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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922101/this-is-who-we-are-building-community-for-hiv-prevention-with-young-gay-and-bisexual-men-in-beirut-lebanon
#1
Matt G Mutchler, Bryce Way McDavitt, Tu N Tran, Cynthia El Khoury, Ellie Ballan, Johnny Tohme, Susan M Kegeles, Glenn Wagner
Young gay men in Beirut are at significantly elevated risk of HIV infection compared with the general Lebanese population. Despite nascent HIV prevention efforts in the region, there is a need for effective community-level HIV prevention interventions tailored for young gay men. This qualitative study examined internal dynamics within Beirut's gay community as a basis for developing community-level interventions. Peer ethnographers were trained to collect field notes on conversations between young gay men in public spaces in Beirut, and conducted follow-up focus groups with young gay men...
September 18, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670602/-facing-our-fears-using-facilitated-film-viewings-to-engage-communities-in-hiv-research-involving-msm-in-kenya
#2
Bernadette Kombo, Salla Sariola, Evanson Gichuru, Sassy Molyneux, Eduard J Sanders, Elise van der Elst
Kenya is a generally homophobic country where homosexuality is criminalised and people who engage in same sex sexuality face stigma and discrimination. In 2013, we developed a 16 min documentary entitled "Facing Our Fears" that aimed at sharing information on how and why men who have sex with men (MSM) are involved in on-going KEMRI HIV prevention research, and associated community engagement. To consider the film's usefulness as a communication tool, and its perceived security risks in case the film was publicly released, we conducted nine facilitated viewings with 122 individuals representing seven different stakeholder groups...
2017: Cogent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592246/using-a-programmatic-mapping-approach-to-plan-for-hiv-prevention-and-harm-reduction-interventions-for-people-who-inject-drugs-in-three-south-african-cities
#3
Andrew Scheibe, Shaun Shelly, Andrew Lambert, Andrea Schneider, Rudolf Basson, Nelson Medeiros, Kalvanya Padayachee, Helen Savva, Harry Hausler
BACKGROUND: Stigma, criminalisation and a lack of data on drug use contribute to the "invisibility" of people who inject drugs (PWID) and make HIV prevention and treatment service delivery challenging. We aimed to confirm locations where PWID congregate in Cape Town, eThekwini and Tshwane (South Africa) and to estimate PWID population sizes within selected electoral wards in these areas to inform South Africa's first multi-site HIV prevention project for PWID. METHODS: Field workers (including PWID peers) interviewed community informants to identify suspected injecting locations in selected electoral wards in each city and then visited these locations and interviewed PWID...
June 7, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515014/hiv-and-the-criminalisation-of-drug-use-among-people-who-inject-drugs-a-systematic-review
#4
Kora DeBeck, Tessa Cheng, Julio S Montaner, Chris Beyrer, Richard Elliott, Susan Sherman, Evan Wood, Stefan Baral
BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence suggests that laws and policies prohibiting illegal drug use could have a central role in shaping health outcomes among people who inject drugs (PWID). To date, no systematic review has characterised the influence of laws and legal frameworks prohibiting drug use on HIV prevention and treatment. METHODS: Consistent with PRISMA guidelines, we did a systematic review of peer-reviewed scientific evidence describing the association between criminalisation of drug use and HIV prevention and treatment-related outcomes among PWID...
