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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902113/bias-reduction-and-metric-learning-for-nearest-neighbor-estimation-of-kullback-leibler-divergence
#1
Yung-Kyun Noh, Masashi Sugiyama, Song Liu, Marthinus C du Plessis, Frank Chongwoo Park, Daniel D Lee
Nearest-neighbor estimators for the Kullback-Leiber (KL) divergence that are asymptotically unbiased have recently been proposed and demonstrated in a number of applications. However, with a small number of samples, nonparametric methods typically suffer from large estimation bias due to the nonlocality of information derived from nearest-neighbor statistics. In this letter, we show that this estimation bias can be mitigated by modifying the metric function, and we propose a novel method for learning a locally optimal Mahalanobis distance function from parametric generative models of the underlying density distributions...
June 14, 2018: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890178/review-and-meta-analysis-of-genetic-polymorphisms-associated-with-exceptional-human-longevity
#2
REVIEW
Mary Revelas, Anbupalam Thalamuthu, Christopher Oldmeadow, Tiffany-Jane Evans, Nicola J Armstrong, John B Kwok, Henry Brodaty, Peter R Schofield, Rodney J Scott, Perminder S Sachdev, John R Attia, Karen A Mather
BACKGROUND: Many factors contribute to exceptional longevity, with genetics playing a significant role. However, to date, genetic studies examining exceptional longevity have been inconclusive. This comprehensive review seeks to determine the genetic variants associated with exceptional longevity by undertaking meta-analyses. METHODS: Meta-analyses of genetic polymorphisms previously associated with exceptional longevity (85+) were undertaken. For each variant, meta-analyses were performed if there were data from at least three independent studies available, including two unpublished additional cohorts...
June 8, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886881/limited-use-of-surgeon-s-advice-on-exercise-for-knee-osteoarthritis
#3
Sofie Ryaa, Lina H Ingelsrud, Søren T Skou, Ewa M Roos, Anders Troelsen
INTRODUCTION: The Good Life with osteoArthritis in Denmark (GLA:D) programme consists of patient education and supervised exercise therapy and adheres to clinical guidelines for knee osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of this study was to present the treatment choice and clinical results of patients who were advised to participate in GLA:D before deciding on undergoing knee replacement. METHODS: Patient records from all patients with knee OA consulting one orthopaedic surgeon in 2015 were reviewed to identify those who were advised to seek GLA:D...
June 2018: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884183/klotho-negatively-regulated-aerobic-glycolysis-in-colorectal-cancer-via-erk-hif1%C3%AE-axis
#4
Qingguo Li, Yaqi Li, Lei Liang, Jing Li, Dakui Luo, Qi Liu, Sanjun Cai, Xinxiang Li
BACKGROUND: Klotho (KL) was originally characterized as an aging suppressor gene, and has been identified as a tumor suppressor gene in a variety of cancers, including colorectal cancer. Recent years have witnessed the importance of metabolism transformation in cancer cell malignancies maintenance. Aberrant cancer cell metabolism is considered to be the hallmark of cancer. Our previous studies demonstrated that KL played negative roles in colon cancer cell proliferation and metastasis...
June 8, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880976/a-molecular-line-study-of-the-interstellar-bullet-engine-iras05506-2414
#5
Raghvendra Sahai, Chin-Fei Lee, Carmen Sánchez Contreras, Nimesh Patel, Mark R Morris, Mark Claussen
We present interferometric and single-dish molecular line observations of the interstellar bullet-outflow source IRAS05506+2414, whose wide-angle bullet spray is similar to the Orion BN/KL explosive outflow and likely arises from an entirely different mechanism than the classical accretion-disk-driven bipolar flows in young stellar objects. The bullet-outflow source is associated with a large pseudo-disk and three molecular outflows - a high-velocity outflow (HVO), a medium-velocity outflow (MVO), and a slow, extended outflow (SEO)...
November 28, 2017: Astrophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880063/h-1-antihistamines-are-associated-with-lower-prevalence-of-radiographic-knee-osteoarthritis-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-the-osteoarthritis-initiative-data
#6
Ivan Shirinsky, Valery Shirinsky
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that mast cells (MCs) play a role in knee osteoarthritis (OA). H1 -antihistamines block H1 -receptors of histamine, which is an important mediator of MCs. There is a lack of data on whether H1 -antihistamines can influence OA. We hypothesized that the use of H1 -antihistamines may be linked to the reduced prevalence of knee OA. METHODS: Baseline data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative cohort were analysed cross-sectionally. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were performed to compare the prevalence of knee OA in H1 -antihistamine users and non-users...
