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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639971/effective-approaches-to-address-the-global-cardiovascular-disease-burden
#1
Pablo M Lamelas, Salim Yusuf, J D Schwalm
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Describe the global burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD), highlight barriers to evidence-based care and propose effective interventions based on identified barriers. RECENT FINDINGS: The global burden of CVD is increasing worldwide. This trend is steeper in lower income countries, where CVD incidence and fatality remains high. Risk factor control, around the world, remains poor, especially in lower and middle-income countries. Barriers at the patient, healthcare provider and health system have been identified...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631235/prevention-of-aggression-violence-and-mental-health-problems-in-childhood-and-adolescence-innovative-and-sustainable-approaches-from-around-the-world-introduction-and-overview
#2
Nancy Guerra, Suzanne Duryea
This special issue, Prevention of Aggression, Violence, and Mental Health Problems in Childhood and Adolescence: Innovative and Sustainable Approaches from Around the World, represents a broad set of studies from lower- and middle-income countries. The intent of the special issue was to expand our knowledge of evidence-based programs in less-resourced settings, given that most of the current evidence comes from the USA and other higher-income countries. Many of the articles describe adaptations of evidence-based programs developed in higher-income countries, and their findings suggest that this can be an effective approach...
June 19, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630690/incidence-and-risk-factors-for-surgical-site-infections-in-obstetric-and-gynecological-surgeries-from-a-teaching-hospital-in-rural-india
#3
Ashish Pathak, Kalpana Mahadik, Manmat B Swami, Pulak K Roy, Megha Sharma, Vijay K Mahadik, Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSI) are one of the most common healthcare associated infections in the low-middle income countries. Data on incidence and risk factors for SSI following surgeries in general and Obstetric and Gynecological surgeries in particular are scare. This study set out to identify risk factors for SSI in patients undergoing Obstetric and Gynecological surgeries in an Indian rural hospital. METHODS: Patients who underwent a surgical procedure between September 2010 to February 2013 in the 60-bedded ward of Obstetric and Gynecology department were included...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626248/dental-health-status-and-oral-health-behavior-among-university-students-from-five-asean-countries
#4
Karl Peltzer, Supa Pengpid
The aim of this study was to investigate dental health status and oral health behavior and associated factors among university students in five ASEAN countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam). Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 3,344 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.5, SD=1.6; 58.3% female) from five ASEAN countries. Results indicate that 27.7% of students reported to have sometimes, most of the time or always having tooth ache in the past 12 months, 39...
February 2017: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624630/the-dynamic-links-between-carbon-dioxide-co2-emissions-health-spending-and-gdp-growth-a-case-study-for-51-countries
#5
Sami Chaabouni, Kais Saidi
This document investigated the causal relationship between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, health spending and GDP growth for 51 countries (divided into three groups of countries: low-income countries; group of countries with lower and upper middle income; group of middle income countries) covering the annual period 1995-2013. Dynamic simultaneous-equations models and generalized method of moments (GMM) are used to investigate this relationship. The main results provide evidence of a causal relationship between the three variables...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624388/geo-economic-variations-in-epidemiology-patterns-of-care-and-outcomes-in-patients-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-insights-from-the-lung-safe-prospective-cohort-study
#6
John G Laffey, Fabiana Madotto, Giacomo Bellani, Tài Pham, Eddy Fan, Laurent Brochard, Pravin Amin, Yaseen Arabi, Ednan K Bajwa, Alejandro Bruhn, Vladimir Cerny, Kevin Clarkson, Leo Heunks, Kiyoyasu Kurahashi, Jon Henrik Laake, Jose A Lorente, Lia McNamee, Nicolas Nin, Jose Emmanuel Palo, Lise Piquilloud, Haibo Qiu, Juan Ignacio Silesky Jiménez, Andres Esteban, Daniel F McAuley, Frank van Haren, Marco Ranieri, Gordon Rubenfeld, Hermann Wrigge, Arthur S Slutsky, Antonio Pesenti
BACKGROUND: Little information is available about the geo-economic variations in demographics, management, and outcomes of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We aimed to characterise the effect of these geo-economic variations in patients enrolled in the Large Observational Study to Understand the Global Impact of Severe Acute Respiratory Failure (LUNG SAFE). METHODS: LUNG SAFE was done during 4 consecutive weeks in winter, 2014, in a convenience sample of 459 intensive-care units in 50 countries across six continents...
