS). It is still challenging to determine which drugs, administered at which time point, will be most effective during the formation of this epileptic process...
April 19, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668471/evaluation-of-the-role-of-abcb1gene-polymorphic-variants-on-psychiatric-disorders-predisposition-in-macedonian-population
#4
Zorica Naumovska, Aleksandra K Nestorovska, Zoran Sterjev, Ana Filipce, Aleksandra Grozdanova, Aleksandar Dimovski, Ljubica Suturkova, Vladimir Serafimoski
The psychiatric and other CNS disorders are characterized with unregulated neuro-inflammatory processes and chronic microglia cell activation resulting with detrimental effect. ABCB1gene polymorphismsC1236T, G2677T/Aand C3435T are associated with P-glycoprotein expression and function andare linked with predisposition to psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. The relationship between mood disorders and glucocorticoids has been confirmed and ABCB1 SNPs influence the glucocorticoids access to the brain...
December 1, 2017: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667931/ave0991-a-nonpeptide-analogue-of-ang-1-7-attenuates-aging-related-neuroinflammation
#5
Teng Jiang, Liu-Jun Xue, Yang Yang, Qing-Guang Wang, Xiao Xue, Zhou Ou, Qing Gao, Jian-Quan Shi, Liang Wu, Ying-Dong Zhang
During the aging process, chronic neuroinflammation induced by microglia is detrimental for the brain and contributes to the etiology of several aging-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. As a newly identified axis of renin-angiotensin system, ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/MAS1 axis plays a crucial role in modulating inflammatory responses under various pathological conditions. However, its relationship with aging-related neuroinflammation is less studied so far. In this study, by using SAMP8 mice, an animal model of accelerated aging, we revealed that the neuroinflammation in the aged brain might be attributed to a decreased level of Ang-(1-7)...
April 17, 2018: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655639/glia-maturation-factor-beta-is-required-for-reactive-gliosis-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-zebrafish
#6
Guo Yin, Mingjun Du, Rong Li, Ke Li, Xiaomin Huang, Dongbei Duan, Xiaolan Ai, Fang Yao, Lanlan Zhang, Ziyou Hu, Bingyi Wu
Gliosis is a hallmark of neural pathology that occurs after most forms of central nervous system (CNS) injuries including traumatic brain injury (TBI). Identification of genes that control gliosis may provide novel treatment targets for patients with diverse CNS injuries. Glia maturation factor beta (GMFB) is crucial in brain development and stress response. In the present study, GMFB was found to be widely expressed in adult zebrafish telencephalon. A gmfb mutant zebrafish was created using CRISPR/cas9. In the uninjured zebrafish telencephalon, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) fibers in gmfb mutants were disorganized and shorter than wild type zebrafish...
April 12, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644327/regional-tract-specific-white-matter-hyperintensities-are-associated-with-patterns-to-aging-related-brain-atrophy-via-vascular-risk-factors-but-also-independently
#7
Mohamad Habes, Guray Erus, Jon B Toledo, Nick Bryan, Deborah Janowitz, Jimit Doshi, Henry Völzke, Ulf Schminke, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Hans J Grabe, David A Wolk, Christos Davatzikos
Introduction: We sought to investigate associations of regional white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) within white matter (WM) tracts with cardiovascular risk and brain aging-related atrophy throughout adulthood in the general population, leveraging state of the art pattern analysis methods. Methods: We analyzed a large sample (n = 2367) from the Study of Health in Pomerania, Germany (range 20-90 years). WMHs were automatically segmented on T1-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance images, and WMH volumes were calculated in WM regions defined using the John Hopkins University WM tractography atlas...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625180/a%C3%AE-oligomer-uptake-and-the-resulting-inflammatory-response-in-adult-human-astrocytes-are-precluded-by-an-anti-a%C3%AE-single-chain-variable-fragment-in-combination-with-an-apoe-mimetic-peptide
#8
Laia Montoliu-Gaya, Sandra D Mulder, Maaike A C Herrebout, Johannes C Baayen, Sandra Villegas, Robert Veerhuis
An imbalance between production and clearance of soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) initiates the pathological process in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ-specific antibodies seemed promising as therapeutic option in AD mouse models. In patients, however, vascular side-effects and Aβ-antibody complex-induced microglial and/or perivascular macrophage inflammatory responses were encountered. To prevent inflammatory reactions, we designed a single chain variable fragment (scFv-h3D6), based on monoclonal antibody bapineuzumab (mAb-h3D6), but lacking the Fc region...
