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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929190/salt-inducible-kinase-1-sik1-is-induced-by-alcohol-and-suppresses-microglia-inflammation-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#1
Yu Zhang, Weida Gao, Kongbin Yang, Haiquan Tao, Haicheng Yang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Alcohol consumption has been shown to cause neuroinflammation and increase a variety of immune-related signaling processes. Microglia are a crucial part of alcohol-induced neuroinflammation and undergo apoptosis. Even though the importance of these inflammatory processes in the effects of alcohol-related neurodegeneration have been established, the mechanism of alcohol-induced microglia apoptosis is unknown. In prior research, we discovered that alcohol increases expression of salt-inducible kinase 1 (SIK1) in rodent brain tissue...
June 19, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928951/higher-serum-levels-of-pro-hepcidin-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-treated-with-deep-brain-stimulation
#2
J Kwiatek-Majkusiak, M Geremek, D Koziorowski, R Tomasiuk, S Szlufik, A Friedman
Hepcidin is an essential hormone responsible for the systemic metabolism of iron and simultaneously belongs to the family of the protein mediators of the acute inflammatory response, primarily induced in response to interleukin 6. It can therefore be regarded as a link between the oxidative stress processes, where iron plays an important role, and the processes of neuroinflammation - both considered to be responsible for the neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. We assessed the serum level of pro-hepcidin in patients with Parkinson's disease treated only pharmacologically and those treated additionally with deep brain stimulation (DBS) as compared to the control group...
June 18, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927067/quantifying-microglial-phagocytosis-of-apoptotic-cells-in-the-brain-in-health-and-disease
#3
Sol Beccari, Irune Diaz-Aparicio, Amanda Sierra
Apoptosis is a ubiquitous process occurring in the brain under both physiological and pathological conditions. The central nervous system (CNS) requires an active and efficient clean-up system to prevent the spillover of intracellular contents into the surrounding parenchyma and suppress the initiation of inflammatory and immune responses. Microglia, the resident professional phagocytes of the brain, are the cells in charge of the removal of these dead cells by the process named phagocytosis. Therefore, microglial phagocytosis is a vital mechanism to maintain tissue homeostasis...
May 24, 2018: Current Protocols in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925848/human-igm-antibody-rhigm22-promotes-phagocytic-clearance-of-myelin-debris-by-microglia
#4
Yana Zorina, Jason Stricker, Anthony O Caggiano, Donald C Button
In multiple sclerosis (MS), demyelinated CNS lesions fail to sufficiently remyelinate, despite the presence of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) capable of differentiating into mature oligodendrocytes. MS lesions contain damaged myelin debris that can inhibit OPC maturation and hinder repair. rHIgM22 is an experimental human recombinant IgM antibody that promotes remyelination in animal models and is being examined in patients with MS. rHIgM22 binds to CNS myelin and partially rescues OPC process outgrowth on myelin...
June 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923617/cd93-regulates-cns-inflammation-in-two-mouse-models-of-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#5
Mark R Griffiths, Marina Botto, B Paul Morgan, J W Neal, P Gasque
Microglia and non-professional immune cells (endothelial cells, neurons) participate in the recognition and removal of pathogens and tissue-debris in the injured CNS through major pro-inflammatory processes. However, the mechanisms involved in regulating these responses remain ill-characterised. We herein show that CD93 also known as complement C1qRp/AA4 stem cell marker has an important role in the regulation of inflammatory processes. The role of CD93 was evaluated in two models of neuroinflammation. We used the MOG-experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model and the antibody-dependent EAE (ADEAE) which were induced in wild type and CD93 knockout mice...
June 20, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923090/evaluation-of-disease-lesions-in-the-developing-canine-mps-iiia-brain
#6
Leanne K Winner, Neil R Marshall, Robert D Jolly, Paul J Trim, Stephen K Duplock, Marten F Snel, Kim M Hemsley
Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA (MPS IIIA) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease of childhood that results in early death. Post-mortem studies have been carried out on human MPS IIIA brain, but little is known about early disease development. Here, we utilised the Huntaway dog model of MPS IIIA to evaluate disease lesion development from 2 to 24 weeks of age. A significant elevation in primarily stored heparan sulphate was observed in all brain regions assessed in MPS IIIA pups ≤9.5 weeks of age. There was a significant elevation in secondarily stored ganglioside (GM3 36:1) in ≤9...