June 14, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622943/cardiac-rehabilitation-costs
#7
Mahshid Moghei, Karam Turk-Adawi, Wanrudee Isaranuwatchai, Nizal Sarrafzadegan, Paul Oh, Caroline Chessex, Sherry L Grace
BACKGROUND: Despite the clinical benefits of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and its cost-effectiveness, it is not widely received. Arguably, capacity could be greatly increased if lower-cost models were implemented. The aims of this review were to describe: the costs associated with CR delivery, approaches to reduce these costs, and associated implications. METHODS: Upon finalizing the PICO statement, information scientists were enlisted to develop the search strategy of MEDLINE, Embase, CDSR, Google Scholar and Scopus...
June 10, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616819/-safe-foods-or-fear-foods-the-implications-of-food-avoidance-in-college-students-from-low-and-middle-income-countries
#8
C James, A Harrison, A Seixas, M Powell, S Pengpid, K Peltzer
PURPOSE: The primary objective of this study was to explore if self-reported food avoidance (fats, carbohydrates and protein) exists among college students in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and its relationship with body mass index (BMI), dieting, mood/anxiety symptoms, physical activities and general health knowledge. METHODS: This study is a subset (N = 6096) of a larger 26 LMICs cross-sectional survey, which consisted of 21,007 college students. We ascertained socio-demographic information, food avoidance, physical activities, dieting behaviours, depressive and PTSD symptoms, and recorded anthropometric measurements...
June 14, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607674/gender-bias-in-careseeking-practices-in-57-low-and-middle-income-countries
#9
Janaína Calu Costa, Fernando C Wehrmeister, Aluísio Jd Barros, Cesar G Victora
BACKGROUND: Preventive and curative medical interventions can reduce child mortality. It is important to assess whether there is gender bias in access to these interventions, which can lead to preferential treatment of children of a given sex. METHODS: Data from Demographic and Health Surveys carried out in 57 low- and middle-income countries were used. The outcome variable was a composite careseeking indicator, which represents the proportion of children with common childhood symptoms or illnesses (diarrhea, fever, or suspected pneumonia) who were taken to an appropriate provider...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606066/treatment-outcome-of-children-with-persistent-diarrhoea-admitted-to-an-urban-hospital-dhaka-during-2012-2013
#10
Mustafa Mahfuz, Mohammed Ashraful Alam, Shoeb Bin Islam, Nurun Nahar Naila, Mohammod Jobayer Chisti, Nur Haque Alam, Shafiqul Alam Sarker, Tahmeed Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Despite availability of treatment guidelines, persistent diarrhoea (PD) has been a major contributor of diarrhoeal deaths in low and middle income countries. We evaluated the outcome of children under the age of 5 years who were treated for PD using management algorithm with locally available foods in a diarrhoeal disease hospital in Dhaka. METHODS: We extracted retrospective data from electronic database for all the under-five children admitted for PD in the Longer Stay Ward and Intensive Care Unit of the Dhaka hospital at icddr,b between 2012 and 2013...
June 12, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604329/report-on-the-first-government-funded-opioid-substitution-programme-for-heroin-users-in-the-western-cape-province-south-africa
#11
Graeme Michie, Shuaib Hoosain, Muiruri Macharia, Lize Weich
BACKGROUND: Although pharmacological opioid substitution treatment (OST) is a well-established treatment modality for heroin addiction, it is a relatively recent introduction in low- and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVE: To report on a pilot OST programme initiated in 2013 that was the only public-funded programme in South Africa (SA) at the time. Participants were offered standard care only (n=68) or, for the OST group (n=67), standard care plus Suboxone (Reckitt Benckiser), a synthetic partial opioid agonist, in a 12-week clinician-monitored programme...
May 24, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595624/immunization-urbanization-and-slums-a-systematic-review-of-factors-and-interventions
#12
Tim Crocker-Buque, Godwin Mindra, Richard Duncan, Sandra Mounier-Jack
BACKGROUND: In 2014, over half (54%) of the world's population lived in urban areas and this proportion will increase to 66% by 2050. This urbanizing trend has been accompanied by an increasing number of people living in urban poor communities and slums. Lower immunization coverage is found in poorer urban dwellers in many contexts. This study aims to identify factors associated with immunization coverage in poor urban areas and slums, and to identify interventions to improve coverage...
June 8, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594291/rickets-in-a-6-year-old-girl-resulting-in-extreme-deformities
#13
Asad Abbas, Zeeba Zaka-Ur-Rab
Rickets remains endemic in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and has re-emerged in high-income countries. Poverty, ignorance and poor healthcare in LMIC still contribute to development of the disease and, if untreated, its progression to severe forms. A 6-year-old girl from a poor background presented with malnutrition, anaemia, rachitic rosary and severe deformities of the upper and lower limbs owing to vitamin D deficiency. Although she responded well to treatment initially, some of the deformities required surgical intervention...
