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Lower and lower middle income countries

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088236/economic-burden-of-family-caregiving-for-elderly-population-in-southern-ghana-the-case-of-a-peri-urban-district
#1
Stephen Tettey Nortey, Genevieve Cecilia Aryeetey, Moses Aikins, Djesika Amendah, Justice Nonvignon
BACKGROUND: Health systems in low and lower-middle income countries, particularly in sub-Sahara Africa, often lack the specialized personnel and infrastructure to provide comprehensive care for elderly/ageing populations. Close-to-client community-based approaches are a low-cost way of providing basic care and social support for elderly populations in such resource-constrained settings and family caregivers play a crucial role in that regard. However, family caregiving duties are often unremunerated and their care-related economic burden is often overlooked though this knowledge is important in designing or scaling up effective interventions...
January 14, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088198/does-equity-in-healthcare-spending-exist-among-indian-states-explaining-regional-variations-from-national-sample-survey-data
#2
Rinshu Dwivedi, Jalandhar Pradhan
BACKGROUND: Equity and justice in healthcare payment form an integral part of health policy and planning. In the majority of low and middle-income countries (LMICs), healthcare inequalities are further aggravated by Out of Pocket Expenditure (OOPE). This paper examines the pattern of health equity and regional disparities in healthcare spending among Indian states by applying Andersen's behavioural model of healthcare utilization. METHODS: The present study uses data from the 66(th) quinquennial round of Consumer Expenditure Survey, of the National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO), conducted in 2009-10 by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI), Government of India (GoI)...
January 14, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086870/a-pilot-study-of-a-community-health-agent-led-type-2-diabetes-self-management-program-using-motivational-interviewing-based-approaches-in-a-public-primary-care-center-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#3
Thais Moura Ribeiro do Valle Nascimento, Ken Resnicow, Marcia Nery, Alexandra Brentani, Elizabeth Kaselitz, Pooja Agrawal, Simanjit Mand, Michele Heisler
BACKGROUND: Rates of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as type 2 diabetes are escalating in low and middle-income countries such as Brazil. Scalable primary care-based interventions are needed to improve self-management and clinical outcomes of adults with diabetes. This pilot study examines the feasibility, acceptability, and outcomes of training community health agents (CHAs) in Motivational Interviewing (MI)-based counseling for patients with poorly controlled diabetes in a primary care center in São Paulo, Brazil...
January 13, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078803/why-do-they-care-narratives-of-physician-volunteers-on-motivations-for-participation-in-short-term-medical-missions-abroad
#4
Paul H Caldron, Ann Impens, Milena Pavlova, Wim Groot
BACKGROUND: Short-term medical missions (STMMs) refer to the provision of direct pro bono medical services in lower and middle income countries for periods ranging from days to a few weeks by physicians from rich countries. Survey data have provided limited information on demographic and professional profiles of physicians as well as monetary and manpower inputs. Understanding why physicians participate, however, remains incomplete. The study's objective was to elicit physicians' motivations directly...
January 12, 2017: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077415/international-multiphase-mixed-methods-study-protocol-to-develop-a-cross-cultural-patient-reported-outcome-instrument-for-children-and-young-adults-with-cleft-lip-and-or-palate-cleft-q
#5
Karen W Y Wong Riff, Elena Tsangaris, Tim Goodacre, Christopher R Forrest, Andrea L Pusic, Stefan J Cano, Anne F Klassen
INTRODUCTION: Patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments should be developed according to rigorous guidelines in order to provide clinically meaningful, scientifically sound measurement. Understanding the methodology behind instrument development informs the selection of the most appropriate tool. This mixed methods protocol describes the development of an internationally applicable PRO instrument, the CLEFT-Q, for evaluating outcomes of treatment for cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study includes three main phases that occur iteratively and interactively...