June 20, 2018: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922276/a-brief-history-of-microglial-ultrastructure-distinctive-features-phenotypes-and-functions-discovered-over-the-past-60-years-by-electron-microscopy
#7
REVIEW
Julie C Savage, Katherine Picard, Fernando González-Ibáñez, Marie-Ève Tremblay
The first electron microscope was constructed in 1931. Several decades later, techniques were developed to allow the first ultrastructural analysis of microglia by transmission electron microscopy (EM). In the 50 years that followed, important roles of microglia have been identified, specifically due to the ultrastructural resolution currently available only with EM. In particular, the addition of electron-dense staining using immunohistochemical EM methods has allowed the identification of microglial cell bodies, as well as processes, which are difficult to recognize in EM, and to uncover their complex interactions with neurons and synapses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913704/cathepsin-s-is-increased-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-from-patients-with-neuropathic-pain-a-support-of-the-microglia-hypothesis-in-humans
#8
Torsten Gordh, Anne-Li Lind, Constantin Bodolea, Ellen Hewitt, Anders Larsson
Aims Cathepsin S has been reported to be a biomarker of spinal microglial activation, a process suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of chronic neuropathic pain. So far this has been shown only in animal experiments. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of cathepsin S in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from a well-defined patient cohort suffering from neuropathic pain as compared to controls. Methods CSF samples from patients suffering from chronic neuropathic pain (n = 14) were analyzed for cathepsin S levels using commercial sandwich ELISAs (DY1183, R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN, USA)...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907159/jnk-mediated-microglial-dicer-degradation-potentiates-inflammatory-responses-to-induce-dopaminergic-neuron-loss
#9
Qing Wang, Qian He, Yifei Chen, Wei Shao, Chao Yuan, Yizheng Wang
BACKGROUND: Amplified inflammation is important for the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, how this enhanced inflammation is regulated remains largely unknown. Deletion of DICER leads to progressive dopamine neuronal loss and induces gliosis. We hypothesized that the homeostasis of microglial DICER would be responsible for the amplified inflammation in the mouse model of PD. METHODS: The microglia or C57BL/6 mice were treated or injected with l-methyl-4-phenyl-l,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+ ), respectively, for the model establishment...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903027/laquinimod-protects-the-optic-nerve-and-retina-in-an-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-model
#10
Anna T Wilmes, Sabrina Reinehr, Sandra Kühn, Xiomara Pedreiturria, Laura Petrikowski, Simon Faissner, Ilya Ayzenberg, Gesa Stute, Ralf Gold, H Burkhard Dick, Ingo Kleiter, Stephanie C Joachim
BACKGROUND: The oral immunomodulatory agent laquinimod is currently evaluated for multiple sclerosis (MS) treatment. Phase II and III studies demonstrated a reduction of degenerative processes. In addition to anti-inflammatory effects, laquinimod might have neuroprotective properties, but its impact on the visual system, which is often affected by MS, is unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate potential protective effects of laquinimod on the optic nerve and retina in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902504/a-single-exposure-to-gsm-1800mhz-signals-in-the-course-of-an-acute-neuroinflammatory-reaction-can-alter-neuronal-responses-and-microglial-morphology-in-the-rat-primary-auditory-cortex
#11
Florian Occelli, Julie Lameth, Victor Adenis, Chloé Huetz, Philippe Lévêque, Thérèse M Jay, Jean-Marc Edeline, Michel Mallat
During mobile phone conversations, the temporal lobe neural networks involved in processing auditory information are exposed to electromagnetic fields such as pulse modulated GSM-1800MHz radiofrequencies that convey wireless communications. The effects of these electromagnetic fields on the brain affected by a pathological condition remain little investigated. In this study, rats injected with lipopolysaccharide to induce neuroinflammation were exposed "head-only" to GSM-1800MHz signals for two hours at a specific absorption rate (SAR) that reached an average value of 1...
