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Matthew S Palmer, George Jf Heigenhauser, MyLinh Duong, Lawrence L Spriet
This study determined whether mild dehydration influenced skeletal muscle glycogen use, core temperature or performance during high-intensity, intermittent cycle-based exercise in ice hockey players vs. staying hydrated with water. Eight males (21.6 ± 0.4 yr, 183.5 ± 1.6 cm, 83.9 ± 3.7 kg, 50.2 ± 1.9 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed two trials separated by 7 days. The protocol consisted of 3 periods (P) containing 10 x 45-second cycling bouts at ~133% VO2max, followed by 135 seconds of passive rest. Subjects drank no fluid and dehydrated during the protocol (NF), or maintained body mass by drinking WATER...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Michael C Sklar, Karen Burns, Nuttapol Rittayamai, Ashley Lanys, Michela Rauseo, Lu Chen, Martin Dres, Guang-Qiang Chen, Ewan C Goligher, Neill Kj Adhikari, Laurent Brochard, Jan O Friedrich
Introduction Spontaneous breathing trials (SBTs) are designed to simulate conditions following extubation and it is essential to understand the physiological impact of different methods. We conducted a systematic review and pooled measures reflecting patient respiratory effort among studies comparing SBT methods in a meta-analysis. Methods We searched Medline, EMBASE, and Web of Science from inception to January 2016 to identify randomized and non-randomized clinical trials reporting physiological measurements of respiratory effort (pressure-time product, PTP) or work of breathing during at least 2 SBT techniques...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Libin Yang, Kunyang Wang, Gu Du, Wenxin Zhu, Liang Cui, Chengxiao Zhang, Xuping Sun, Abdullah M Asiri
Hydrogen has been considered as an ideal energy carrier for replacing fossil fuels to mitigate global energy crises. Hydrolysis of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) is simple and effective for hydrogen production but needs active and durable catalysts to accelerate the kinetics. In this paper, we demonstrate that cobalt phosphide nanowall arrays supported on carbon cloth (CoP NAs/CC) efficiently catalyze the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of NaBH4 with an activation energy of 42.1 kJ mol(-1) in alkaline media. These monolithic CoP NAs/CC show a maximum hydrogen generation rate of [Formula: see text] and are robust with superior durability and reusability...
October 21, 2016: Nanotechnology
Benoit Peyronnet, Grégoire Robert, Vincent Comat, Morgan Rouprêt, Fernando Gomez-Sancha, Jean-Nicolas Cornu, Vincent Misrai
PURPOSE: To compare the learning curves, perioperative and early functional outcomes after HoLEP and GreenLEP. METHODS: Data from the first 100 consecutive cases treated by GreenLEP and HoLEP by two surgeons were prospectively collected from dedicated databases and analysed retrospectively. En-bloc GreenLEP and two-lobar HoLEP enucleations were conducted using the GreenLight HPS™ 2090 laser and Lumenis™ holmium laser. Patients' characteristics, perioperative outcomes and functional outcomes after 1, 3 and 6 months were compared between groups...
October 20, 2016: World Journal of Urology
Li Shing Teoh, Ola Lasekan, Noranizan Mohd Adzahan, Norhashila Hashim
In this work, potato slices were exposed to different doses of UV-C irradiation (i.e. 2.28, 6.84, 11.41, and 13.68 kJ m(-2)) with or without pretreatment [i.e. ascorbic acid and calcium chloride (AACCl) dip] and stored at 4 ± 1 °C. Changes in enzymatic activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), as well as total phenolic content (TPC) were investigated after 0, 3, 7 and 10 days of storage. Results showed that untreated and UV-C treated potato slices at 13...
July 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Wei Liu, Chang Hua Lin, Zheng Ke Wu, Guo Hua Liu, Hai Jie Yan, Hua Ming Yang, Hui Yi Cai
Objective: The net energy requirement for the maintenance (NEm) of broilers was determined using regression models by the indirect calorimetry method (ICM) or the comparative slaughter method (CSM). Methods: A 2×4 factorial arrangement of treatments including the evaluation method (ICM or CSM) and feed intake (25, 50, 75, or 100% of ad libitum recommended) was employed in this experiment. In the ICM, 96 male Arbor Acres (AA) birds aged d 15 were used with 4 birds per replicate and 6 replicates in each treatment...
