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Candida overgrowth

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533173/clostridium-difficile-shows-no-trade-off-between-toxin-and-spore-production-within-the-human-host
#1
Natalia Blanco, Seth Walk, Anurag N Malani, Alexander Rickard, Michele Benn, Marisa Eisenberg, Min Zhang, Betsy Foxman
PURPOSE: This study aimed to describe the correlation between Clostridium difficile spore and toxin levels within the human host. In addition, we assessed whether overgrowth of Candida albicans modified this association. METHODOLOGY: We measured toxin, spore and Candida albicans levels among 200 successively collected stool samples that tested positive for C. difficile, and PCR ribotyped these C. difficile isolates. Analysis of variance and linear regression were used to test the association between spore and toxin levels...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501618/candida-innate-immunity-at-the-mucosa
#2
REVIEW
Jonathan P Richardson, David L Moyes, Jemima Ho, Julian R Naglik
The tremendous diversity in microbial species that colonise the mucosal surfaces of the human body is only now beginning to be fully appreciated. Distinguishing between the behaviour of commensal microbes and harmful pathogens that reside at mucosal sites in the body is a complex, and exquisitely fine-tuned process central to mucosal health. The fungal pathobiont Candida albicans is frequently isolated from mucosal surfaces with an asymptomatic carriage rate of approximately 60% in the human population. While normally a benign member of the microbiota, overgrowth of C...
February 28, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463799/remodeling-of-the-candida-glabrata-cell-wall-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-affects-the-gut-microbiota-and-the-immune-response
#3
Rogatien Charlet, Youri Pruvost, Gael Tumba, Fabian Istel, Daniel Poulain, Karl Kuchler, Boualem Sendid, Samir Jawhara
The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota acts a natural barrier to the proliferation of opportunistic pathogens. Candida glabrata is an opportunistic yeast pathogen that has adapted to colonize all segments of the human GI tract. We observed an increase in Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Bacteroides vulgatus populations, and a decrease in Lactobacillus johnsonii, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, and Bifidobacterium animalis in mice with DSS-induced colitis. This reduction was more pronounced for L. johnsonii during C...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419738/candida-epithelial-interactions
#4
REVIEW
Jonathan P Richardson, Jemima Ho, Julian R Naglik
A plethora of intricate and dynamic molecular interactions occur between microbes and the epithelial cells that form the mucosal surfaces of the human body. Fungi, particularly species of Candida, are commensal members of our microbiota, continuously interacting with epithelial cells. Transient and localised perturbations to the mucosal environment can facilitate the overgrowth of fungi, causing infection. This minireview will examine the direct and indirect mechanisms by which Candida species and epithelial cells interact with each other, and explore the factors involved in the central processes of adhesion, invasion, and destruction of host mucosal surfaces...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371505/gaining-insights-from-candida-biofilm-heterogeneity-one-size-does-not-fit-all
#5
REVIEW
Ryan Kean, Christopher Delaney, Ranjith Rajendran, Leighann Sherry, Rebecca Metcalfe, Rachael Thomas, William McLean, Craig Williams, Gordon Ramage
Despite their clinical significance and substantial human health burden, fungal infections remain relatively under-appreciated. The widespread overuse of antibiotics and the increasing requirement for indwelling medical devices provides an opportunistic potential for the overgrowth and colonization of pathogenic Candida species on both biological and inert substrates. Indeed, it is now widely recognized that biofilms are a highly important part of their virulence repertoire. Candida albicans is regarded as the primary fungal biofilm forming species, yet there is also increasing interest and growing body of evidence for non-Candida albicans species (NCAS) biofilms, and interkingdom biofilm interactions...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342100/modulation-of-the-fungal-host-interaction-by-the-intra-species-diversity-of-c-albicans
#6
REVIEW
Christina Braunsdorf, Salomé LeibundGut-Landmann
The incidence of human infections caused by the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans is on the rise due to increasing numbers of immunosuppressed patients. The importance of the immune system in preventing overgrowth of the colonizing fungus and thereby limiting infection is well recognized and host protective mechanisms widely investigated. Only recently, it was recognized that the natural diversity in the fungal species could also influence the outcome of the interaction between the fungus and the host...
