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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716092/the-role-of-microglial-p2x7-modulation-of-cell-death-and-cytokine-release
#1
Yingbo He, Natalie Taylor, Lawrence Fourgeaud, Anindya Bhattacharya
BACKGROUND: ATP-gated P2X7 is a non-selective cation channel, which participates in a wide range of cellular functions as well as pathophysiological processes including neuropathic pain, immune response, and neuroinflammation. Despite its abundant expression in microglia, the role of P2X7 in neuroinflammation still remains unclear. METHODS: Primary microglia were isolated from cortices of P0-2 C57BL/6 wild-type or P2X7 knockout (P2X7(-/-)) mouse pups. Lipopolysaccharide, lipopolysaccharide plus IFNγ, or IL4 plus IL13 were used to polarize microglia to pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory states...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713617/age-related-change-of-iba-1-immunoreactivity-in-the-adult-and-aged-gerbil-spinal-cord
#2
Kwon Young Lee, Joo Yeon Kang, Jung Im Yun, Jin Young Chung, In Koo Hwang, Moo Ho Won, Jung Hoon Choi
In the present study, we examined change of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1) in the adult and aged gerbil spinal cords. Significant change of morphological feature and neuronal cell loss were not observed in both adult and aged spinal cords of gerbil after NeuN immunohistochemistry and Fluoro-Jade B histofluoresce staining. Iba-1-immunoreactive microglia broadly distributed in the spinal cord. Most of Iba-1-immunoreactive microglia showed ramified forms in the adult gerbil cervical and lumbar spinal cords...
June 2017: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713239/increased-white-matter-inflammation-in-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease-brain
#3
Divya Raj, Zhuoran Yin, Marjolein Breur, Janine Doorduin, Inge R Holtman, Marta Olah, Ietje J Mantingh-Otter, Debby Van Dam, Peter P De Deyn, Wilfred den Dunnen, Bart J L Eggen, Sandra Amor, Erik Boddeke
Chronic neuroinflammation, which is primarily mediated by microglia, plays an essential role in aging and neurodegeneration. It is still unclear whether this microglia-induced neuroinflammation occurs globally or is confined to distinct brain regions. In this study, we investigated microglia activity in various brain regions upon healthy aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related pathology in both human and mouse samples. In purified microglia isolated from aging mouse brains, we found a profound gene expression pattern related to pro-inflammatory processes, phagocytosis, and lipid homeostasis...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711717/phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinase-%C3%AE-contributes-to-toll-like-receptor-2-mediated-immune-responses-in-microglial-cells-stimulated-with-lipoteichoic-acid
#4
Tu Thi Ngoc Nguyen, Eunjeong Seo, Juyong Choi, Oanh Thi Tu Le, Ji Yun Kim, Ilo Jou, Sang Yoon Lee
Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is an important lipid regulator of membrane signaling and remodeling processes. Accumulating evidence indicates a link between PIP2 metabolism and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, a key transducer of immune responses such as inflammation, phagocytosis, and autophagy. Microglia are immune effector cells that serve as macrophages in the brain. Here, we examined the potential role of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase α (PIP5Kα), a PIP2-producing enzyme, in TLR2 signaling in microglial cells...
July 12, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711599/arachidonic-acid-sex-dependently-affects-obesity-through-linking-gut-microbiota-driven-inflammation-to-hypothalamus-adipose-liver-axis
#5
Pan Zhuang, Qiyang Shou, Yanhua Lu, Guangfa Wang, Jieni Qiu, Jun Wang, Lilin He, Jingnan Chen, Jingjing Jiao, Yu Zhang
Unraveling the role of dietary lipids is beneficial to treat obesity and metabolic dysfunction. Nonetheless, how dietary lipids affect existing obesity remains unknown. Arachidonic acid (AA), a derivative of linoleic acid, is one of the crucial n-6 fatty acids. The aim of this study was to investigate whether AA affects obesity through associating microbiota-driven inflammation with hypothalamus-adipose-liver axis. Four-week old C57BL/6J mice were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD, 45% fat) for 10 weeks to induce obesity, and then fed a HFD enriched with 10 g/kg of AA or a continuous HFD in the following 15 weeks...
July 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705495/glial-associated-changes-in-the-cerebral-cortex-after-collagenase-induced-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-the-rat-striatum
#6
J D Neves, D Aristimunha, A F Vizuete, F Nicola, C Vanzela, L Petenuzzo, R G Mestriner, E F Sanches, C A Gonçalves, C A Netto
Striatum and the cerebral cortex are regions susceptible to secondary injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and glial cells in tissue adjacent to the hematoma may modulate cellular vulnerability after brain damage. Nonetheless, while the glial- associated changes occurring in the cerebral cortex after ICH may be important in maximizing brain recovery, they are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the temporal profile of glial-associated changes in the cerebral cortex after ICH. First, the motor consequences of ICH and its relation to the lesion volume were analyzed...