October 19, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Lasse Kjær, Sabrina Cordua, Morten O Holmström, Mads Thomassen, Torben A Kruse, Niels Pallisgaard, Thomas S Larsen, Karin de Stricker, Vibe Skov, Hans C Hasselbalch
Discovery of somatic mutations in the calreticulin gene (CALR) has identified a subgroup of Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) with separate haematological characteristics and prognosis. CALR mutations serve as novel markers both of diagnostic value and as targets for monitoring molecular responses during therapy. Interferon-α (IFN) selectively targets the malignant clone in a subset of MPN patients and can induce both haematological and molecular remissions in CALR mutated essential thrombocythemia (ET) patients...
2016: PloS One
Ross Beaumont, Philip Cordery, Mark Funnell, Stephen Mears, Lewis James, Phillip Watson
This study examined effects of 4 weeks of caffeine supplementation on endurance performance. Eighteen low-habitual caffeine consumers (<75 mg · day(-1)) were randomly assigned to ingest caffeine (1.5-3.0 mg · kg(-1)day(-1); titrated) or placebo for 28 days. Groups were matched for age, body mass, V̇O2peak and Wmax (P > 0.05). Before supplementation, all participants completed one V̇O2peak test, one practice trial and 2 experimental trials (acute 3 mg · kg(-1) caffeine [precaf] and placebo [testpla])...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Thore Hillig, Torben Kjær Nielsen, Steen Ingemann Hansen, Ann-Britt Nygaard, György Sölétormos
It remains unclear whether total prostate specific antigen (tPSA) or complex PSA (cPSA) has the best diagnostic performance. Additionally, the utility of percentage free PSA (%fPSA) is still debated. Our objectives were to compare the diagnostic performances of tPSA, cPSA, and %fPSA among patients referred from GP to an Urological Specialist and to investigate prognostic factors and survival in the cohort. A total of 1261 consecutive male patients without previously known prostate cancer (PCa) were referred to the same Department of Urology during June 2005 to August 2006...
October 20, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
Fredrik Elinder, Michael Madeja, Hugo Zeberg, Peter Århem
The transmembrane voltage needed to open different voltage-gated K (Kv) channels differs by up to 50 mV from each other. In this study we test the hypothesis that the channels' voltage dependences to a large extent are set by charged amino-acid residues of the extracellular linkers of the Kv channels, which electrostatically affect the charged amino-acid residues of the voltage sensor S4. Extracellular cations shift the conductance-versus-voltage curve, G(V), by interfering with these extracellular charges...
October 18, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Nahid Shahabadi, Monireh Falsafi, Maryam Maghsudi
The interaction of anticancer drug cytarabine with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated in vitro under simulated physiological conditions by multispectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling study. The fluorescence spectroscopy and UV absorption spectroscopy indicated drug interacted with CT-DNA in a groove-binding mode, while the binding constant of UV-vis and the number of binding sites were 4.0 ± 0.2 × 10(4) L mol(-1) and 1.39, respectively. The fluorimetric studies showed that the reaction between the drugs with CT-DNA is exothermic...
