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Ultrasound of bowel disease

S A Taylor, F Avni, C G Cronin, C Hoeffel, S H Kim, A Laghi, M Napolitano, P Petit, J Rimola, D J Tolan, M R Torkzad, M Zappa, G Bhatnagar, C A J Puylaert, J Stoker
OBJECTIVES: To develop guidelines describing a standardised approach to patient preparation and acquisition protocols for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) of the small bowel and colon, with an emphasis on imaging inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: An expert consensus committee of 13 members from the European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR) and European Society of Paediatric Radiology (ESPR) undertook a six-stage modified Delphi process, including a detailed literature review, to create a series of consensus statements concerning patient preparation, imaging hardware and image acquisition protocols...
October 18, 2016: European Radiology
Marianna Nardozza, Donato Mele, Roberto Ferrari
We report the case of a 67-year-old woman with a carcinoid tumor of midgut origin who developed carcinoid heart disease and died because of bowel perforation. Echocardiography allowed the diagnosis, recognizing the typical abnormalities of tricuspid and pulmonary valve leaflets. The sonographic examination also evidenced peculiar alterations of the right heart hemodynamics: end-diastolic reversal of flow at the level of the pulmonary valve, reduced respiratory excursion without enlargement of the inferior vena cava, and biphasic hepatic venous flow without respiratory variation...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
S H Loosen, M Schmeding, C Roderburg, M Binnebösel, I Temizel, F M Mottaghy, J J W Tischendorf, F Tacke, N T Gaisa, K Hussein, U Lehmann, C Trautwein, U P Neumann, T Luedde
We report the case of a 53-year-old female patient who was transplanted with the liver of a 71-year-old male donor for advanced primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and who additionally was diagnosed with a histologically non-classifiable colitis shortly before transplantation. Upon follow-up abdominal ultrasound 4 months after transplantation, a liver lesion measuring 16 × 23 mm was detected in the transplanted liver. This lesion had not been noticed immediately after transplantation and showed a pattern suspicious for malignancy in contrast-enhanced ultrasound...
October 5, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Daniel G Rosenbaum, Maire A Conrad, David M Biko, Eduardo D Ruchelli, Judith R Kelsen, Sudha A Anupindi
BACKGROUND: Imaging predictors for surgery in children with Crohn disease are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To identify imaging features of the terminal ileum on short-interval bowel ultrasound (US) and MR enterography (MRE) in children with Crohn disease requiring surgical bowel resection and those managed by medical therapy alone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated patients 18 years and younger with Crohn disease undergoing short-interval bowel US and MRE (within 2 months of one another), as well as subsequent ileocecectomy or endoscopy within 3 months of imaging...
September 29, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Katarzyna Bąk-Drabik, Piotr Adamczyk, Agata Chobot, Jarosław Kwiecień, Wojciech Pluskiewicz
BACKGROUND: To determine the bone status in children with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurement at hand phalanges and compare the obtained results with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). METHODS: Fifty-one children with IBD underwent DXA and QUS measurements at hand phalanges in the year 2013. The control group for the QUS consisted of 460 children. Reference data for DXA comes from Hologic Explorer. RESULTS: QUS measurements did not differ significantly between IBD patients and healthy controls...
October 11, 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Andrea Giannetti, Marco Biscontri, Marco Matergi, Michela Stumpo, Chiara Minacci
Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) and strain elastography (SE) are diagnostic imaging methods, which are still not routinely used in the clinical management of inflammatory bowel diseases. However, there are studies in the literature reporting on the use of both CEUS and SE in patients with bowel obstruction due to Crohn's disease, documenting the usefulness of these two methods in the differentiation between inflammation and fibrosis affecting the bowel wall. The aim of this case report is to evaluate the usefulness of CEUS and SE performed in a patient with Crohn's disease, who was admitted to hospital with bowel obstruction due to terminal ileal stricture and submitted to ileocecal resection...
