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Antisocial personality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638947/genetic-and-environmental-influences-on-conduct-and-antisocial-personality-problems-in-childhood-adolescence-and-adulthood
#1
Laura W Wesseldijk, Meike Bartels, Jacqueline M Vink, Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt, Lannie Ligthart, Dorret I Boomsma, Christel M Middeldorp
Conduct problems in children and adolescents can predict antisocial personality disorder and related problems, such as crime and conviction. We sought an explanation for such predictions by performing a genetic longitudinal analysis. We estimated the effects of genetic, shared environmental, and unique environmental factors on variation in conduct problems measured at childhood and adolescence and antisocial personality problems measured at adulthood and on the covariation across ages. We also tested whether these estimates differed by sex...
June 21, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638202/characteristics-of-aggressive-behavior-among-male-inpatients-with-schizophrenia
#2
Xiaomin Zhu, Wen Li, Xiaoping Wang
BACKGROUND: The incidence of the aggressive behavior is higher among the patients with severe mental disorder such as schizophrenia than the general population. The study of factors related to aggressive behavior has great meaning in designing prevention and intervention methods with this population of patients. AIMS: To understand the characteristics of assaultive behavior of male patients with schizophrenia who have been hospitalized. METHODS: Using a continuous sampling method, data from 75 male inpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia was collected at the psychiatric unit of Central South University Second Xiangya Hospital (Changsha, China) from August 2015 to February 2016...
October 25, 2016: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635558/identifying-criminogenic-needs-using-the-personality-assessment-inventory-with-males-who-have-sexually-offended
#3
Sandy Jung, Carissa Toop, Liam Ennis
The present study investigated the relationships between the scales of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) and variables relevant to recidivism risk and criminogenic need to inform clinicians' use of the PAI for purposes of treatment planning and risk management. PAI profiles, risk measure and domain scores, and recidivism data were collected for 158 males who have been convicted of sexually offending. Data were analyzed to investigate whether select clinical scales of the PAI correlated with conceptually relevant domains of risk and/or recidivism...
June 1, 2017: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631974/personality-disorders-are-not-as-we-thought-hierarchical-factor-structure-at-the-criterion-level
#4
Ana Muñoz-Champel, Fernando Gutiérrez, Josep M Peri, Rafael Torrubia
The use of personality disorder (PD) categories persists, despite the evidence against them. An often overlooked reason for this is the fact that the true structure underlying the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) taxonomy is still unknown: We cannot be certain which disorders are valid, and which ones are arbitrary mixtures of heterogeneous traits. To address this gap, we factor analyzed the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire (PDQ-4+; Hyler, 1994 ) at the criterion level in a mixed clinical and nonclinical sample of 2,519 individuals...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627296/sexual-violation-of-patients-by-physicians-a-mixed-methods-exploratory-analysis-of-101-cases
#5
James M DuBois, Heidi A Walsh, John T Chibnall, Emily E Anderson, Michelle R Eggers, Mobolaji Fowose, Hannah Ziobrowski
A mixed-method, exploratory design was used to examine 101 cases of sexual violations in medicine. The study involved content analysis of cases to characterize the physicians, patient-victims, the practice setting, kinds of sexual violations, and consequences to the perpetrator. In each case, a criminal law framework was used to examine how motives, means, and opportunity combined to generate sexual misconduct. Finally, cross-case analysis was performed to identify clusters of causal factors that explain specific kinds of sexual misconduct...
June 1, 2017: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612143/adhd-modulates-the-course-of-delinquency-a-15-year-follow-up-study-of-young-incarcerated-man
#6
Florence Philipp-Wiegmann, Michael Rösler, Oriana Clasen, Toivo Zinnow, Petra Retz-Junginger, Wolfgang Retz
There is growing evidence of an association between ADHD and rule-breaking behaviour and that subjects with ADHD are more likely to be involved in the legal system. However, the research on ADHD as a risk factor not only for delinquency but also for recidivism is scarce and findings are controversial. Therefore, we explored the impact of ADHD on the course of delinquency in a sample of incarcerated young men. We conducted a 15-year follow-up study by investigating the criminal records of 106 former youth prisoners...