October 19, 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
Shuyun Wu, Minghua Lai, Jiahao Luo, Jingwen Pan, Li-Ming Zhang, Liqun Yang
To understand the mechanism responsible for the α-amylase inhibitory activity of tea polysaccharides, the interaction between α-amylase and an acidic branched tea polysaccharide (TPSA) was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy and resonance light scattering analysis. TPSA, exhibiting inhibitory activity towards α-amylase (the maximum inhibition percentage of 65%), was isolated from green tea (Camellia sinensis) and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and gas chromatography...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Florian Leplat, Pai Rosager Pedas, Søren Kjærsgaard Rasmussen, Søren Husted
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: BMC Genomics
Jihye Jung, Tibor Czabany, Birgit Wilding, Norbert Klempier, Bernd Nidetzky
The enzyme QueF catalyzes a four-electron reduction of a nitrile group into an amine, the only reaction of this kind known in biology. In nature, QueF converts 7-cyano-7-deazaguanine (preQ0) into 7-aminomethyl-7-deazaguanine (preQ1) for the biosynthesis of the tRNA-inserted nucleoside queuosine. The proposed QueF mechanism involves a covalent thioimide adduct between preQ0 and a cysteine nucleophile in the enzyme, and this adduct is subsequently converted into preQ1 in two NADPH-dependent reduction steps. Here, we show that the Escherichia coli QueF binds preQ0 in a strongly exothermic process (∆H = -80...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Alessandra Lodi, Bettina Karsten, Gerardo Bosco, Manuel Gómez-López, Paula Paraguassú Brandão, Antonino Bianco, Antonio Paoli
: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects on blood sugar concentrations through the calculation of the glycemic score (GS) of 10 different high-protein low-carbohydrates (CHOs) proprietary foods that are commonly used as meals during very low-CHO ketogenic diets or during low-CHO diets. Fourteen healthy females were tested for their glycemic response curve elicited by 1000 kJ of glucose three times within a 3-week period (one test each week) compared with one of 10 test foods once on separate days twice a week...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
Anders F Frellsen, Anders E Hansen, Rasmus I Jølck, Paul Kempen, Gregory W Severin, Palle H Rasmussen, Andreas Kjær, Andreas T I Jensen, Thomas L Andresen
By taking advantage of the ability of (64)Cu to bind non-specifically to gold surfaces, we have developed a new methodology to embed this radionuclide inside gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). (64)Cu enables the in vivo imaging of AuNPs by positron emission tomography (PET). AuNPs have a multitude of uses within health technology and are useful tools for general nanoparticle research. (64)Cu-AuNPs were prepared by incubating AuNP seeds with (64)Cu(2+), followed by the entrapment of the radionuclide by grafting a second layer of gold on the surface...
October 18, 2016: ACS Nano
Sarah J Burkhart, Fiona E Pelly
International travel and short-term residence overseas is now a common feature of an elite athlete's competition schedule, however, food choice away from home may be challenging and potentially impact on performance. Guidelines for dietary intake specific to competition exist for athletes, however, there is little evidence available to ascertain if athletes meet these recommendations during competition periods, particularly when food is provided in-house. During the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games, dietitians based in the dining hall recorded 24 h dietary recalls with all athletes who visited the nutrition kiosk...
October 14, 2016: Nutrients
Pavel Hanč, Oliver Schulz, Hanna Fischbach, Stephen R Martin, Svend Kjær, Caetano Reis E Sousa
DNGR-1 is receptor expressed by certain dendritic cell (DC) subsets and by DC precursors in mouse. It possesses a C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD) followed by a poorly characterized neck region coupled to a transmembrane region and short intracellular tail. The CTLD of DNGR-1 binds F-actin exposed by dead cell corpses and causes the receptor to signal and potentiate cross-presentation of dead cell-associated antigens by DCs. Here, we describe a conformational change that occurs in the neck region of DNGR-1 in a pH- and ionic strength-dependent manner and that controls cross-presentation of dead cell-associated antigens...
October 17, 2016: EMBO Journal
Sanna Nybacka, Heléne Bertéus Forslund, Maria Hedelin
A diet questionnaire (DQ) designed to assess habitual diet and phyto-oestrogen intake was developed. This study aimed to examine the validity of the DQ in men, with and without having prostate cancer. The DQ was validated against alkylresorcinol metabolites measured in urine as objective biomarkers of whole grain wheat and rye (WG) intake, and a 4-d estimated food record (FR) was used for relative comparison. Participants (n 61) completed both methods and provided spot urine samples. We found a statistically significant correlation between the DQ and FR for reported whole grain intake and isoflavonoids, as well as for intake of macronutrients, except protein...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science
Canan Ziylan, Annemien Haveman-Nies, Stefanie Kremer, Lisette C P G M de Groot
OBJECTIVES: Sufficient protein intake can decrease undernutrition risk among community-dwelling older adults. This study aimed to increase community-dwelling older adults' daily protein intake with acceptable and applicable protein-enriched bread and readymade meals at home. DESIGN: Double-blind randomized controlled trial of 2 weeks. SETTING: Senior residential center in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-two community-dwelling elderly residents (≥65 years) participated, with a mean age of 74...
October 14, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
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