June 11, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899084/pharmacologic-depletion-of-microglia-increases-viral-load-in-the-brain-and-enhances-mortality-in-murine-models-of-flavivirus-induced-encephalitis
#12
Scott Seitz, Penny Clarke, Kenneth L Tyler
Flaviviruses account for most arthropod-borne cases of human encephalitis in the world. However the exact mechanisms of injury to the central nervous system (CNS) during Flavivirus infections remain poorly understood. Microglia are the resident immune cell of the CNS and are important for multiple functions, including control of viral pathogenesis. Utilizing a pharmacologic method of microglia depletion (PLX5622, Plexxikon Inc, an inhibitor of colony stimulating factor 1 receptor) we sought to determine the role of microglia in Flaviviral pathogenesis...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896414/temporal-gene-expression-profiles-after-focal-cerebral-ischemia-in-mice
#13
Chengjie Zhang, Yanbing Zhu, Song Wang, Zheng Zachory Wei, Michael Qize Jiang, Yongbo Zhang, Yuhualei Pan, Shaoxin Tao, Jimei Li, Ling Wei
A cascade of pathological processes is triggered in the lesion area after ischemic stroke. Unfortunately, our understanding of these complicated molecular events is incomplete. In this investigation, we sought to better understand the detailed molecular and inflammatory events occurring after ischemic stroke. RNA-seq technology was used to identify whole gene expression profiles at days (D1, D3, D7, D14, D21) after focal cerebral ischemia in mice. Enrichment analyses based on Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) terms for the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were then analyzed...
April 2018: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895691/caspase-1-inhibition-prevents-glial-inflammasome-activation-and-pyroptosis-in-models-of-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Brienne A McKenzie, Manmeet K Mamik, Leina B Saito, Roobina Boghozian, Maria Chiara Monaco, Eugene O Major, Jian-Qiang Lu, William G Branton, Christopher Power
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS of unknown cause that remains incurable. Inflammasome-associated caspases mediate the maturation and release of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 and activate the pore-forming protein gasdermin D (GSDMD). Inflammatory programmed cell death, pyroptosis, was recently shown to be mediated by GSDMD. Here, we report molecular evidence for GSDMD-mediated inflammasome activation and pyroptosis in both myeloid cells (macrophages/microglia) and, unexpectedly, in myelin-forming oligodendrocytes (ODCs) in the CNS of patients with MS and in the MS animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)...
June 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893815/obesity-in-aging-exacerbates-neuroinflammation-dysregulating-synaptic-function-related-genes-and-altering-eicosanoid-synthesis-in-the-mouse-hippocampus-potential-role-in-impaired-synaptic-plasticity-and-cognitive-decline
#15
Marta Noa Valcarcel-Ares, Zsuzsanna Tucsek, Tamas Kiss, Cory B Giles, Stefano Tarantini, Andriy Yabluchanskiy, Priya Balasubramanian, Tripti Gautam, Veronica Galvan, Praveen Ballabh, Arlan Richardson, Willard M Freeman, Jonathan D Wren, Ferenc Deak, Zoltan Ungvari, Anna Csiszar
There is strong evidence that obesity has deleterious effects on cognitive function of older adults. Previous preclinical studies demonstrate that obesity in aging is associated with a heightened state of systemic inflammation, which exacerbates blood brain barrier disruption, promoting neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. To test the hypothesis that synergistic effects of obesity and aging on inflammatory processes exert deleterious effects on hippocampal function, young and aged C57BL/6 mice were rendered obese by chronic feeding of a high fat diet followed by assessment of learning and memory function, measurement of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), assessment of changes in hippocampal expression of genes relevant for synaptic function and determination of synaptic density...