September 2016: Journal of Ultrasound
Antonella Gallo, Gianluca Ianiro, Massimo Montalto, Giovanni Cammarota
Diverticulosis of the colon is a common condition in western countries. Acute diverticulitis may occur in 10% to 25% of the patients, sometimes associated with the presence of complications such as abscess, fistula, and perforation. Early diagnosis and accurate assessment of acute diverticulitis are necessary to start an efficacious treatment promptly, either conservatively or by surgery. The clinical picture may mimic other abdominal conditions; therefore, imaging techniques such as ultrasound or computed tomography are usually recommended, although they are expensive, examiner dependent, and potentially harmful...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Vasileios Rafailidis, Annamaria Deganello, Tom Watson, Paul S Sidhu, Maria E Sellars
Contrast-enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) represents a complementary technique to grey-scale and colour Doppler ultrasonography (US) which allows for real-time visualization and characterization of tissue perfusion. Its inherent advantages in the child makes US an ideal imaging modality; repeatability and good tolerance along with the avoidance of computed tomography (CT), a source of ionizing radiation, renders US imaging desirable. Although currently paediatric CEUS is principally used in an "off-label" manner, US contrast agents have received regulatory approval for assessment of paediatric focal liver lesions in the United States of America...
September 9, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVE: To observe the occurrence rate of elevated serum amylase and lipase in critically ill children, to explore the relationship between elevated pancreatic enzymes and pancreatic injury, and the effect of elevated pancreatic enzymes on state of illness and the prognosis. METHOD: The data of cases treated in pediatric intensive care unit(ICU) of 17 children's hospitals were collected prospectively from January 2012 to March 2014 according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria...
September 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Tomás Ripollés, José M Paredes, María J Martínez-Pérez, Jordi Rimola, Arantza Jauregui-Amezaga, Rosa Bouzas, Gregorio Martin, Eduardo Moreno-Osset
BACKGROUND: The objective was to assess the long-term effect of biological treatment on transmural lesions of Crohn's disease evaluated with ultrasound, including contrast-enhanced ultrasound. METHODS: Fifty-one patients with active Crohn's disease were included in a prospective multicenter longitudinal study. All patients underwent a clinical assessment and sonographic examination at baseline, 12 weeks after treatment initiation, and after 1-year of treatment. Patients were clinically followed at least 2 years from inclusion until the end of the study...
October 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Heather I Gale, Michael S Gee, Sjirk J Westra, Katherine Nimkin
Ultrasound is an invaluable imaging modality in the evaluation of pediatric gastrointestinal pathology; it can provide real-time evaluation of the bowel without the need for sedation or intravenous contrast. Recent improvements in ultrasound technique can be utilized to improve detection of bowel pathology in children: Higher resolution probes, color Doppler, harmonic and panoramic imaging are excellent tools in this setting. Graded compression and cine clips provide dynamic information and oral and intravenous contrast agents aid in detection of bowel wall pathology...
July 28, 2016: World Journal of Radiology
Ryan W Stidham, Peter Dr Higgins
Crohn's disease (CD) activity assessments are dominated by inflammatory changes without discrete measurement of the coexisting fibrotic contribution to total bowel damage. Intestinal fibrosis impacts the development of severe structural complications and the overall natural history of CD. Measuring intestinal fibrosis is challenging and existing methods of disease assessment are unable to reliably distinguish fibrosis from inflammation. Both the immediate clinical need to measure fibrosis for therapeutic decision-making and the near-future need for tools to assess pipeline anti-fibrotic medications highlight the demand for biomarkers of fibrosis in CD...
August 2016: United European Gastroenterology Journal
Toru Kameda, Nobuyuki Taniguchi
Point-of-care abdominal ultrasound (US), which is performed by clinicians at bedside, is increasingly being used to evaluate clinical manifestations, to facilitate accurate diagnoses, and to assist procedures in emergency and critical care. Methods for the assessment of acute abdominal pain with point-of-care US must be developed according to accumulated evidence in each abdominal region. To detect hemoperitoneum, the methodology of a focused assessment with sonography for a trauma examination may also be an option in non-trauma patients...
