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Catia Contado, Roberto Argazzi, Vincenzo Amendola
Many advanced industrial and biomedical applications that use silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), require that particles are not only nano-sized, but also well dispersed, not aggregated and not agglomerated. This study presents two methods able to give rapidly sizes of monodispersed AgNPs suspensions in the dimensional range of 20-100nm. The first method, based on the application of Mie's theory, determines the particle sizes from the values of the surface plasmon resonance wavelength (SPRMAX), read from the optical absorption spectra, recorded between 190nm and 800nm...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Renata L Muylaert, Richard D Stevens, Milton C Ribeiro
Understanding how animal groups respond to contemporary habitat loss and fragmentation is essential for development of strategies for species conservation. Until now, there has been no consensus about how landscape degradation affects the diversity and distribution of Neotropical bats. Some studies demonstrate population declines and species loss in impacted areas, although the magnitude and generality of these effects on bat community structure are unclear. Empirical fragmentation thresholds predict an accentuated drop in biodiversity, and species richness in particular, when less than 30% of the original amount of habitat in the landscape remains...
September 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Agnieszka Rybarczyk, Paulina Jackowiak, Marek Figlerowicz, Jacek Blazewicz
Since the beginning of the 21st century, an increasing interest in the research of ribonucleic acids has been observed in response to a surprising discovery of the role that RNA molecules play in the biological systems. It was demonstrated that they do not only take part in the protein synthesis (mRNA, rRNA, tRNA) but also are involved in the regulation of gene expression. Several classes of small regulatory RNAs have been discovered (e.g. microRNA, small interfering RNA, piwiRNA). Most of them are excised from specific double-stranded RNA precursors by enzymes that belong to the RNaseIII family (Drosha, Dicer or Dicer-like proteins)...
October 19, 2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Fang Wang, Zebin Weng, Cunyu Li, Guoping Peng
Adverse reactions of injectable drugs usually occur at first administration and are closely associated with the dosage and speed of injection. This phenomenon is correlated with the anaphylactoid reaction. However, up to now, study methods based on antigen detection have still not gained wide acceptance and single physiological indicators cannot be utilized to differentiate anaphylactoid reactions from allergic reactions and inflammatory reactions. In this study, a reliable method for the evaluation of anaphylactoid reactions caused by injectable drugs was established by using multiple physiological indicators...
October 12, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Gáspár Lukács, Béla Weiss, Vera Dalos, Tünde Kilencz, Szabina Tudja, Gábor Csifcsák
More than a dozen studies of the Complex Trial Protocol (CTP) version of the P300-based Concealed Information Test have been published since its introduction (Rosenfeld et al., 2008), and it has been fairly consistently proven to provide high accuracy and strong resistance to countermeasures (Rosenfeld et al., 2013). However, no independent authors have verified these findings until now. In the present, first independent study, we corroborate the accuracy and countermeasure-resistance of the CTP, when the probe item (critical presented information, e...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Koshiro Nishimoto, Minae Koga, Tsugio Seki, Kenji Oki, Elise P Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E Gomez-Sanchez, Mitsuhide Naruse, Tomokazu Sakaguchi, Shinya Morita, Takeo Kosaka, Mototsugu Oya, Tadashi Ogishima, Masanori Yasuda, Makoto Suematsu, Yasuaki Kabe, Masao Omura, Tetsuo Nishikawa, Kuniaki Mukai
Our group previously purified human and rat aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2 and Cyp11b2, respectively) from their adrenals and verified that it is distinct from steroid 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1 or Cyp11b1), the cortisol- or corticosterone-synthesizing enzyme. We now describe their distributions immunohistochemically with specific antibodies. In rats, there is layered functional zonation with the Cyp11b2-positive zona glomerulosa (ZG), Cyp11b1-positive zona fasciculata (ZF), and Cyp11b2/Cyp11b1-negative undifferentiated zone between the ZG and ZF...