July 10, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702713/the-role-of-the-oligodendrocyte-lineage-in-acute-brain-trauma
#7
Anja Scheller, Xianshu Bai, Frank Kirchhoff
An acute brain injury is commonly characterized by an extended cellular damage. The post-injury process of scar formation is largely determined by responses of various local glial cells and blood-derived immune cells. The role of astrocytes and microglia have been frequently reviewed in the traumatic sequelae. Here, we summarize the diverse contributions of oligodendrocytes (OLs) and their precursor cells (OPCs) in acute injuries. OLs at the lesion site are highly sensitive to a damaging insult, provoked by Ca(2+) overload after hyperexcitation originating from increased levels of transmitters...
July 12, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699057/the-role-of-lipid-bodies-in-the-microglial-aging-process-and-related-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Xirong Hu, Benhong Xu, Wei Ge
Lipid bodies (LBs) have long been considered to be organelles merely for the storage of neutral lipids. However, recent studies have shown the significance of LBs in signal transduction, especially in glial cells, including microglia. Microglial cells are the resident mononuclear phagocytes in the central nervous system and have a close relationship with the aging process and neurodegenerative diseases. Evidence suggests that LBs accumulate and are remodeled during the aging process and the development of neuroinflammatory conditions...
July 11, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696010/myelin-as-an-inflammatory-mediator-myelin-interactions-with-complement-macrophages-and-microglia-in-spinal-cord-injury
#9
REVIEW
Timothy J Kopper, John C Gensel
Spinal cord injury (SCI) triggers chronic intraspinal inflammation consisting of activated resident and infiltrating immune cells (especially microglia/macrophages). The environmental factors contributing to this protracted inflammation are not well understood; however, myelin lipid debris is a hallmark of SCI. Myelin is also a potent macrophage stimulus and target of complement-mediated clearance and inflammation. The downstream effects of these neuroimmune interactions have the potential to contribute to ongoing pathology or facilitate repair...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691472/neuroinflammation-alzheimer%C3%A2-s-disease-and-periodontal-disease-is-there-an-association-between-the-two-processes
#10
F J Silvestre, D Lauritano, F Carinci, J Silvestre-Rangil, M Martinez-Herrera, A Del Olmo
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a very common cause of dementia in developed countries and increases its prevalence progressively with age. AD etiopathogenesis is not yet understood. However, it is recognized that neuroinflammation plays a key role in its pathogenesis with the activation of microglia and the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines triggering irreversible neurodegenerative deterioration. This paper is a short review of the relationship between AD and periodontal disease (PD). Both processes may have common causes: both are inflammatory diseases and the prevalence and progression increases with ageing...
April 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690540/the-role-of-microglia-in-prion-diseases-a-paradigm-of-functional-diversity
#11
REVIEW
Juliane Obst, Emilie Simon, Renzo Mancuso, Diego Gomez-Nicola
Inflammation is a major component of neurodegenerative diseases. Microglia are the innate immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS). In the healthy brain, microglia contribute to tissue homeostasis and regulation of synaptic plasticity. Under disease conditions, they play a key role in the development and maintenance of the neuroinflammatory response, by showing enhanced proliferation and activation. Prion diseases are progressive chronic neurodegenerative disorders associated with the accumulation of the scrapie prion protein PrP(Sc), a misfolded conformer of the cellular prion protein PrP(C)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687236/sevoflurane-suppresses-microglial-m2-polarization
#12
Zengyang Pei, Shenghao Wang, Qi Li
Microglia can be polarized into the classical (M1) or alternative (M2) activation states in response to various stimuli. The M2 phenotype has its own set of receptor profiles, cytokine production, and chemokine secretion, of which arginase 1 (Arg1), chitinase 3-like 3 (Chi3l3, Ym1), and IL-10 have neuroprotective properties. Sevoflurane is one of the most commonly used volatile anesthetics in clinics. Previous studies have shown that sevoflurane promotes microglial M1 activation. However, it remains unclear whether sevoflurane regulates microglial M2 activation...
July 4, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684245/assessment-of-neuroinflammation-in-patients-with-idiopathic-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behaviour-disorder-a-case-control-study
#13
Morten Gersel Stokholm, Alex Iranzo, Karen Østergaard, Mónica Serradell, Marit Otto, Kristina Bacher Svendsen, Alicia Garrido, Dolores Vilas, Per Borghammer, Joan Santamaria, Arne Møller, Carles Gaig, David J Brooks, Eduardo Tolosa, Nicola Pavese
BACKGROUND: Findings from longitudinal follow-up studies in patients with idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behaviour disorder (IRBD) have shown that most patients will eventually develop the synucleinopathies Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, or multiple system atrophy. Neuroinflammation in the form of microglial activation is present in synucleinopathies and is a potential therapeutic target to halt or delay the neurodegenerative process. We aimed to investigate whether neuroinflammation is present in patients with IRBD and its possible relation to nigrostriatal dopamine function...