June 8, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888303/chronic-social-stress-induces-peripheral-and-central-immune-activation-blunted-mesolimbic-dopamine-function-and-reduced-reward-directed-behaviour-in-mice
#16
Giorgio Bergamini, Jonas Mechtersheimer, Damiano Azzinnari, Hannes Sigrist, Michaela Buerge, Robert Dallmann, Robert Freije, Afroditi Kouraki, Jolanta Opacka-Juffry, Erich Seifritz, Boris Ferger, Tobias Suter, Christopher R Pryce
Psychosocial stress is a major risk factor for depression, stress leads to peripheral and central immune activation, immune activation is associated with blunted dopamine (DA) neural function, DA function underlies reward interest, and reduced reward interest is a core symptom of depression. These states might be inter-independent in a complex causal pathway. Whilst animal-model evidence exists for some specific steps in the pathway, there is currently no animal model in which it has been demonstrated that social stress leads to each of these immune, neural and behavioural states...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885660/necrotizing-enterocolitis-is-associated-with-acute-brain-responses-in-preterm-pigs
#17
Jing Sun, Xiaoyu Pan, Line I Christiansen, Xiao-Long Yuan, Kerstin Skovgaard, Dereck E W Chatterton, Sanne S Kaalund, Fei Gao, Per T Sangild, Stanislava Pankratova
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an acute gut inflammatory disorder that occurs in preterm infants in the first weeks after birth. Infants surviving NEC often show impaired neurodevelopment. The mechanisms linking NEC lesions with later neurodevelopment are poorly understood but may include proinflammatory signaling in the immature brain. Using preterm pigs as a model for preterm infants, we hypothesized that severe intestinal NEC lesions are associated with acute effects on the developing hippocampus...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881804/mice-lacking-l-12-15-lipoxygenase-show-increased-mortality-during-kindling-despite-demonstrating-resistance-to-epileptogenesis
#18
Matthew A Kanzler, Adam M Van Dyke, Yan He, James A Hewett, Sandra J Hewett
Objective: Studies have addressed the potential involvement of L-12/15-lipoxygenases (LOs), a polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolizing enzyme, in experimental models of acute stroke and chronic neurodegeneration; however, none to our knowledge has explored its role in epilepsy development. Thus, this study characterizes the cell-specific expression of L-12/15 -LO in the brain and examines its contribution to epileptogenesis. Methods: L-12/15-LO messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression and activity were characterized via polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunocytochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively...
June 2018: Epilepsia Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880901/inflammation-neurodegeneration-and-protein-aggregation-in-the-retina-as-ocular-biomarkers-for-alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-3xtg-ad-mouse-model
#19
Alfonso Grimaldi, Carlo Brighi, Giovanna Peruzzi, Davide Ragozzino, Valentina Bonanni, Cristina Limatola, Giancarlo Ruocco, Silvia Di Angelantonio
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. In the pathogenesis of AD a pivotal role is played by two neurotoxic proteins that aggregate and accumulate in the central nervous system: amyloid beta and hyper-phosphorylated tau. Accumulation of extracellular amyloid beta plaques and intracellular hyper-phosphorylated tau tangles, and consequent neuronal loss begins 10-15 years before any cognitive impairment. In addition to cognitive and behavioral deficits, sensorial abnormalities have been described in AD patients and in some AD transgenic mouse models...
June 7, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879442/dietary-omega-3-deficiency-exacerbates-inflammation-and-reveals-spatial-memory-deficits-in-mice-exposed-to-lipopolysaccharide-during-gestation
#20
V F Labrousse, Q Leyrolle, C Amadieu, A Aubert, A Sere, E Coutureau, S Grégoire, L Bretillon, V Pallet, P Gressens, C Joffre, A Nadjar, S Layé
Maternal immune activation (MIA) is a common environmental insult on the developing brain and represents a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders. Animal models of in utero inflammation further revealed a causal link between maternal inflammatory activation during pregnancy and behavioural impairment relevant to neurodevelopmental disorders in the offspring. Accumulating evidence point out that proinflammatory cytokines produced both in the maternal and fetal compartments are responsible for social, cognitive and emotional behavioral deficits in the offspring...
June 4, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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