January 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076428/does-measles-vaccination-reduce-the-risk-of-acute-respiratory-infection-ari-and-diarrhea-in-children-a-multi-country-study
#6
Rahul Bawankule, Abhishek Singh, Kaushalendra Kumar, Sadanand Shetye
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia and diarrhea occur either as complications or secondary infections in measles affected children. So, the integrated Global Action Plan for Pneumonia and Diarrhea (GAPPD) by WHO and UNICEF includes measles vaccination as preventive measure in children. The objective of the study is to examine the effect of measles vaccination on Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) and diarrhea in children in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan. METHODS: We analyzed data from the most recent rounds of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in the selected countries...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048284/su-f-p-08-medical-physics-perspective-on-radiation-therapy-quality-and-safety-considerations-in-low-income-settings
#7
J Van Dyk, A Meghzifene
PURPOSE: The last few years have seen a significant growth of interest in the global radiation therapy crisis. Various organizations are quantifying the need and providing aid in support of addressing the shortfall existing in many low-to-middle income countries (LMICs). The Lancet Oncology Commission report (Lancet Oncol. Sep;16(10):1153-86, 2015) projects a need of 22,000 new medical physicists in LMICs by 2035 if there is to be equal access globally. With the tremendous demand for new facilities, equipment and personnel, it is very important to recognize quality and safety considerations and to address them directly...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045979/intensive-patient-education-improves-glycaemic-control-in-diabetes-compared-to-conventional-education-a-randomised-controlled-trial-in-a-nigerian-tertiary-care-hospital
#8
Okon Essien, Akaninyene Otu, Victor Umoh, Ofem Enang, Joseph Paul Hicks, John Walley
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is now a global epidemic, but most cases are now in low- and middle-income countries. Diabetes self-management education (DSME) is key to enabling patients to manage their chronic condition and can reduce the occurrence of costly and devastating complications. However, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of different DSME programmes in resource limited settings. METHODS: We conducted an unblinded, parallel-group, individually-randomised controlled trial at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (Nigeria) to evaluate whether an intensive and systematic DSME programme, using structured guidelines, improved glycaemic control compared to the existing ad hoc patient education (clinical practice was unchanged)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040520/predictors-of-differences-in-health-services-utilization-for-children-in-nigerian-communities
#9
Victor T Adekanmbi, Sulaimon T Adedokun, Sian Taylor-Phillips, Olalekan A Uthman, Aileen Clarke
Health service utilization is an important component of child health promotion. Evidence shows that two-thirds of child deaths in low and middle income countries could be prevented if current interventions were adequately utilized. Aim of this study was to identify determinants of variation in health services utilization for children in communities in Nigeria. Multivariable negative binomial regression model attempting to explain observed variability in health services usage in Nigerian communities was applied to the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data...
December 28, 2016: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032214/perinatal-suicidal-ideation-and-behaviour-psychiatry-and-adversity
#10
Michael Nnachebe Onah, Sally Field, Jason Bantjes, Simone Honikman
Pregnant women are at increased risk for suicidal ideation and behaviours (SIB) compared to the general population. To date, studies have focused on the psychiatric correlates of SIB with lesser attention given to the associated contextual risk factors, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. We investigated the prevalence and associated psychiatric and socio-economic contextual factors for SIB among pregnant women living in low resource communities in South Africa. Three hundred seventy-six pregnant women were evaluated using a range of tools to collect data on socio-economic and demographic factors, social support, life events, interpersonal violence and mental health diagnoses...
December 28, 2016: Archives of Women's Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026862/evaluation-of-the-accuracy-of-common-weight-estimation-formulae-in-a-zambian-paediatric-surgical-population
#11
L Bowen, M Zyambo, D Snell, J Kinnear, M D Bould
Limited resources and access to healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa are associated with high rates of malnourished children, although many countries globally are demonstrating increasing childhood obesity. This study evaluated how well current age- or height-based formulae estimate the weight of children undergoing surgery in Zambia. All children under 14 years of age presenting for elective surgery at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, had both height and weight measured. Their actual weight was compared against estimated weight from various formulae...
December 27, 2016: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025600/tobacco-cessation-in-economically-disadvantaged-dominican-republic-communities-who-are-the-ex-users
#12
Deborah J Ossip, Zahíra Quiñones, Sergio Diaz, Kelly Thevenet-Morrison, Susan Fisher, Heather Holderness, Xeuya Cai, Scott McIntosh, Ann Dozier, Nancy Chin, Emily Weber, Jose Javier Sanchez, Arisleyda Bautista, Almonte Héctor
INTRODUCTION: Tobacco use and harm continue to increase in low- and middle income countries (LMICs) globally. Smoking cessation is the most effective means of reducing morbidity and mortality from tobacco use. Increasing the prevalence of ex-users is an indicator of population cessation. AIMS: This study provides the first examination of factors associated with ex-tobacco use status in the Dominican Republic (DR), a LMIC in the Latin America and Caribbean region...