May 12, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183852/incarceration-and-exposure-to-internally-displaced-persons-camps-associated-with-reproductive-rights-abuses-among-sex-workers-in-northern-uganda
#5
Margaret Erickson, Shira M Goldenberg, Monica Akello, Godfrey Muzaaya, Paul Nguyen, Josephine Birungi, Kate Shannon
BACKGROUND: While female sex workers (FSWs) face a high burden of violence and criminalisation, coupled with low access to safe, non-coercive care, little is known about such experiences among FSWs in conflict-affected settings, particularly as they relate to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and rights. We explored factors associated with lifetime abortions among FSWs in northern Uganda; and separately modelled the independent effect of lifetime exposures to incarceration and living in internally displaced persons (IDP) camps on coerced and unsafe abortions...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130026/national-sex-work-policy-and-hiv-prevalence-among-sex-workers-an-ecological-regression-analysis-of-27-european-countries
#6
Aaron Reeves, Sarah Steele, David Stuckler, Martin McKee, Andrew Amato-Gauci, Jan C Semenza
BACKGROUND: Sex workers are disproportionately affected by HIV compared with the general population. Most studies of HIV risk among sex workers have focused on individual-level risk factors, with few studies assessing potential structural determinants of HIV risk. In this Article, we examine whether criminal laws around sex work are associated with HIV prevalence among female sex workers. METHOD: We estimate cross-sectional, ecological regression models with data from 27 European countries on HIV prevalence among sex workers from the European Centre for Disease Control; sex-work legislation from the US State Department's Country Reports on Human Rights Practices and country-specific legal documents; the rule of law and gross-domestic product per capita, adjusted for purchasing power, from the World Bank; and the prevalence of injecting drug use among sex workers...
March 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27427455/the-perfect-storm-incarceration-and-the-high-risk-environment-perpetuating-transmission-of-hiv-hepatitis-c-virus-and-tuberculosis-in-eastern-europe-and-central-asia
#7
REVIEW
Frederick L Altice, Lyuba Azbel, Jack Stone, Ellen Brooks-Pollock, Pavlo Smyrnov, Sergii Dvoriak, Faye S Taxman, Nabila El-Bassel, Natasha K Martin, Robert Booth, Heino Stöver, Kate Dolan, Peter Vickerman
Despite global reductions in HIV incidence and mortality, the 15 UNAIDS-designated countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia (EECA) that gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 constitute the only region where both continue to rise. HIV transmission in EECA is fuelled primarily by injection of opioids, with harsh criminalisation of drug use that has resulted in extraordinarily high levels of incarceration. Consequently, people who inject drugs, including those with HIV, hepatitis C virus, and tuberculosis, are concentrated within prisons...
September 17, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27427453/global-burden-of-hiv-viral-hepatitis-and-tuberculosis-in-prisoners-and-detainees
#8
REVIEW
Kate Dolan, Andrea L Wirtz, Babak Moazen, Martial Ndeffo-Mbah, Alison Galvani, Stuart A Kinner, Ryan Courtney, Martin McKee, Joseph J Amon, Lisa Maher, Margaret Hellard, Chris Beyrer, Fredrick L Altice
The prison setting presents not only challenges, but also opportunities, for the prevention and treatment of HIV, viral hepatitis, and tuberculosis. We did a comprehensive literature search of data published between 2005 and 2015 to understand the global epidemiology of HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and tuberculosis in prisoners. We further modelled the contribution of imprisonment and the potential impact of prevention interventions on HIV transmission in this population. Of the estimated 10·2 million people incarcerated worldwide on any given day in 2014, we estimated that 3·8% have HIV (389 000 living with HIV), 15·1% have HCV (1 546 500), 4·8% have chronic HBV (491 500), and 2·8% have active tuberculosis (286 000)...
September 10, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27280972/gender-based-violence-against-female-sex-workers-in-cameroon-prevalence-and-associations-with-sexual-hiv-risk-and-access-to-health-services-and-justice
#9
Michele R Decker, Carrie Lyons, Serge Clotaire Billong, Iliassou Mfochive Njindam, Ashley Grosso, Gnilane Turpin Nunez, Florence Tumasang, Matthew LeBreton, Ubald Tamoufe, Stefan Baral
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Female sex workers (FSWs) are at risk for HIV and physical and sexual gender-based violence (GBV). We describe the prevalence of lifetime GBV and its associations with HIV risk behaviour, access to health services and barriers in accessing justice among FSWs in Cameroon. METHODS: FSWs (n=1817) were recruited for a cross-sectional study through snowball sampling in seven cities in Cameroon. We examined associations of lifetime GBV with key outcomes via adjusted logistic regression models...