July 3, 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681199/beneficial-effects-of-liraglutide-glp1-analog-in-the-hippocampal-inflammation
#14
Andre R C Barreto-Vianna, Marcia B Aguila, Carlos A Mandarim-de-Lacerda
The brain is very sensitive to metabolic dysfunctions induced by diets high in saturated fatty acids, leading to neuroinflammation. The liraglutide has been found to have neuroprotective effects. However, its neuroprotective action in a model of palmitate-induced neuroinflammation had not yet been evaluated. Mice were intracerebroventricular (ICV) infused with palmitate and received subcutaneous liraglutide. The hippocampal dentate gyrus and CA1 regions were analyzed (morphology and inflammation-related proteins in microglia and astrocyte by confocal microscopy)...
July 5, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677497/platelets-their-potential-contribution-to-the-generation-of-beta-amyloid-plaques-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Christian Humpel
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is a severe neurodegenerative brain disorder, showing severe beta-amyloid depositions in the brain (plaques) and in vessels (cerebral amyloid angiopathy, CAA), tau pathology, neurodegeneration (and loss of acetylcholine), inflammation with reactive astrocytes and microglia and cerebrovascular damage, all resulting in memory loss. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this review I present a hypothesis that chronic vascular lesions and bleedings cause platelet overactivation and repair...
July 5, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677369/propofol-attenuates-intermittent-hypoxia-induced-up-regulation-of-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-microglia-through-inhibiting-the-activation-of-nf-b%C3%AE%C2%BA-p38-mapk-signalling
#16
Song Liu, Jin-Yuan Sun, Lian-Ping Ren, Kui Chen, Bo Xu
<i>As immune sentinels of the central nervous system (CNS), microglia is pivotal cellular mediator of neuroinflammatory processes. Activation of microglia might elicit the expression of proinflammatory cytokines involved in the progression of neuroinflammatory diseases. Numerous studies have demonstrated that propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) has an effective anti-inflammatory property. Intermittent hypoxia (IH), as a result of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), could lead to neuron damage and neuroinflammation in the CNS...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674490/what-the-spectrum-of-microglial-functions-can-teach-us-about-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#17
REVIEW
Elissa L Wong, Rianne D Stowell, Ania K Majewska
Alcohol exposure during gestation can lead to severe defects in brain development and lifelong physical, behavioral and learning deficits that are classified under the umbrella term fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Sadly, FASD is diagnosed at an alarmingly high rate, affecting 2%-5% of live births in the United States, making it the most common non-heritable cause of mental disability. Currently, no standard therapies exist that are effective at battling FASD symptoms, highlighting a pressing need to better understand the underlying mechanisms by which alcohol affects the developing brain...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670569/molecular-and-microenvironmental-determinants-of-glioma-stem-like-cell-survival-and-invasion
#18
REVIEW
Alison Roos, Zonghui Ding, Joseph C Loftus, Nhan L Tran
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequent primary brain tumor in adults with a 5-year survival rate of 5% despite intensive research efforts. The poor prognosis is due, in part, to aggressive invasion into the surrounding brain parenchyma. Invasion is a complex process mediated by cell-intrinsic pathways, extrinsic microenvironmental cues, and biophysical cues from the peritumoral stromal matrix. Recent data have attributed GBM invasion to the glioma stem-like cell (GSC) subpopulation. GSCs are slowly dividing, highly invasive, therapy resistant, and are considered to give rise to tumor recurrence...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670274/differentially-severe-cognitive-effects-of-compromised-cerebral-blood-flow-in-aged-mice-association-with-myelin-degradation-and-microglia-activation
#19
Gilly Wolf, Amit Lotan, Tzuri Lifschytz, Hagar Ben-Ari, Tirzah Kreisel Merzel, Pavel Tatarskyy, Michael Valitzky, Ben Mernick, Elad Avidan, Nickolay Koroukhov, Bernard Lerer
Bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) models the effects of compromised cerebral blood flow on brain structure and function in mice. We compared the effects of BCAS in aged (21 month) and young adult (3 month) female mice, anticipating a differentially more severe effect in the older mice. Four weeks after surgery there was a significant age by time by treatment interaction on the radial-arm water maze (RAWM; p = 0.014): on the first day of the test, latencies of old mice were longer compared to the latencies of young adult mice, independent of BCAS...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669260/andrographolide-attenuates-microglia-mediated-a%C3%AE-neurotoxicity-partially-through-inhibiting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-jnk-mapk-signaling-pathway
#20
Rui Yang, Sha Liu, Jia Zhou, Shuhong Bu, Jian Zhang
Neuroinflammation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Microglial cells after activated play critical roles in development of neuroinflammation, and may accelerate the progression of AD. Andrographolide (ANDRO), a potent naturally extracted substance, has been demonstrated to exert suppressive effects on LPS-induced inflammation by modulating macrophage and microglia overactivation. Whereas in AD, β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides have been considered as a potent activator of neuroinflammation, the effect of ANDRO on Aβ-induced neuroinflammation has not been examined...
July 3, 2017: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
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