December 2016: Journal of Smoking Cessation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025321/national-income-inequality-and-ineffective-health-insurance-in-35-low-and-middle-income-countries
#13
Francisco N Alvarez, Abdulrahman M El-Sayed
Global health policy efforts to improve health and reduce financial burden of disease in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) has fuelled interest in expanding access to health insurance coverage to all, a movement known as Universal Health Coverage (UHC). Ineffective insurance is a measure of failure to achieve the intended outcomes of health insurance among those who nominally have insurance. This study aimed to evaluate the relation between national-level income inequality and the prevalence of ineffective insurance...
December 26, 2016: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012780/achieving-a-grand-convergence-in-global-health-by-2035
#14
Adel Mahmoud
Historical evidence demonstrates the validity of the concept "Grand Convergence". The Lancet commission identified the major challenges facing low and lower middle income countries including the unfinished agenda, non-communicable diseases and injuries and an approach to funding and achieving these objectives along with progress towards universal health care. The role of vaccines is summarized as a major approach to accomplish a Grand Convergence in a generation.
December 22, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004031/caregiving-and-mental-health-among-workers-longitudinal-evidence-from-a-large-cohort-of-adults-in-thailand
#15
Vasoontara Yiengprugsawan, Liana Leach, Janneke Berecki-Gisolf, Hal Kendig, David Harley, Sam-Ang Seubsman, Adrian C Sleigh
BACKGROUND: As people in middle and lower income countries live longer, more people become sick, disabled, and frail and the demand for family caregiving grows. Thailand faces such challenges. This study investigates the relationship between caregiving and mental health among workers drawn from a large longitudinal cohort of Thai adults. METHODS: Participants were drawn from the Thai Health-Risk Transition Study, a cohort study since 2005 of distance-learning adult Open University students residing nationwide...
December 2016: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002848/multidisciplinary-approach-to-neoadjuvant-endocrine-therapy-in-breast-cancer-a-comprehensive-review
#16
Tomás Reinert, Susana Ramalho, Rodrigo Gonçalves, Carlos Henrique Barrios, Marcia Silveira Graudenz, José Bines
Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related death among women worldwide. Hormone receptor-positive (HR+) tumors represent the most common form of this disease, with more than 70% of breast cancers expressing these receptors. Response and benefit to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) varies according to HR expression, with lower responses in luminal tumors as compared with hormone receptor-negative (HR-) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) tumors...
December 21, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997236/impact-of-a-text-messaging-program-on-adolescent-reproductive-health-a-cluster-randomized-trial-in-ghana
#17
Slawa Rokicki, Jessica Cohen, Joshua A Salomon, Günther Fink
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether text-messaging programs can improve reproductive health among adolescent girls in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial among 756 female students aged 14 to 24 years in Accra, Ghana, in 2014. We randomized 38 schools to unidirectional intervention (n = 12), interactive intervention (n = 12), and control (n = 14). The unidirectional intervention sent participants text messages with reproductive health information...
February 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993382/syphilis
#18
REVIEW
Edward W Hook
Syphilis is a chronic bacterial infection caused by Treponema pallidum that is endemic in low-income countries and and occurs at lower rates in middle-income and high-income countries. The disease is of both individual and public health importance and, in addition to its direct morbidity, increases risk of HIV infection and can cause lifelong morbidity in children born to infected mothers. Without treatment the disease can progress over years through a series of clinical stages and lead to irreversible neurological or cardiovascular complications...
December 16, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986233/implementing-electronic-surgical-registries-in-lower-middle-income-countries-experiences-in-latin-america
#19
Mohini Dasari, Sabrina Asturias, Marcelo Garbett, Eiman Zargaran, Gustavo Machain, Morad Hameed, Juan Carlos Puyana
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959614/diabetes-and-cause-specific-mortality-in-mexico-city
#20
Jesus Alegre-Díaz, William Herrington, Malaquías López-Cervantes, Louisa Gnatiuc, Raul Ramirez, Michael Hill, Colin Baigent, Mark I McCarthy, Sarah Lewington, Rory Collins, Gary Whitlock, Roberto Tapia-Conyer, Richard Peto, Pablo Kuri-Morales, Jonathan R Emberson
Background Most large, prospective studies of the effects of diabetes on mortality have focused on high-income countries where patients have access to reasonably good medical care and can receive treatments to establish and maintain good glycemic control. In those countries, diabetes less than doubles the rate of death from any cause. Few large, prospective studies have been conducted in middle-income countries where obesity and diabetes have become common and glycemic control may be poor. Methods From 1998 through 2004, we recruited approximately 50,000 men and 100,000 women 35 years of age or older into a prospective study in Mexico City, Mexico...
November 17, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
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