April 3, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624735/cx3cr1-deficiency-exacerbates-alpha-synuclein-a53t-induced-neuroinflammation-and-neurodegeneration-in-a-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Sara Castro-Sánchez, Ángel J García-Yagüe, Tresa López-Royo, Maria Casarejos, José Luis Lanciego, Isabel Lastres-Becker
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra and the accumulation of protein aggregates, called Lewy bodies, where the most abundant is alpha-synuclein (α-SYN). Mutations of the gene that codes for α-SYN (SNCA), such as the A53T mutation, and duplications of the gene generate cases of PD with autosomal dominant inheritance. As a result of the association of inflammation with the neurodegeneration of PD, we analyzed whether overexpression of wild-type α-SYN (α-SYNWT ) or mutated α-SYN (α-SYNA53T ) are involved in the neuronal dopaminergic loss and inflammation process, along with the role of the chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1) and its receptor (CX3CR1)...
April 6, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623938/delayed-xenon-post-conditioning-mitigates-spinal-cord-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rabbits-by-regulating-microglial-activation-and-inflammatory-factors
#10
Yan-Wei Yang, Yun-Lu Wang, Jia-Kai Lu, Lei Tian, Mu Jin, Wei-Ping Cheng
The neuroprotective effect against spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats exerted by delayed xenon post-conditioning is stronger than that produced by immediate xenon post-conditioning. However, the mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. Activated microglia are the main inflammatory cell type in the nervous system. The release of pro-inflammatory factors following microglial activation can lead to spinal cord damage, and inhibition of microglial activation can relieve spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury...
March 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618972/an-inflammation-centric-view-of-neurological-disease-beyond-the-neuron
#11
REVIEW
Stephen D Skaper, Laura Facci, Morena Zusso, Pietro Giusti
Inflammation is a complex biological response fundamental to how the body deals with injury and infection to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury and effect repair. Unlike a normally beneficial acute inflammatory response, chronic inflammation can lead to tissue damage and ultimately its destruction, and often results from an inappropriate immune response. Inflammation in the nervous system ("neuroinflammation"), especially when prolonged, can be particularly injurious. While inflammation per se may not cause disease, it contributes importantly to disease pathogenesis across both the peripheral (neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia) and central [e...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616442/distribution-and-morphological-features-of-microglia-in-the-developing-cerebral-cortex-of-gyrencephalic-mammals
#12
Keishi Mizuguchi, Toshihide Horiike, Naoyuki Matsumoto, Yoshie Ichikawa, Yohei Shinmyo, Hiroshi Kawasaki
Microglia have been attracting much attention because of their fundamental importance in both the mature brain and the developing brain. Though important roles of microglia in the developing cerebral cortex of mice have been uncovered, their distribution and roles in the developing cerebral cortex in gyrencephalic higher mammals have remained elusive. Here we examined the distribution and morphology of microglia in the developing cerebral cortex of gyrencephalic carnivore ferrets. We found that a number of microglia were accumulated in the germinal zones (GZs), especially in the outer subventricular zone (OSVZ), which is a GZ found in higher mammals...
April 3, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615866/expression-pattern-of-the-aspartyl-trna-synthetase-dars-in-the-human-brain
#13
Dominik Fröhlich, Alexandra K Suchowerska, Carola Voss, Ruojie He, Ernst Wolvetang, Georg von Jonquieres, Cas Simons, Thomas Fath, Gary D Housley, Matthias Klugmann
Translation of mRNA into protein is an evolutionarily conserved, fundamental process of life. A prerequisite for translation is the accurate charging of tRNAs with their cognate amino acids, a reaction catalyzed by specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. One of these enzymes is the aspartyl-tRNA synthetase DARS, which pairs aspartate with its corresponding tRNA. Missense mutations of the gene encoding DARS result in the leukodystrophy hypomyelination with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and leg spasticity (HBSL) with a distinct pattern of hypomyelination, motor abnormalities, and cognitive impairment...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608930/atomoxetine-a-selective-norepinephrine-reuptake-inhibitor-improves-short-term-histological-outcomes-after-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-in-the-neonatal-male-rat
#14
Masatake Toshimitsu, Yoshimasa Kamei, Mari Ichinose, Takahiro Seyama, Shinya Imada, Takayuki Iriyama, Tomoyuki Fujii
BACKGROUND: Despite the recent progress of perinatal medicine, perinatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) insult remains an important cause of brain injury in neonates, and is pathologically characterized by neuronal loss and the presence of microglia. Neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine (NE) and glutamate, are involved in the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy via the interaction between neurons and microglia. Although it is well known that the monoamine neurotransmitter NE acts as an anti-inflammatory agent in the brain under pathological conditions, its effects on perinatal HI insult remains elusive...