June 7, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872358/clean-colorectum-at-diagnostic-colonoscopy-subsequent-detection-of-extracolonic-malignancies-by-plasma-protein-biomarkers
#7
Michael Wilhelmsen, Ib J Christensen, Lars N Jørgensen, Mogens R Madsen, Jesper Vilandt, Thore Hillig, Michael Klærke, Knud T Nielsen, Søren Laurberg, Susan Gawel, Xiaoping Yang, Gerard Davis, Anne Meike Heijboer, Frans Martens, Hans J Nielsen
Introduction: Most of the subjects undergoing diagnostic colonoscopy do not have neoplastic bowel lesions. Potentially, some of the symptoms may therefore be caused by extracolonic malignancy, and subjects with persisting symptoms may need subsequent examinations. Blood-based, cancer-associated biomarkers may aid in directing the examinations for other specific malignant diseases. Methods: EDTA plasma samples available from a previous prospective study of subjects undergoing diagnostic colonoscopy were used for analysis of 18 protein biomarkers...
2018: Biomarkers in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867078/evidence-for-interplay-among-antibacterial-induced-gut-microbiota-disturbance-neuro-inflammation-and-anxiety-in-mice
#8
Hyo-Min Jang, Hae-Ji Lee, Se-Eun Jang, Myung Joo Han, Dong-Hyun Kim
The aim of the present study was to determine whether there is the mechanistic connection between antibacterial-dependent gut microbiota disturbance and anxiety. First, exposure of mice to ampicillin caused anxiety and colitis and increased the population of Proteobacteria, particularly Klebsiella oxytoca, in gut microbiota and fecal and blood lipopolysaccharide levels, while decreasing lactobacilli population including Lactobacillus reuteri. Next, treatments with fecal microbiota of ampicillin-treated mouse (FAP), K...
June 4, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848141/mechanism-and-influencing-factors-of-proximal-fibular-osteotomy-for-treatment-of-medial-compartment-knee-osteoarthritis-a-prospective-study
#9
Di Qin, Wei Chen, Juan Wang, Hongzhi Lv, Wenhui Ma, Tianhua Dong, Yingze Zhang
Objectives This study was performed to explore the mechanism of proximal fibular osteotomy (PFO) for treatment of medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA) and evaluate the relevant factors influencing the treatment outcome. Methods Fifty-two patients with medial compartment knee OA with varus deformities were prospectively selected. Radiographs were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively. Knee function and OA severity were evaluated using the Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) knee score and the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) score...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29842940/a-quantitative-metric-for-knee-osteoarthritis-reference-values-of-joint-space-loss
#10
Charles Ratzlaff, Erin L Ashbeck, Ali Guermazi, Frank W Roemer, Jeffrey Duryea, C Kent Kwoh
OBJECTIVES: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) onset and progression has been defined with transitions in Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade or OARSI Joint Space Narrowing (JSN) grade. We quantitatively describe one-year transitions in KL grade and JSN, using fixed joint space width (fJSW), among knees with or at risk of OA. METHODS: Radiographic assessments from the OAI were used to identify transitions in KLG and JSN grade between consecutive annual visits. The fJSW was measured in the medial and lateral compartments...
May 26, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802973/associations-between-molecular-biomarkers-and-mr-based-cartilage-composition-and-knee-joint-morphology-data-from-the-osteoarthritis-initiative
#11
G B Joseph, M C Nevitt, C E McCulloch, J Neumann, J A Lynch, U Heilmeier, N E Lane, T M Link
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the associations between serum/urine biomarkers for osteoarthritis and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging measures of cartilage composition and joint structure (cartilage, meniscus, and bone marrow), using MR imaging data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI). DESIGN: 141 subjects with Kellgren Lawrence (KL) grades 0-3 in the right knee and with available serum/urine biomarker assays were selected from the OAI. Cartilage magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2 measurements were performed in the medial femur, lateral femur, medial tibia, lateral tibia, and patella compartments...