June 13, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605537/aggressive-behavior-among-persons-with-schizophrenia-and-those-who-are-developing-schizophrenia-attempting-to-understand-the-limited-evidence-on-causality
#7
Sheilagh Hodgins
People with, and those who are developing, schizophrenia are at increased risk to engage in aggressive behavior (AGB). Some incidents lead to criminal prosecution. Most people with schizophrenia who commit crimes engage in delinquency and/or AGB prior to first episode. A large proportion of these individuals have a history of childhood conduct disorder (CD) and brain abnormalities suggestive of abnormal neural development distinctive from that of others with schizophrenia. Factors contributing to schizophrenia that is preceded by CD include failing to learn not-to-behave aggressively in early childhood, impairments in understanding emotions in the faces of others, maltreatment, and subsequent re-victimization...
June 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604276/clinician-perspectives-of-antisocial-and-borderline-personality-disorders-using-dsm-5-section-iii-dimensional-personality-traits
#8
Jaime L Anderson, Martin Sellbom, R Clayton Shealy
The DSM-5 includes an alternative model for the diagnosis of personality disorders (PDs). Although there has been growing support for this model, there has been little investigation into how it will be utilized by clinicians. The current study evaluated clinician perspectives of a "prototypical" individual with antisocial and borderline PD using Section III traits in a sample of 105 mental health professionals. Results showed that clinicians' perspectives of these disorders were generally consistent with the Section III trait operationalizations...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594631/the-role-of-dimensional-personality-psychopathology-in-a-forensic-inpatient-psychiatric-setting
#9
Jaime L Anderson, Mary E Wood, Anthony M Tarescavage, Danielle Burchett, David M Glassmire
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form is a widely used measure of psychopathology and includes the Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) scales, which measure dimensional maladaptive personality traits similar to those in the DSM-5 alternative model for personality disorder (PD) diagnosis. The current study evaluated the role of these dimensional personality psychopathology characteristics in a sample of 1,110 inpatients in a forensic psychiatric setting, where personality psychopathology plays a significant but understudied role...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594208/field-measures-of-psychopathy-and-sexual-deviance-as-predictors-of-recidivism-among-sexual-offenders
#10
Paige B Harris, Marcus T Boccaccini, Amanda K Rice
Offenders with high levels of both psychopathy and deviant sexual interests are often described as being more prone to recidivate than other sexual offenders, and many forensic evaluators report considering this psychopathy and sexual deviance interaction when coming to conclusions about sex offender risk. However, empirical support for the interaction comes from studies using sexual deviance measures that are rarely used in the field. We examined the ability of Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) field scores and possible field measures of sexual deviance (e...
June 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594187/genetic-and-environmental-sources-of-covariation-between-early-drinking-and-adult-functioning
#11
Jordan Sparks Waldron, Stephen M Malone, Matt McGue, William G Iacono
The vast majority of individuals initiate alcohol consumption for the first time in adolescence. Given the widespread nature of its use and evidence that adolescents may be especially vulnerable to its effects, there is concern about the long-term detrimental impact of adolescent drinking on adult functioning. While some researchers have suggested that genetic processes may confound the relationship, the mechanisms linking drinking and later adjustment remain unclear. The current study utilized a genetically informed sample and biometric modeling to examine the nature of the familial influences on this association and identify the potential for genetic confounding...
June 8, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594054/personality-patterns-predict-the-risk-of-antisocial-behavior-in-spanish-speaking-adolescents
#12
Miguel A Alcázar-Córcoles, Antonio Verdejo-García, José C Bouso-Sáiz, Javier Revuelta-Menéndez, Ezequiel Ramírez-Lira
INTRODUCTION: There is a renewed interest in incorporating personality variables in criminology theories in order to build models able to integrate personality variables and biological factors with psychosocial and sociocultural factors. The aim of this article is the assessment of personality dimensions that contribute to the prediction of antisocial behavior in adolescents. METHODS: For this purpose, a sample of adolescents from El Salvador, Mexico, and Spain was obtained...
May 2017: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558905/correlates-and-predictors-of-antipsychotic-drug-polypharmacy-in-real-life-settings-results-from-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#13
Leo Malandain, Florence Thibaut, Lamiae Grimaldi-Bensouda, Bruno Falissard, Lucien Abenhaim, Clementine Nordon
Reasons for using antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) in routine clinical practice, despite a potentially unfavorable risk-benefit ratio, are poorly understood. This research aimed to determine (1) if severe courses of schizophrenia were associated with APP and (2) if a schizophrenia-related acute event would predict a switch to APP in the short term. Observational prospective data (at baseline and 6months) were drawn from a French nationwide cohort ("Cohorte Générale Schizophrénie"), which included 1859 inpatients and outpatients with schizophrenia...
