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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987021/computer-aided-diagnosis-software-for-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-detection-from-pap-smear-images
#1
Mohammadreza Momenzadeh, Alireza Vard, Ardeshir Talebi, Alireza Mehri Dehnavi, Hossein Rabbani
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a common gynecologic infection and it occurs when there is overgrowth of the yeast called Candida. VVC diagnosis is usually done by observing a Pap smear sample under a microscope and searching for the conidium and mycelium components of Candida. This manual method is time consuming, subjective and tedious. Any diagnosis tools that detect VVC, semi- or full-automatically, can be very helpful to pathologists. This article presents a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) software to improve human diagnosis of VVC from Pap smear samples...
October 7, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818264/the-potential-management-of-oral-candidiasis-using-anti-biofilm-therapies
#2
Warren Chanda, Thomson P Joseph, Wendong Wang, Arshad A Padhiar, Mintao Zhong
Candida albicans is a minor component of the oral microbiota and an opportunistic pathogen that takes advantage of the immunocompromised host and causes oral mucositis and oral candidiasis. This organism is able to undergo phenotypic modification from a yeast to hyphae growth phase, one of the key arsenals for immune cell evasion, tissue invasion and biofilm formation. The latter property coupled with overgrowth and immune compromising factors such as HIV/AIDS, cancer treatments, organ transplantation, diabetes, corticosteroid use, dentures, and broad-spectrum antibiotic use have modified the fungus from a normal component of the microflora to a foe of an oral cavity and resulting in reduced sensitivity towards commonly utilised antifungal agents...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681024/is-human-dectin-1-y238x-gene-polymorphism-related-to-susceptibility-to-recurrent-vulvovaginal-candidiasis
#3
N Zahedi, S Abedian Kenari, S Mohseni, N Aslani, S Ansari, H Badali
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a frequent disease affecting approximately more than %75 of all childbearing women at least once in their lifetime by overgrowth of opportunistic Candida species. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is common in otherwise healthy individuals. Several risk factors were reported to contribute to RVVC susceptibility. A polymorphism in Dectin-1 (Y238X, rs16910526 ) was identified in patients with RVVC and hypothesized that genetic factors play an important role in susceptibility to RVVC...
September 2016: Advances in Medical Mycology (Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678945/phagocytosis-and-nitric-oxide-production-by-peritoneal-adherent-cells-in-response-to-candida-albicans-in-aging-a-collaboration-to-elucidate-the-pathogenesis-of-denture-stomatitis
#4
Taiane Priscila Gardizani, Karen Henriette Pinke, Heliton Gustavo de Lima, Vanessa Soares Lara
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of aging on the internalization and the production of nitric oxide (NO) by peritoneal adherent cells (PAC), in response to Candida albicans (C. albicans). Material and methods: PAC obtained from young and aged mice were challenged with dead or viable C. albicans by using predetermined proportions (cells:yeast) for 30 and 120 minutes. Phagocytosis was analyzed by acridine orange dye, and NO production by the Griess reaction...
May 2017: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530644/intestinal-fungi-contribute-to-development-of-alcoholic-liver-disease
#5
An-Ming Yang, Tatsuo Inamine, Katrin Hochrath, Peng Chen, Lirui Wang, Cristina Llorente, Sena Bluemel, Phillipp Hartmann, Jun Xu, Yukinori Koyama, Tatiana Kisseleva, Manolito G Torralba, Kelvin Moncera, Karen Beeri, Chien-Sheng Chen, Kim Freese, Claus Hellerbrand, Serene Ml Lee, Hal M Hoffman, Wajahat Z Mehal, Guadalupe Garcia-Tsao, Ece A Mutlu, Ali Keshavarzian, Gordon D Brown, Samuel B Ho, Ramon Bataller, Peter Stärkel, Derrick E Fouts, Bernd Schnabl
Chronic liver disease with cirrhosis is the 12th leading cause of death in the United States, and alcoholic liver disease accounts for approximately half of all cirrhosis deaths. Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with intestinal bacterial dysbiosis, yet we understand little about the contribution of intestinal fungi, or mycobiota, to alcoholic liver disease. Here we have demonstrated that chronic alcohol administration increases mycobiota populations and translocation of fungal β-glucan into systemic circulation in mice...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289440/role-of-tlr1-tlr2-and-tlr6-in-the-modulation-of-intestinal-inflammation-and-candida-albicans-elimination
#6
Laura Choteau, Hélène Vancraeyneste, Didier Le Roy, Laurent Dubuquoy, Luiginia Romani, Thierry Jouault, Daniel Poulain, Boualem Sendid, Thierry Calandra, Thierry Roger, Samir Jawhara
BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the major pattern recognition receptors that mediate sensing of a wide range of microorganisms. TLR2 forms heterodimers with either TLR1 or TLR6, broadening its ligand diversity against pathogens. TLR1, TLR2 and TLR6 have been implicated in the recognition of Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen that colonizes the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we explored whether the deficiency in TLR1, TLR2 or TLR6 impacts C. albicans colonization and inflammation-associated colonic injury in the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590517/blunted-dynamics-of-adenosine-a2a-receptors-is-associated-with-increased-susceptibility-to-candida-albicans-infection-in-the-elderly
#7
Lisa Rodrigues, Isabel M Miranda, Geanne M Andrade, Marta Mota, Luísa Cortes, Acácio G Rodrigues, Rodrigo A Cunha, Teresa Gonçalves
Opportunistic gut infections and chronic inflammation, in particular due to overgrowth of Candida albicans present in the gut microbiota, are increasingly reported in the elder population. In aged, adult and young mice, we now compared the relative intestinal over-colonization by ingested C. albicans and their translocation to other organs, focusing on the role of adenosine A2A receptors that are a main stop signal of inflammation. We report that elderly mice are more prone to over-colonization by C. albicans than adult and young mice...