May 23, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29801923/an-improved-incipient-fault-detection-method-based-on-kullback-leibler-divergence
#12
Hongtian Chen, Bin Jiang, Ningyun Lu
This paper presents an improved incipient fault detection method based on Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence under multivariate statistical analysis frame. Different from the traditional multivariate fault detection methods, this methodology can detect slight anomalous behaviors by comparing the online probability density function (PDF) online with the reference PDF obtained from large scale off-line data set. In the principal and residual subspaces obtained via PCA, a symmetric evaluation function is defined for both single variate and multivariate cases...
May 22, 2018: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29795669/proximal-fibular-osteotomy-to-treat-medial-compartment-knee-osteoarthritis-preoperational-factors-for-short-term-prognosis
#13
Bo Liu, Wei Chen, Qi Zhang, Xiaoli Yan, Fei Zhang, Tianhua Dong, Guang Yang, Yingze Zhang
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the association between preoperational factors and patients' short-term outcome after proximal fibular osteotomy (PFO) and to provide a basis for detailed surgical indication and patient selection. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of patients undergoing PFO between January 2015 and December 2015. Preoperational clinical data including gender, age, duration of disease, visual analogue score (VAS) and American Knee Society (KSS) score were collected...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778898/examining-the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-static-postural-stability-measures-in-differentiating-among-knee-osteoarthritis-patients-with-mild-and-moderate-to-severe-radiographic-signs
#14
Nahid Pirayeh, Mohammad-Jafar Shaterzadeh-Yazdi, Hossein Negahban, Mohammad Mehravar, Neda Mostafaee, Amal Saki-Malehi
BACKGROUND: Clinicians need a reliable and accurate tools that can best identify and classify balance impairments between mild and moderate to severe grades of knee osteoarthritis (OA). RESEARCH QUESTION: This study was designed to investigate the accuracy of postural measurements to discriminate between these two groups of knee OA. METHODS: A total of 130 patients with knee OA based on the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grading scale were categorized into 65 patients with mild (a KL grade≤ 2) and 65 patient with moderate to severe (a KL grade≥3) radiographic sign...
May 12, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773717/stk11-lkb1-mutations-and-pd-1-inhibitor-resistance-in-kras-mutant-lung-adenocarcinoma
#15
Ferdinandos Skoulidis, Michael E Goldberg, Danielle M Greenawalt, Matthew D Hellmann, Mark M Awad, Justin F Gainor, Alexa B Schrock, Ryan J Hartmaier, Sally E Trabucco, Laurie Gay, Siraj M Ali, Julia A Elvin, Gaurav Singal, Jeffrey S Ross, David Fabrizio, Peter M Szabo, Han Chang, Ariella Sasson, Sujaya Srinivasan, Stefan Kirov, Joseph Szustakowski, Patrik Vitazka, Robin Edwards, Jose A Bufill, Neelesh Sharma, Sai-Hong I Ou, Nir Peled, David R Spigel, Hira Rizvi, Elizabeth Jimenez Aguilar, Brett W Carter, Jeremy Erasmus, Darragh F Halpenny, Andrew J Plodkowski, Niamh M Long, Mizuki Nishino, Warren L Denning, Ana Galan-Cobo, Haifa Hamdi, Taghreed Hirz, Pan Tong, Jing Wang, Jaime Rodriguez-Canales, Pamela A Villalobos, Edwin R Parra, Neda Kalhor, Lynette M Sholl, Jennifer L Sauter, Achim A Jungbluth, Mari Mino-Kenudson, Roxana Azimi, Yasir Y Elamin, Jianjun Zhang, Giulia C Leonardi, Fei Jiang, Kwok-Kin Wong, J Jack Lee, Vassiliki A Papadimitrakopoulou, Ignacio I Wistuba, Vincent A Miller, Garrett M Frampton, Jedd D Wolchok, Alice T Shaw, Pasi A Jänne, Philip J Stephens, Charles M Rudin, William J Geese, Lee A Albacker, John V Heymach
KRAS is the most common oncogenic driver in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAC). We previously reported that STK11/LKB1 (KL) or TP53 (KP) co-mutations define distinct subgroups of KRAS-mutant LUAC. Here, we examine the efficacy of PD-1 inhibitors in these subgroups. Objective response rates to PD-1 blockade differed significantly among KL (7.4%), KP (35.7%), and K-only (28.6%) subgroups (P<0.001) in the SU2C cohort (174 patients) with KRAS-mutant LUAC and in patients treated with nivolumab in the CheckMate-057 phase 3 trial (0% vs 57...