March 30, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594972/a-pharmacological-rationale-to-reduce-the-incidence-of-opioid-induced-tolerance-and-hyperalgesia-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Giustino Varrassi, Mariella Fusco, Stephen D Skaper, Daniele Battelli, Panagiotis Zis, Stefano Coaccioli, Maria Caterina Pace, Antonella Paladini
Chronic pain is an important health and social problem. Misuse and abuse of opioids in chronic non-cancer pain management seem to be a huge problem, in some countries. This could probably affect the normal use of such analgesics in patients in need of them. Basic and clinical researches should find the solution to mitigate the potential damage. Dysregulation of mast cell and microglia activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis and management of chronic pain. Persistent mast cell activation sensitizes nociceptors and initiates central nervous system inflammatory processes, involving microglial cell activation and sensitization of spinal somatosensory neurons...
March 28, 2018: Pain and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593636/combined-treatment-with-dichloroacetic-acid-and-pyruvate-reduces-hippocampal-neuronal-death-after-transient-cerebral-ischemia
#16
Dae Ki Hong, A Ra Kho, Bo Young Choi, Song Hee Lee, Jeong Hyun Jeong, Sang Hwon Lee, Kyoung-Ha Park, Jae-Bong Park, Sang Won Suh
Transient cerebral ischemia (TCI) occurs when blood flow to the brain is ceased or dramatically reduced. TCI causes energy depletion and oxidative stress, which leads to neuronal death and cognitive impairment. Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) acts as an inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK). Additionally, DCA is known to increase mitochondrial pyruvate uptake and promotes glucose oxidation during glycolysis, thus enhancing pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity. In this study, we investigated whether the inhibition of PDK activity by DCA, which increases the rate of pyruvate conversion to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), prevents ischemia-induced neuronal death...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587798/inhibition-of-peripheral-macrophages-by-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-agonists-suppresses-spinal-microglial-activation-and-neuropathic-pain-in-mice-with-peripheral-nerve-injury
#17
Norikazu Kiguchi, Daichi Kobayashi, Fumihiro Saika, Shinsuke Matsuzaki, Shiroh Kishioka
BACKGROUND: Neuro-immune interaction underlies chronic neuroinflammation and aberrant sensory processing resulting in neuropathic pain. Despite the pathological significance of both neuroinflammation-driven peripheral sensitization and spinal sensitization, the functional relationship between these two distinct events has not been understood. METHODS: In this study, we determined whether inhibition of inflammatory macrophages by administration of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists improves neuropathic pain and affects microglial activation in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) in mice following partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSL)...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579271/interleukin-34-is-present-at-the-fetal-maternal-interface-and-induces-immunoregulatory-macrophages-of-a-decidual-phenotype-in-vitro
#18
R Lindau, R B Mehta, G E Lash, G Papapavlou, R Boij, G Berg, M C Jenmalm, J Ernerudh, J Svensson-Arvelund
STUDY QUESTION: Is the newly discovered cytokine interleukin (IL)-34 expressed at the human fetal-maternal interface in order to influence polarization of monocytes into macrophages of a decidual immunoregulatory phenotype? SUMMARY ANSWER: IL-34 was found to be present at the fetal-maternal interface, in both fetal placenta and maternal decidua, and it was able to polarize monocytes into macrophages of a decidual phenotype. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: IL-34 was shown to bind to the same receptor as macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), which has an important immunomodulatory role at the fetal-maternal interface, for example by polarizing decidual macrophages to an M2-like regulatory phenotype...
April 1, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578519/isolation-and-culture-of-rodent-microglia-to-promote-a-dynamic-ramified-morphology-in-serum-free-medium
#19
Hannah Y Collins, Christopher J Bohlen
Microglia represent 5 - 10% of all central nervous system (CNS) cells and are increasingly drawing attention due to their contributions during development, homeostasis, and disease. Although macrophages have been studied in detail for decades, specialized features of microglia, the tissue-resident macrophages of the CNS, have remained largely mysterious, in part due to limitations in the ability to recapitulate mature microglial properties in culture. Here, we illustrate a straightforward procedure for the rapid isolation of pure microglia from the mature rodent brain...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577903/hypertonic-saline-regulates-microglial-m2-polarization-via-mir-200b-klf4-in-cerebral-edema-treatment
#20
Miaoyun Wen, Jingkun Ye, Yongli Han, Linqiang Huang, Hui Yang, Wenqiang Jiang, Shenglong Chen, Wenhong Zhong, Hongke Zeng, Daniel Y Li
BACKGROUND: Hypertonic saline (HS) has been used clinically for treatment of cerebral edema for decades. Previously we have demonstrated that HS alleviates cerebral edema via regulating water/ion channel protein and attenuating neuroinflammation. However, whether HS treatment triggers microglia polarization and its regulatory mechanism during this process is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats that underwent right-sided middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) were used for assessment of neuroinflammation and microglia functions...
March 26, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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