May 27, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557506/correction-to-chun-et-al-2017
#14
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "A psychometric investigation of gender differences and common processes across borderline and antisocial personality disorders" by Seokjoon Chun, Alexa Harris, Margely Carrion, Elizabeth Rojas, Stephen Stark, Carl Lejuez, William V. Lechner and Marina A. Bornovalova (Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2017[Jan], Vol 126[1], 76-88). In the original record, there were two errors in the article's suppemental material. The supplemental material stated, "In each case, if the relaxed model fit significantly better than the baseline model (i...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555534/personality-risk-for-antisocial-behavior-testing-the-intersections-between-callous-unemotional-traits-sensation-seeking-and-impulse-control-in-adolescence
#15
Frank D Mann, Sara L Paul, Jennifer L Tackett, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, K Paige Harden
The current project seeks to integrate literatures on personality risk for antisocial behavior (ASB) by examining how callous-unemotional traits relate to (a) the development of disinhibited traits and (b) the association between disinhibited traits and ASB. In Study 1, using a nationally representative sample of youth (N > 7,000), we examined whether conduct problems and lack of guilt assessed during ages 4-10 years predicted levels of and changes in disinhibited traits over the course of adolescence, and moderated associations between these traits and ASB...
May 30, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541062/antisocial-and-human-capital-pathways-to-socioeconomic-exclusion-a-42-year-prospective-study
#16
Jukka Savolainen, W Alex Mason, Anna-Liisa Lyyra, Lea Pulkkinen, Katja Kokko
Nordic welfare states have been very successful at reducing poverty and inequality among their citizens. However, the presence of a strong social safety net in these countries has not solved the problem of socioeconomic exclusion, manifesting in such outcomes as chronic unemployment and welfare dependency. In an effort to understand this phenomenon, the current study builds on the assumption that psychological risk factors emerge as important determinants of socioeconomic disadvantage in an environment where ascribed characteristics have less impact on educational and occupational attainment...
May 25, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528231/neurocognitive-dysfunction-in-problem-gamblers-with-co-occurring-antisocial-personality-disorder
#17
Austin W Blum, Eric W Leppink, Jon E Grant
OBJECTIVES: Problem gamblers with symptoms of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) may represent a distinct problem gambling subtype, but the neurocognitive profile of individuals affected by both disorders is poorly characterized. METHOD: Non-treatment-seeking young adults (18-29years) who gambled ≥5 times in the preceding year were recruited from the general community. Problem gamblers (defined as those meeting ≥1 DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for gambling disorder) with a lifetime history of ASPD (N=26) were identified using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and compared with controls (N=266) using questionnaire-based impulsivity scales and objective computerized neuropsychological tasks...
July 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521251/the-protective-effect-of-character-maturity-in-child-aggressive-antisocial-behavior
#18
Nóra Kerekes, Örjan Falk, Sven Brändström, Henrik Anckarsäter, Maria Råstam, Björn Hofvander
BACKGROUND: Childhood aggressive antisocial behavior (CD) is one of the strongest predictors of mental health problems and criminal behavior in adulthood. The aims of this study were to describe personality profiles in children with CD, and to determine the strength of association between defined neurodevelopmental symptoms, dimensions of character maturity and CD. METHODS: A sample of 1886 children with a close to equal distribution of age (9 or 12) and gender, enriched for neurodevelopmental and psychiatric problems were selected from the nationwide Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden...
July 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515474/blunted-ambiguity-aversion-during-cost-benefit-decisions-in-antisocial-individuals
#19
Joshua W Buckholtz, Uma Karmarkar, Shengxuan Ye, Grace M Brennan, Arielle Baskin-Sommers
Antisocial behavior is often assumed to reflect aberrant risk processing. However, many of the most significant forms of antisocial behavior, including crime, reflect the outcomes of decisions made under conditions of ambiguity rather than risk. While risk and ambiguity are formally distinct and experimentally dissociable, little is known about ambiguity sensitivity in individuals who engage in chronic antisocial behavior. We used a financial decision-making task in a high-risk community-based sample to test for associations between sensitivity to ambiguity, antisocial behavior, and arrest history...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514693/drinking-despite-health-problems-among-individuals-with-liver-disease-across-the-united-states
#20
Jennifer C Elliott, Malka Stohl, Deborah S Hasin
BACKGROUND: Heavy drinking is harmful for individuals with liver disease. However, some of these individuals drink despite knowledge of the risks. The current study aims to identify factors underlying drinking despite health problems among individuals with liver disease. METHODS: The current study utilizes a subsample of individuals reporting past-year liver disease and at least one drink in the past year (n=331), taken from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III), a large nationally representative survey of the United States...
May 9, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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