December 2016: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26983582/-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-they-should-understand-why%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-the-knowledge-attitudes-and-impact-of-the-hiv-criminalisation-law-on-a-sample-of-hiv-women-living-in-ontario
#10
Lydia Kapiriri, Wangari Tharao, Marvelous Muchenje, Khatundi I Masinde, Fanta Ongoiba
Over 60 countries criminalise 'the "willful" transmission of HIV'. Such a law has the potential to hinder public health interventions. There is limited literature discussing the perceptions of this law and the impact, it has had on HIV-positive women. This paper describes the knowledge of and attitudes of this law by HIV-positive women living in Ontario; and their experiences with its application. Three group discussions (n = 10) and 17 in-depth interviews with HIV-positive women age: 21-56 years. Data were analysed using a modified thematic approach...
December 2016: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26944344/reductions-in-access-to-hiv-prevention-and-care-services-are-associated-with-arrest-and-convictions-in-a-global-survey-of-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#11
Glenn-Milo Santos, Keletso Makofane, Sonya Arreola, Tri Do, George Ayala
OBJECTIVES: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately impacted by HIV. Criminalisation of homosexuality may impede access to HIV services. We evaluated the effect of the enforcement of laws criminalising homosexuality on access to services. METHODS: Using data from a 2012 global online survey that was published in a prior paper, we conducted a secondary analysis evaluating differences in perceived accessibility to health services (ie, 'how accessible are ____' services) between MSM who responded 'yes'/'no' to: 'have you ever been arrested or convicted for being gay/MSM?' RESULTS: Of the 4020 participants who completed the study and were included in the analysis, 8% reported ever being arrested or convicted under laws relevant to being MSM...
February 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26824463/gender-identity-healthcare-access-and-risk-reduction-among-malaysia-s-mak-nyah-community
#12
Britton A Gibson, Shan-Estelle Brown, Ronnye Rutledge, Jeffrey A Wickersham, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Frederick L Altice
Transgender women (TGW) face compounded levels of stigma and discrimination, resulting in multiple health risks and poor health outcomes. TGW identities are erased by forcing them into binary sex categories in society or treating them as men who have sex with men (MSM). In Malaysia, where both civil and religious law criminalise them for their identities, many TGW turn to sex work with inconsistent prevention methods, which increases their health risks. This qualitative study aims to understand how the identities of TGW sex workers shapes their healthcare utilisation patterns and harm reduction behaviours...
August 2016: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26488904/arresting-hiv-fostering-partnerships-between-sex-workers-and-police-to-reduce-hiv-risk-and-promote-professionalization-within-policing-institutions-a-realist-review
#13
Brigitte Tenni, Jenae Carpenter, Nicholas Thomson
In many countries around the world sex work is criminalised and its regulatory control is therefore often in the hands of the police. In addition to the impact of this criminalised legal environment, much literature describes the negative impact that certain police practices can have on the ability of sex workers and the programs that work with sex workers to access essential HIV prevention, treatment, care and support services. This situation has resulted in persistent concentrated HIV epidemics among sex workers in many countries of the world...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26139083/financing-the-response-to-hiv-among-gay-men-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men-case-studies-from-eight-diverse-countries
#14
Ashley Grosso, Owen Ryan, Khai Hoan Tram, Stefan Baral
Despite reductions in the number of new HIV infections globally, the HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) is expanding. This study characterises financing of HIV programmes for MSM and the impact of criminalisation on levels of funding, using data from five countries that criminalise same-sex sexual practices (Ethiopia, Mozambique, Guyana, India and Nigeria) and three that do not (China, Ukraine and Vietnam). For each country, all publicly available documents from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria for approved HIV/AIDS grants in Rounds 5-9 and Country Operational Plans detailing investments made through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) from US fiscal year (FY) 2007-2009 were examined...
2015: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26125047/the-immediate-eff-ect-of-the-same-sex-marriage-prohibition-act-on-stigma-discrimination-and-engagement-on-hiv-prevention-and-treatment-services-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-nigeria-analysis-of-prospective-data-from-the-trust-cohort
#15
Sheree R Schwartz, Rebecca G Nowak, Ifeanyi Orazulike, Babajide Keshinro, Julie Ake, Sara Kennedy, Ogbonnaya Njoku, William A Blattner, Manhattan E Charurat, Stefan D Baral
BACKGROUND: In January, 2014, the Same-Sex Marriage Prohibition Act was signed into law in Nigeria, further criminalising same-sex sexual relationships. We aimed to assess the immediate effect of this prohibition act on stigma, discrimination, and engagement in HIV prevention and treatment services in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Nigeria. METHODS: The TRUST cohort study uses respondent-driven sampling to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of engagement of MSM in HIV prevention and treatment services at a clinical site located with a community-based organisation trusted by the MSM community...