June 8, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592927/cost-utility-of-burns-management-in-nigeria-a-case-study-of-the-national-orthopaedic-hospital-enugu
#14
C E Okafor, O Onunka, L N Idoko
A major problem of burns is the high cost of management, as well as the discrimination and disability they can cause to patients. Maximising resource utilisation is of key importance for lower-middle-income countries (LMICs) like Nigeria. There is a need to know if Nigerian patients who were victims of burns get the best value for money. This study aimed to evaluate the average cost of managing burns in Nigeria, and determine if the treatment approach is cost-effective. The study was a cost-utility analysis from the perspective of health service providers in Nigeria, a case study of the National Orthopaedic Hospital Enugu (NOHE) using 2013 Microsoft excel...
March 31, 2017: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589019/provider-initiated-delivery-late-preterm-birth-and-perinatal-mortality-a-secondary-analysis-of-the-who-multicountry-survey-on-maternal-and-newborn-health
#15
Naho Morisaki, Xun Zhang, Togoobaatar Ganchimeg, Joshua P Vogel, Joo Paulo Dias Souza, Jose G Cecatti, Maria Regina Torloni, Erika Ota, Rintaro Mori, Suneeta Mittal, Suzanne Tough, Siobhan Dolan, Michael S Kramer
INTRODUCTION: In high-income countries, a reduced clinical threshold for obstetric interventions such as labour induction (LI) and prelabour caesarean delivery (PLCD) has played a substantial role in increasing rates of late preterm births. However, the association between provider-initiated delivery and perinatal outcomes have not been studied in a multicountry setting including low-income and middle-income countries. METHODS: 286 hospitals in 29 countries participated in the WHO Multi-Country Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health and yielded 2 52 198 singleton births of at least 34 weeks in 2010-2011...
March 2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589017/financing-for-universal-health-coverage-in-small-island-states-evidence-from-the-fiji-islands
#16
Augustine D Asante, Wayne Irava, Supon Limwattananon, Andrew Hayen, Joao Martins, Lorna Guinness, John E Ataguba, Jennifer Price, Stephen Jan, Anne Mills, Virginia Wiseman
BACKGROUND: Universal health coverage (UHC) is critical to global poverty alleviation and equity of health systems. Many low-income and middle-income countries, including small island states in the Pacific, have committed to UHC and reforming their health financing systems to better align with UHC goals. This study provides the first comprehensive evidence on equity of the health financing system in Fiji, a small Pacific island state. The health systems of such states are poorly covered in the international literature...
March 2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588944/onsite-midwife-led-birth-units-ombus-for-care-around-the-time-of-childbirth-a-systematic-review
#17
Qian Long, Emma R Allanson, Jennifer Pontre, Özge Tunçalp, George Justus Hofmeyr, Ahmet Metin Gülmezoglu
INTRODUCTION: To ensure timely access to comprehensive emergency obstetric care in low- and middle-income countries, a number of interventions have been employed. This systematic review assesses the effects of onsite midwife-led birth units (OMBUs) embedded within hospitals which provide comprehensive emergency obstetric and newborn care. METHODS: Both interventional and observational studies that compared OMBUs with standard medical-led obstetric care were eligible for inclusion...
August 2016: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580865/the-association-between-environmental-tobacco-smoke-exposure-and-childhood-respiratory-disease-a-review
#18
A Vanker, R P Gie, H J Zar
Childhood respiratory illness is a major cause of morbidity and mortality particularly in low and middle-income countries. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is a recognised risk factor for both acute and chronic respiratory illness. Areas covered: The aim of this paper was to review the epidemiology of ETS exposure and impact on respiratory health in children. We conducted a search of 3 electronic databases of publications on ETS and childhood respiratory illness from 1990-2015. Key findings were that up to 70% of children are exposed to ETS globally, but under-reporting may mask the true prevalence...
June 14, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576237/global-burn-care-education-and-research
#19
REVIEW
Anna Schoenbrunner, Wone Banda, Amanda A Gosman
Burns are an often-overlooked health indicator in global health literature, but account for a significant global health burden in lower middle income countries. This article provides an overview of burn injury from the global health perspective. It focuses on education and research, emphasizing the appropriate role of volunteerism.
July 2017: Clinics in Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575193/the-cost-structure-of-routine-infant-immunization-services-a-systematic-analysis-of-six-countries
#20
Fangli Geng, Christian Suharlim, Logan Brenzel, Stephen C Resch, Nicolas A Menzies
Little information exists on the cost structure of routine infant immunization services in low- and middle-income settings. Using a unique dataset of routine infant immunization costs from six countries, we estimated how costs were distributed across budget categories and programmatic activities, and investigated how the cost structure of immunization sites varied by country and site characteristics. The EPIC study collected data on routine infant immunization costs from 319 sites in Benin, Ghana, Honduras, Moldova, Uganda, Zambia, using a standardized approach...
May 31, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
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