October 14, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Nicholas Thapen, Donal Simmie, Chris Hankin
BACKGROUND: Twitter updates now represent an enormous stream of information originating from a wide variety of formal and informal sources, much of which is relevant to real-world events. They can therefore be highly useful for event detection and situational awareness applications. RESULTS: In this paper we apply customised filtering techniques to existing bio-surveillance algorithms to detect localised spikes in Twitter activity, showing that these correspond to real events with a high level of confidence...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
Ross Bicknell, Andrew Catanach, Melanie Hand, Anna Koltunow
In this review, we explore Gregor Mendel's hybridization experiments with Hieracium , update current knowledge on apomictic reproduction and describe approaches now being used to develop true-breeding hybrid crops. From our perspective, it is easy to conclude that Gregor Mendel's work on pea was insightful, but his peers clearly did not regard it as being either very convincing or of much importance. One apparent criticism was that his findings only applied to pea. We know from a letter he wrote to Carl von Nägeli, a leading botanist, that he believed he needed to "verify, with other plants, the results obtained with Pisum"...
October 1, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
María José Salas-Jara, Alejandra Ilabaca, Marco Vega, Apolinaria García
Probiotics are live bacteria, generally administered in food, conferring beneficial effects to the host because they help to prevent or treat diseases, the majority of which are gastrointestinal. Numerous investigations have verified the beneficial effect of probiotic strains in biofilm form, including increased resistance to temperature, gastric pH and mechanical forces to that of their planktonic counterparts. In addition, the development of new encapsulation technologies, which have exploited the properties of biofilms in the creation of double coated capsules, has given origin to fourth generation probiotics...
September 20, 2016: Microorganisms
Stéphanie Fontaine Carbonnel, Pascal Rippert, Isabelle Poirot, Dominique Gachet, Capucine de Lattre, Carole Vuillerot
OBJECTIVE: Since 2005, in France, corticosteroid therapy is now widely used in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). This treatment has changed our practice of pediatric rehabilitation teams. We describe here our 10-year clinical experience in treating DMD patients by CS according to international guidelines i.e. prednisone 0.75mg/kg/day started from the plateau of motor function. MATERIALS/PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective study. Information was given on the expected effects and side effects...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Juehan Gao, Jordy Bouwman, Giel Berden, Jos Oomens
Astronomical IR emission spectra form the basis for the now widely accepted abundant presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in inter- and circumstellar environments. A small but consistent frequency mismatch is found between the astronomically observed emission band near 6.2 μm and typical CC-stretching vibrations of PAHs measured in laboratory spectra near 6.3-6.4 μm. The shift of the band has been tentatively attributed to a variety of effects, among which the inclusion of heteroatoms, in particular nitrogen, in the PAH skeleton (PANH) as well as to metal ion binding to the PAH molecule...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Sonia A Duffy, David L Ronis, Carrie A Karvonen-Gutierrez, Lee A Ewing, Stephanie V Hall, James J Yang, Patricia L Thomas, Christine M Olree, Kimberly A Maguire, Lisa Friedman, Donna Gray, Neil Jordan
INTRODUCTION: This study determined the effectiveness of the Tobacco Tactics intervention. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: This was a pragmatic, quasi-experimental study conducted from 2010 to 2013 and analyzed from 2014 to 2015 in five Michigan community hospitals; three received the Tobacco Tactics intervention, and two received usual care. Smokers (N=1,528) were identified during hospitalization, and sent surveys and cotinine tests after 6 months. Changes in pre- to post-intervention quit rates in the intervention sites were compared with usual care control sites...