January 17, 2018: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242837/the-human-gut-microbial-metabolome-modulates-fungal-growth-via-the-tor-signaling-pathway
#7
Carlos García, Faiza Tebbji, Michelle Daigneault, Ning-Ning Liu, Julia R Köhler, Emma Allen-Vercoe, Adnane Sellam
Candida albicans is well known as a major human fungal pathogen, but it is also a permanent resident of healthy gastrointestinal tracts. Recent studies have shown that the human gut microbial metabolome represents an interesting source of bioactive molecules with a significant degree of chemical diversity. Some of these bioactive molecules may have useful antivirulence activities. For instance, intestinal bacterial species belonging to the Lachnospiraceae family were found to secrete molecules that attenuate Salmonella pathogenicity and repress the expression of virulence genes...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223551/recent-advances-in-delivery-of-antifungal-agents-for-therapeutic-management-of-candidiasis
#8
REVIEW
Bhakti Sawant, Tabassum Khan
Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by yeasts that belong to the genus Candida. There are over twenty species of Candida yeasts that can cause infection in humans, the most common of which is Candida albicans. Candida yeasts normally reside in the intestinal tract and can be found on mucous membranes and skin without causing infection; however, overgrowth of these organisms can cause symptoms to develop. Presence of other diseases that compromises the patient's immunity makes it more difficult to treat...
December 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062326/isolation-and-evaluation-of-candida-species-and-their-association-with-cd4-t-cells-counts-in-hiv-patients-with-diarrhoea
#9
Ayobami Awoyeni, Olarinde Olaniran, Babatunde Odetoyin, Rachel Hassan-Olajokun, Bolatito Olopade, David Afolayan, Oluwakayode Adekunle
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal infection is one of the most common infections among HIV patients. Candida spp have been implicated in the aetiology of chronic diarrhoea in HIV patients, but little is known about this in Nigeria. OBJECTIVES: We determined the prevalence of faecal candidiasis in HIV patients in relation to diarrhoea, CD4 counts, and other socio-demographic factors and the spectrum of Candida isolates involved. METHODS: One hundred and fifty four HIV patients were investigated...
June 2017: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987021/computer-aided-diagnosis-software-for-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-detection-from-pap-smear-images
#10
Mohammadreza Momenzadeh, Alireza Vard, Ardeshir Talebi, Alireza Mehri Dehnavi, Hossein Rabbani
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a common gynecologic infection and it occurs when there is overgrowth of the yeast called Candida. VVC diagnosis is usually done by observing a Pap smear sample under a microscope and searching for the conidium and mycelium components of Candida. This manual method is time consuming, subjective and tedious. Any diagnosis tools that detect VVC, semi- or full-automatically, can be very helpful to pathologists. This article presents a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) software to improve human diagnosis of VVC from Pap smear samples...
January 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818264/the-potential-management-of-oral-candidiasis-using-anti-biofilm-therapies
#11
Warren Chanda, Thomson P Joseph, Wendong Wang, Arshad A Padhiar, Mintao Zhong
Candida albicans is a minor component of the oral microbiota and an opportunistic pathogen that takes advantage of the immunocompromised host and causes oral mucositis and oral candidiasis. This organism is able to undergo phenotypic modification from a yeast to hyphae growth phase, one of the key arsenals for immune cell evasion, tissue invasion and biofilm formation. The latter property coupled with overgrowth and immune compromising factors such as HIV/AIDS, cancer treatments, organ transplantation, diabetes, corticosteroid use, dentures, and broad-spectrum antibiotic use have modified the fungus from a normal component of the microflora to a foe of an oral cavity and resulting in reduced sensitivity towards commonly utilised antifungal agents...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681024/is-human-dectin-1-y238x-gene-polymorphism-related-to-susceptibility-to-recurrent-vulvovaginal-candidiasis
#12
N Zahedi, S Abedian Kenari, S Mohseni, N Aslani, S Ansari, H Badali
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a frequent disease affecting approximately more than %75 of all childbearing women at least once in their lifetime by overgrowth of opportunistic Candida species. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is common in otherwise healthy individuals. Several risk factors were reported to contribute to RVVC susceptibility. A polymorphism in Dectin-1 (Y238X, rs16910526 ) was identified in patients with RVVC and hypothesized that genetic factors play an important role in susceptibility to RVVC...
September 2016: Advances in Medical Mycology (Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678945/phagocytosis-and-nitric-oxide-production-by-peritoneal-adherent-cells-in-response-to-candida-albicans-in-aging-a-collaboration-to-elucidate-the-pathogenesis-of-denture-stomatitis
#13
Taiane Priscila Gardizani, Karen Henriette Pinke, Heliton Gustavo de Lima, Vanessa Soares Lara
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of aging on the internalization and the production of nitric oxide (NO) by peritoneal adherent cells (PAC), in response to Candida albicans (C. albicans). Material and methods: PAC obtained from young and aged mice were challenged with dead or viable C. albicans by using predetermined proportions (cells:yeast) for 30 and 120 minutes. Phagocytosis was analyzed by acridine orange dye, and NO production by the Griess reaction...