2016: Journal of Intensive Care
Zuhal Caliskan, Nursen Keles, Resul Kahraman, Kamil Özdil, Vildan Karagoz, Feyza Aksu, Gonul Aciksari, Yusuf Yilmaz, Seref Kul, Mustafa Caliskan
Crohn's Disease [CD] is one of the Inflammatory Bowel Diseases that are chronic relapsing inflammatory diseases. Despite the major affected organ is intestine in CD, extra intestinal organs and tissues including cardiovascular system are also affected. Several studies have demonstrated that CD patients may have a higher risk of advancing atherosclerosis. The microvascular endothelial dysfunction plays an essential role for developing coronary atherosclerosis. Microvascular structural abnormalities in the retinal circulation may predict macrovascular events such as stroke and coronary heart disease...
November 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Rune Wilkens, Kerri L Novak, Eleonore Lebeuf-Taylor, Stephanie R Wilson
Background and Aims. We aim to evaluate the benefit of ultrasound in the assessment of Crohn's disease and to demonstrate its potential contribution to disease management. Methods. We conduct a retrospective review of adult patients with Crohn's disease examined with sonography and colonoscopy within 30 days. Study patients were identified in whom colonoscopy did not access a pathological segment, detected and evaluated by ultrasonography. Changes in management were predominantly attributed to ultrasound in those cases where the diseased segment was not assessed on endoscopy...
2016: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Kerri L Novak, Deepti Jacob, Gilaad G Kaplan, Emma Boyce, Subrata Ghosh, Irene Ma, Cathy Lu, Stephanie Wilson, Remo Panaccione
Background. Approaches to distinguish inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) from noninflammatory disease that are noninvasive, accurate, and readily available are desirable. Such approaches may decrease time to diagnosis and better utilize limited endoscopic resources. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy for gastroenterologist performed point of care ultrasound (POCUS) in the detection of luminal inflammation relative to gold standard ileocolonoscopy. Methods. A prospective, single-center study was conducted on convenience sample of patients presenting with symptoms of diarrhea and/or abdominal pain...
2016: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Ferdinand Knieling, Maximilian J Waldner
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease are known to have a high demand of recurrent evaluation for therapy and disease activity. Further, the risk of developing cancer during the disease progression is increasing from year to year. New, mostly non-radiant, quick to perform and quantitative methods are challenging, conventional endoscopy with biopsy as gold standard. Especially, new physical imaging approaches utilizing light and sound waves have facilitated the development of advanced functional and molecular modalities...
July 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Valérie Heron, Kyle Joshua Fortinsky, Gillian Spiegle, Nir Hilzenrat, Andrew Szilagyi
Hepatocellular carcinoma rarely occurs in patients without underlying cirrhosis or liver disease. While inflammatory bowel disease has been linked to certain forms of liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma is exceedingly rare in these patients. We report the twelfth case of hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient with Crohn's disease. The patient is a 61-year-old with longstanding Crohn's disease who was treated with azathioprine and was found to have elevated liver enzymes and a new 3-cm liver mass on ultrasound...
January 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
E F Sheybani, N Sheikh, G B Chavhan, M-L C Greer
AIM: To determine the occurrence of extra-intestinal findings on magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) in a large cohort of children with known or suspected inflammatory bowel disease, characterise those findings, determine the technique and frequency of follow-up imaging, and associated costs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Imaging reports from 757 MRE examinations in 671 children with known or suspected IBD from 2011 through 2012 were analysed retrospectively. Reported extra-intestinal findings were categorised by two radiologists in consensus as normal, normal variants or commonly seen findings without clinical significance, or abnormal...
September 2016: Clinical Radiology
Anita Wale, James Pilcher
Bowel ultrasound is cheap, relatively quick, allows dynamic evaluation of the bowel, has no radiation burden, is well tolerated by patients, and allows repeat imaging. Bowel ultrasound requires a systematic assessment of the entire bowel using high-frequency probes. In addition, hydrosonography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound may be performed. We present the normal sonographic appearances of large and small bowel and the sonographic appearances of acute appendicitis, Crohn's disease, celiac disease, intussusception, infectious enteritis, intestinal tuberculosis, small bowel ileus and obstruction, small bowel ischemia, and malignant tumors...
August 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
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