July 2015: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26050380/money-power-and-hiv-economic-influences-and-hiv-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-sub-saharan-africa
#16
REVIEW
Andrew Scheibe, Brian Kanyemba, Jennifer Syvertsen, Sylvia Adebajo, Stefan Baral
Despite consistent evidence, effective interventions and political declarations to reduce HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM), coverage of MSM programmes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains low. Punitive legal frameworks and hostile social circumstances and inadequate health systems further contribute to the high HIV burden among MSM in SSA. The authors use the Modified Social Ecological Model to discuss economic influences in relation to HIV and MSM in SSA. Nigerian, South African and Ugandan case studies are used to highlight economic factors and considerations related to HIV among MSM...
September 2014: African Journal of Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25907348/the-utility-of-population-based-surveys-to-describe-the-continuum-of-hiv-services-for-key-and-general-populations
#17
REVIEW
Wolfgang Hladik, Irene Benech, Moses Bateganya, Avi J Hakim
Monitoring the cascade or continuum of HIV services - ranging from outreach services to anti-retroviral treatment - has become increasingly important as the focus in prevention moves toward biomedical interventions, in particular, 'Treatment as Prevention.' The HIV continuum typically utilises clinic-based care and treatment monitoring data and helps identify gaps and inform programme improvements. This paper discusses the merits of a population-based survey-informed continuum of services. Surveys provide individual-level, population-based data by sampling persons both in and outside the continuum, which facilitate the estimation of population fractions, such as the proportion of people living with HIV in care, as well as the examination of determinants for being in or outside the continuum...
January 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25482649/key-factors-in-the-acceptability-of-treatment-as-prevention-tasp-in-scotland-a-qualitative-study-with-communities-affected-by-hiv
#18
I Young, P Flowers, L M McDaid
OBJECTIVES: There is a clear need to understand the factors that might prevent and/or facilitate the effective use of HIV treatment as prevention (TasP) at an individual level. This paper reports on findings from the first qualitative study in the UK exploring the acceptability of TasP among gay, bisexual and/or men who have sex with men (MSM) and migrant African communities in Scotland. METHODS: We conducted seven exploratory focus group discussions (FGDs) with convenience samples of MSM (five FGDs, n=22) and mixed-gender African (two FGDs, n=11) participants...
June 2015: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25190732/non-culpable-ignorance-and-hiv-criminalisation
#19
Jessica Flanigan
In this essay, I argue that any legal framework that addresses sexual transmission of HIV should be sensitive to the way that culpability can be mitigated by moral and factual ignorance. Though it is wrong to transmit HIV, public officials should be wary of criminalising transmission because people with HIV may be excused if they suffer from blameless moral or factual ignorance. I begin with the widely shared premise that blameless ignorance about one's HIV status is an excuse for sexual transmission of infections...
December 2014: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25170509/the-long-winding-road-of-opioid-substitution-therapy-implementation-in-south-east-asia-challenges-to-scale-up
#20
REVIEW
Gary Reid, Mukta Sharma, Peter Higgs
The South-East Asia Region contains an estimated 400,000-500,000 people who inject drugs (PWID). HIV prevalence among PWID is commonly 20% or higher in Indonesia, Thailand, Myanmar and some regions of India. Opioid substitution therapy (OST) is an important HIV prevention intervention in this part of the world. However, key challenges and barriers to scale up of OST exist, including: pervasive stigma and discrimination towards PWID; criminalisation of drug use overshadowing a public health response; lack of political will and national commitment; low financial investment; focus towards traditional treatment models of detoxification and rehabilitation; inadequate dosing of OST; and poor monitoring and evaluation of programmes...
March 26, 2014: Journal of Public Health Research
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