September 27, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547167/chronic-rhinosinusitis-and-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-case-report
#8
Mikhail Kogan, Carlos Cuellar Castillo, Melissa S Barber
INTRODUCTION: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) can be comorbidities that are difficult to treat. In this patient, an evidence-informed treatment pathway guided by laboratory biomarkers was used to address both conditions. CASE PRESENTATION: A 69-y-old female patient presented with a 50-y history of sinusitis that was worse in the winter, postnasal drip, frequent sore throats, gastrointestinal complaints, headaches, and yeast infections...
June 2016: Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540323/yeast-infection-and-diabetes-mellitus-among-pregnant-mother-in-malaysia
#9
Iylia Liyana Sopian, Sa'adiah Shahabudin, Mowaffaq Adam Ahmed, Leslie Than Thian Lung, Doblin Sandai
BACKGROUND: Vaginal yeast infection refers to irritation of the vagina due to the presence of opportunistic yeast of the genus Candida (mostly Candida albicans). About 75% of women will have at least one episode of vaginal yeast infection during their lifetime. Several studies have shown that pregnancy and uncontrolled diabetes increase the infection risk. Reproductive hormone fluctuations during pregnancy and elevated glucose levels characteristic of diabetes provide the carbon needed for Candida overgrowth and infection...
January 2016: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27343964/oral-candidiasis
#10
REVIEW
Jillian W Millsop, Nasim Fazel
Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications...
July 2016: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27254270/management-of-candidemia-in-patients-with-clostridium-difficile-infection
#11
Marco Falcone, Mario Venditti, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Brunella Posteraro
INTRODUCTION: Patients with C. difficile infection (CDI) experience intestinal microflora changes that can promote the overgrowth and subsequent translocation of gut resident pathogens into the blood. Consistently, CDI due to PCR-ribotype 027 strain, severe or relapsing CDI, and treatment with high-dosage vancomycin are independent risk factors for candidemia. AREAS COVERED: We review the role played by the gut microbiota during CDI and its treatment, as well as the clinical profile of CDI patients who are at risk of developing candidemia...
July 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27081478/probiotics-in-critically-ill-children
#12
REVIEW
Sunit C Singhi, Suresh Kumar
Gut microflora contribute greatly to immune and nutritive functions and act as a physical barrier against pathogenic organisms across the gut mucosa. Critical illness disrupts the balance between host and gut microflora, facilitating colonization, overgrowth, and translocation of pathogens and microbial products across intestinal mucosal barrier and causing systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Commonly used probiotics, which have been developed from organisms that form gut microbiota, singly or in combination, can restore gut microflora and offer the benefits similar to those offered by normal gut flora, namely immune enhancement, improved barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and prevention of bacterial translocation...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26834728/therapeutic-application-of-synbiotics-a-fusion-of-probiotics-and-prebiotics-and-biogenics-as-a-new-concept-for-oral-candida-infections-a-mini-review
#13
REVIEW
Tomoko Ohshima, Yukako Kojima, Chaminda J Seneviratne, Nobuko Maeda
Candida is a major human fungal pathogen causing infectious conditions predominantly in the elderly and immunocompromised hosts. Although Candida resides as a member of the oral indigenous microbiota in symbiosis, some circumstances may cause microbial imbalance leading to dysbiosis and resultant oral candidiasis. Therefore, oral microbial symbiosis that suppresses the overgrowth of Candida is important for a healthy oral ecosystem. In this regard, probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics can be considered a potential therapeutic and preventive strategy against oral candidiasis...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26747422/innate-immunity-and-saliva-in-candida-albicans-mediated-oral-diseases
#14
REVIEW
O Salvatori, S Puri, S Tati, M Edgerton
The oral cavity is a unique niche where Candida albicans infections occur in immunocompetent as well as immunosuppressed individuals. Here we critically review the significance of human innate immune response in preventing oral candidiasis. One important line of defense against oropharyngeal candidiasis is the oral microbiota that prevents infection by competing for space and nutrients as well as by secreting antagonistic molecules and triggering local inflammatory responses. C. albicans is able to induce mucosal defenses through activation of immune cells and production of cytokines...