May 17, 2018: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770614/primary-versus-secondary-tracheoesophageal-puncture-for-voice-rehabilitation-in-laryngectomy-patients-a-systematic-review
#16
K Luu, B A Chang, D Valenzuela, D Anderson
BACKGROUND: Among voice restoration options following laryngectomy, tracheoesophageal puncture (TEP) appears to be the most common. Currently, there is no consensus that exists with regard to the timing of performing TEP and the decision to perform a primary or secondary TEP has mostly been based on physician preference and expert opinion rather than data. OBJECTIVE OF REVIEW: The objective of this study was to compare primary and secondary tracheoesophageal puncture (TEP) for voice rehabilitation in laryngectomy patients in terms of success and complication rates...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769460/circulating-surfactant-protein-d-is-associated-with-clinical-outcomes-in-peripheral-artery-disease-patients-following-endovascular-therapy
#17
Yoichiro Otaki, Tetsu Watanabe, Hiroki Takahashi, Takayuki Sugai, Miyuki Yokoyama, Satoshi Nishiyama, Takanori Arimoto, Tetsuro Shishido, Takuya Miyamoto, Tamon Yamanaka, Isao Kubota, Masafumi Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease and death. Surfactant protein-D (SP-D) is a 43-kDa protein secreted from type II pneumocytes in the lungs. Recent studies have demonstrated that circulating SP-D plays a key role in the development of atherosclerosis and is related to clinical outcomes in patients with ischemic heart disease. However, it remains unclear whether circulating SP-D is associated with clinical outcomes in patients with PAD...
May 17, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763801/bubble-coalescence-suppression-driven-carbon-monoxide-co-water-mass-transfer-increase-by-electrolyte-addition-in-a-hollow-fiber-membrane-bioreactor-hfmbr-for-microbial-co-conversion-to-ethanol
#18
Nulee Jang, Muhammad Yasin, Hyunsoo Kang, Yeubin Lee, Gwon Woo Park, Shinyoung Park, In Seop Chang
This study investigated the effects of electrolytes (CaCl2 , K2 HPO4 , MgSO4 , NaCl, and NH4 Cl) on CO mass transfer and ethanol production in a HFMBR. The hollow fiber membranes (HFM) were found to generate tiny gas bubbles; the bubble coalescence was significantly suppressed in electrolyte solution. The volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficients (kL a) increased up to 414% compared to the control. Saturated CO (C∗ ) decreased as electrolyte concentrations increased. Overall, the maximum mass transfer rate (Rmax ) in electrolyte solution ranged from 106% to 339% of the value obtained in water...
May 4, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758483/demonstrating-the-viability-of-halolipase-production-at-a-mechanically-stirred-tank-biological-reactor
#19
Sergio Colangiuli, Ana Rodríguez, María Ángeles Sanromán, Francisco J Deive
The definition of halophiles as "the coming stars of industrial biotechnology" in a recent review demands new research efforts for their efficient production at bioreactor scale. In this sense, the scarcity of information about halolipases production has furthered the research on the viability of Halomonas sp. LM1C culture in a mechanically stirred bioreactor. The operating conditions have been optimized by means of a Central Composite Face-Centered (CCFC) design. The operation at low aerations (0...
May 4, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753130/clonal-dissemination-of-carbapenemase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-two-distinct-sub-lineages-of-sequence-type-11-carrying-bla-kpc-2-and-bla-oxa-48
#20
Min-Chi Lu, Hui-Ling Tang, Chien-Shun Chiou, Yao-Chen Wang, Ming-Ko Chiang, Yi-Chyi Lai
OBJECTIVES: The global spread of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-Kp) has become a massive threat to human health. We here investigated the clonal relatedness of CR-Kp strains in central Taiwan. METHODS: CR-Kp were prospectively collected from inpatients referred to Chung Shan Medical University Hospital (CSMUH) during Sep. 2011 to Dec. 2015. The presence of carbapenemase genes, including blaKPC-2 , blaVIM-1 , blaNDM-1 , and blaOXA-48 was analyzed with PCR and sequence determination...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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