May 2017: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530644/intestinal-fungi-contribute-to-development-of-alcoholic-liver-disease
#14
An-Ming Yang, Tatsuo Inamine, Katrin Hochrath, Peng Chen, Lirui Wang, Cristina Llorente, Sena Bluemel, Phillipp Hartmann, Jun Xu, Yukinori Koyama, Tatiana Kisseleva, Manolito G Torralba, Kelvin Moncera, Karen Beeri, Chien-Sheng Chen, Kim Freese, Claus Hellerbrand, Serene Ml Lee, Hal M Hoffman, Wajahat Z Mehal, Guadalupe Garcia-Tsao, Ece A Mutlu, Ali Keshavarzian, Gordon D Brown, Samuel B Ho, Ramon Bataller, Peter Stärkel, Derrick E Fouts, Bernd Schnabl
Chronic liver disease with cirrhosis is the 12th leading cause of death in the United States, and alcoholic liver disease accounts for approximately half of all cirrhosis deaths. Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with intestinal bacterial dysbiosis, yet we understand little about the contribution of intestinal fungi, or mycobiota, to alcoholic liver disease. Here we have demonstrated that chronic alcohol administration increases mycobiota populations and translocation of fungal β-glucan into systemic circulation in mice...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289440/role-of-tlr1-tlr2-and-tlr6-in-the-modulation-of-intestinal-inflammation-and-candida-albicans-elimination
#15
Laura Choteau, Hélène Vancraeyneste, Didier Le Roy, Laurent Dubuquoy, Luiginia Romani, Thierry Jouault, Daniel Poulain, Boualem Sendid, Thierry Calandra, Thierry Roger, Samir Jawhara
BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the major pattern recognition receptors that mediate sensing of a wide range of microorganisms. TLR2 forms heterodimers with either TLR1 or TLR6, broadening its ligand diversity against pathogens. TLR1, TLR2 and TLR6 have been implicated in the recognition of Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen that colonizes the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we explored whether the deficiency in TLR1, TLR2 or TLR6 impacts C. albicans colonization and inflammation-associated colonic injury in the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590517/blunted-dynamics-of-adenosine-a2a-receptors-is-associated-with-increased-susceptibility-to-candida-albicans-infection-in-the-elderly
#16
Lisa Rodrigues, Isabel M Miranda, Geanne M Andrade, Marta Mota, Luísa Cortes, Acácio G Rodrigues, Rodrigo A Cunha, Teresa Gonçalves
Opportunistic gut infections and chronic inflammation, in particular due to overgrowth of Candida albicans present in the gut microbiota, are increasingly reported in the elder population. In aged, adult and young mice, we now compared the relative intestinal over-colonization by ingested C. albicans and their translocation to other organs, focusing on the role of adenosine A2A receptors that are a main stop signal of inflammation. We report that elderly mice are more prone to over-colonization by C. albicans than adult and young mice...
September 27, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547167/chronic-rhinosinusitis-and-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-case-report
#17
Mikhail Kogan, Carlos Cuellar Castillo, Melissa S Barber
INTRODUCTION: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) can be comorbidities that are difficult to treat. In this patient, an evidence-informed treatment pathway guided by laboratory biomarkers was used to address both conditions. CASE PRESENTATION: A 69-y-old female patient presented with a 50-y history of sinusitis that was worse in the winter, postnasal drip, frequent sore throats, gastrointestinal complaints, headaches, and yeast infections...
June 2016: Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540323/yeast-infection-and-diabetes-mellitus-among-pregnant-mother-in-malaysia
#18
Iylia Liyana Sopian, Sa'adiah Shahabudin, Mowaffaq Adam Ahmed, Leslie Than Thian Lung, Doblin Sandai
BACKGROUND: Vaginal yeast infection refers to irritation of the vagina due to the presence of opportunistic yeast of the genus Candida (mostly Candida albicans). About 75% of women will have at least one episode of vaginal yeast infection during their lifetime. Several studies have shown that pregnancy and uncontrolled diabetes increase the infection risk. Reproductive hormone fluctuations during pregnancy and elevated glucose levels characteristic of diabetes provide the carbon needed for Candida overgrowth and infection...
January 2016: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27343964/oral-candidiasis
#19
REVIEW
Jillian W Millsop, Nasim Fazel
Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications...
July 2016: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27254270/management-of-candidemia-in-patients-with-clostridium-difficile-infection
#20
REVIEW
Marco Falcone, Mario Venditti, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Brunella Posteraro
INTRODUCTION: Patients with C. difficile infection (CDI) experience intestinal microflora changes that can promote the overgrowth and subsequent translocation of gut resident pathogens into the blood. Consistently, CDI due to PCR-ribotype 027 strain, severe or relapsing CDI, and treatment with high-dosage vancomycin are independent risk factors for candidemia. AREAS COVERED: We review the role played by the gut microbiota during CDI and its treatment, as well as the clinical profile of CDI patients who are at risk of developing candidemia...
July 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
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