April 2016: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26682791/pathogenic-gut-flora-in-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure
#15
Evasio Pasini, Roberto Aquilani, Cristian Testa, Paola Baiardi, Stefania Angioletti, Federica Boschi, Manuela Verri, Francesco Dioguardi
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to measure the presence of pathogenic gut flora and intestinal permeability (IP) and their correlations with disease severity, venous blood congestion, and inflammation in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that translocation of gut flora and/or their toxins from the intestine to the bloodstream is a possible trigger of systemic CHF inflammation. However, the relation between pathogenic gut flora and CHF severity, as well as IP, venous blood congestion as right atrial pressure (RAP), and/or systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP]), is still unknown...
March 2016: JACC. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26488273/candida-albicans-biofilms-and-human-disease
#16
REVIEW
Clarissa J Nobile, Alexander D Johnson
In humans, microbial cells (including bacteria, archaea, and fungi) greatly outnumber host cells. Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal species of the human microbiota; this species asymptomatically colonizes many areas of the body, particularly the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of healthy individuals. Alterations in host immunity, stress, resident microbiota, and other factors can lead to C. albicans overgrowth, causing a wide range of infections, from superficial mucosal to hematogenously disseminated candidiasis...
2015: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26444732/images-in-clinical-medicine-oral-maxillary-exostosis
#17
Shoichiro Kitajima, Akio Yasui
A 73-year-old woman presented with mouth dryness and tongue soreness. The oral cavity of the patient was dry, and Candida albicans was detected on culture. On examination of the upper jaw, firm protrusions of the alveolar bone were noted. Oral exostosis, a benign overgrowth of bone, was diagnosed...
October 8, 2015: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26188072/il-17-mediated-immunity-to-the-opportunistic-fungal-pathogen-candida-albicans
#18
REVIEW
Heather R Conti, Sarah L Gaffen
IL-17 (IL-17A) has emerged as a key mediator of protection against extracellular microbes, but this cytokine also drives pathology in various autoimmune diseases. Overwhelming data in both humans and mice reveal a clear and surprisingly specific role for IL-17 in protection against the fungus Candida albicans, a commensal microbe of the human oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and reproductive mucosa. The IL-17 pathway regulates antifungal immunity through upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, neutrophil-recruiting chemokines (e...
August 1, 2015: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26170621/innovation-of-natural-essential-oil-loaded-orabase-for-local-treatment-of-oral-candidiasis
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Gihan S Labib, Hibah Aldawsari
PURPOSE: Oral candidiasis may be manifested in the oral cavity as either mild or severe oral fungal infection. This infection results from the overgrowth of Candida species normally existing in the oral cavity in minute amounts based on many predisposing factors. Several aspects have spurred the search for new strategies in the treatment of oral candidiasis, among which are the limited numbers of new antifungal drugs developed in recent years. Previous studies have shown that thyme and clove oils have antimycotic activities and have suggested their incorporation into pharmaceutical preparations...
2015: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25861439/comparative-study-of-esterase-and-hemolytic-activities-in-clinically-important-candida-species-isolated-from-oral-cavity-of-diabetic-and-non-diabetic-individuals
#20
Mahnaz Fatahinia, Farzad Poormohamadi, Ali Zarei Mahmoudabadi
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus as a chronic metabolic disease occurs in patients with partial or complete deficiency of insulin secretion or disorder in action of insulin on tissue. The disease is known to provide conditions for overgrowth of Candida species. Candida spp. cause candidiasis by many virulence factors such as esterase, hemolysin and phospholipase. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare esterase and hemolytic activity in various Candida species isolated from oral cavity of diabetic and non-diabetic individuals...
March 2015: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
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