October 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Sukumaran Anil, P B Gopikrishnan, Ashik Bin Basheer, B G Vidyullatha, Yahya A Alogaibi, Elna P Chalisserry, Fawad Javed, M Hn Dalati, Sajith Vellappally, Mohamed Ibrahim Hashem, Darshan Devang Divakar
BACKGROUND: Oral cancers account for approximately 2% of all cancers diagnosed each year; however, the vast majority (80%) of the affected individuals are smokers whose risk of developing a lesion is five to nine times greater than that of non-smokers. Tobacco smoke contains numerous carcinogens that cause DNA damage, including oxidative lesions that are removed effectively by the base-excision repair (BER) pathway, in which poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), plays key roles. Genetic variations in the genes encoding DNA repair enzymes may alter their functions...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
N T Shepard, G P Jacobson
The test of caloric thermal irrigations is one of the first tests for sensitivity of the peripheral vestibular systems dating to the late 1800s. This chapter reviews the various protocols that have been developed over the years using thermal irrigations to the external auditory canals. The discussion covers the interpretations of the protocols and makes recommendations for those protocols that have the best performance and at the same time are practical to perform. The primary utility of the caloric test has remained the same since its origination - the comparison of the relative sensitivity of the right versus left peripheral vestibular function...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Petr Szturz, Jan B Vermorken
The demographics of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) is marked by a growing number of patients aged 65 and over, which is in line with global projections for other cancer types. In developed countries, more than half of new SCCHN cases are diagnosed in older people, and in 15 years from now, the proportion is expected to rise by more than 10%. Still, a high-level evidence-based consensus to guide the clinical decision process is strikingly lacking. The available data from retrospective studies and subset analyses of prospective trials suffer from a considerable underrepresentation of senior participants...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Zuowei Wu, Balamurugan Periaswamy, Orhan Sahin, Michael Yaeger, Paul Plummer, Weiwei Zhai, Zhangqi Shen, Lei Dai, Swaine L Chen, Qijing Zhang
Infections due to clonal expansion of highly virulent bacterial strains are clear and present threats to human and animal health. Association of genetic changes with disease is now a routine, but identification of causative mutations that enable disease remains difficult. Campylobacter jejuni is an important zoonotic pathogen transmitted to humans mainly via the foodborne route. C. jejuni typically colonizes the gut, but a hypervirulent and rapidly expanding clone of C. jejuni recently emerged, which is able to translocate across the intestinal tract, causing systemic infection and abortion in pregnant animals...
September 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Gareth Gerrard, Hui En Foong, Katherine Mudge, Mary Alikian, Jane F Apperley, Letizia Foroni
Molecular monitoring of BCR-ABL1 expression in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is well established. As the International Scale (IS) normalised BCR-ABL1/ABL1 ratio at 3 months post-treatment is now an important milestone in patients' treatment schedule, the reliable and reproducible measurement of BCR-ABL1 levels is therefore paramount. IS conversion factors (CF) are established via sample exchange and yearly ratification with an external reference laboratory. Since any change to an established IS CF could lead to discontinuity in longitudinal results, we wished to add an internal verification step as an additional safeguard...
October 2016: Leukemia Research
Paul Zerr, Katharine N Thakkar, Siarhei Uzunbajakau, Stefan Van der Stigchel
In saccade sequences without visual feedback endpoint errors pose a problem for subsequent saccades. Accurate error compensation has previously been demonstrated in double step saccades (DSS) and is thought to rely on a copy of the saccade motor vector. However, these studies typically use fixed target vectors on each trial, calling into question the generalizability of the findings due to the high stimulus predictability. We present a random walk DSS paradigm (random target vector amplitudes and directions) to provide a more complete, realistic and generalizable description of error compensation in saccade sequences...
October 2016: Vision Research
Jinyan Wang, Yafei Tang, Yuwen Yang, Na Ma, Xitie Ling, Jialiang Kan, Zifu He, Baolong Zhang
RNA silencing is a conserved mechanism in plants that targets viruses. Viral small RNAs (vsiRNAs) can be generated from viral double-stranded RNA replicative intermediates within the infected host, or from host RNA-dependent RNA polymerases activity on viral templates. The abundance and profile of vsiRNAs in viral infections have been reported previously. However, the involvement of vsiRNAs during infection of the Geminiviridae family member cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuD), which causes significant economic losses in cotton growing regions, remains largely uncharacterized...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Silvia Muraro, Giuseppe Battistoni, Francesco Collamati, Erika De Lucia, Riccardo Faccini, Fernando Ferroni, Salvatore Fiore, Paola Frallicciardi, Michela Marafini, Ilaria Mattei, Silvio Morganti, Riccardo Paramatti, Luca Piersanti, Davide Pinci, Antoni Rucinski, Andrea Russomando, Alessio Sarti, Adalberto Sciubba, Elena Solfaroli-Camillocci, Marco Toppi, Giacomo Traini, Cecilia Voena, Vincenzo Patera
The interaction of the incoming beam radiation with the patient body in hadrontherapy treatments produces secondary charged and neutral particles, whose detection can be used for monitoring purposes and to perform an on-line check of beam particle range. In the context of ion-therapy with active scanning, charged particles are potentially attractive since they can be easily tracked with a high efficiency, in presence of a relatively low background contamination. In order to verify the possibility of exploiting this approach for in-beam monitoring in ion-therapy, and to guide the design of specific detectors, both simulations and experimental tests are being performed with ion beams impinging on simple homogeneous tissue-like targets (PMMA)...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
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