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Lower and lower middle income countries

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228841/an-update-on-the-management-of-breast-cancer-in-africa
#1
REVIEW
V Vanderpuye, S Grover, N Hammad, PoojaPrabhakar, H Simonds, F Olopade, D C Stefan
BACKGROUND: There is limited information about the challenges of cancer management and attempts at improving outcomes in Africa. Even though South and North Africa are better resourceds to tackle the burden of breast cancer, similar poor prognostic factors are common to all countries. The five-year overall Survival rate for breast cancer patients does not exceed 60% for any low and middle-income country (LMIC) in Africa. In spite of the gains achieved over the past decade, certain characteristics remain the same such as limited availability of breast conservation therapies, inadequate access to drugs, few oncology specialists and adherence to harmful socio-cultural practices...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223433/global-cancer-in-women-burden-and-trends
#2
Lindsey A Torre, Farhad Islami, Rebecca L Siegel, Elizabeth M Ward, Ahmedin Jemal
There are striking disparities in the global cancer burden in women, yet few publications highlight cancer occurrence in this population, particularly for cancers that are not sex-specific. This paper, the first in a series of two, summarizes the current burden, trends, risk factors, prevention, early detection, and survivorship of all cancers combined and seven sites (breast, cervix, uterine corpus, ovary, colorectum, lung, and liver) that account for about 60% of the cancer burden among women worldwide, using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer...
February 21, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222820/the-cross-national-epidemiology-of-specific-phobia-in-the-world-mental-health-surveys
#3
K J Wardenaar, C C W Lim, A O Al-Hamzawi, J Alonso, L H Andrade, C Benjet, B Bunting, G de Girolamo, K Demyttenaere, S E Florescu, O Gureje, T Hisateru, C Hu, Y Huang, E Karam, A Kiejna, J P Lepine, F Navarro-Mateu, M Oakley Browne, M Piazza, J Posada-Villa, M L Ten Have, Y Torres, M Xavier, Z Zarkov, R C Kessler, K M Scott, P de Jonge
BACKGROUND: Although specific phobia is highly prevalent, associated with impairment, and an important risk factor for the development of other mental disorders, cross-national epidemiological data are scarce, especially from low- and middle-income countries. This paper presents epidemiological data from 22 low-, lower-middle-, upper-middle- and high-income countries. METHOD: Data came from 25 representative population-based surveys conducted in 22 countries (2001-2011) as part of the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys initiative (n = 124 902)...
February 22, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220656/impact-of-stillbirths-on-international-comparisons-of-preterm-birth-rates-a-secondary-analysis-of-the-who-multi-country-survey-of-maternal-and-newborn-health
#4
N Morisaki, T Ganchimeg, J P Vogel, J Zeitlin, J G Cecatti, J P Souza, C Pileggi Castro, M R Torloni, E Ota, R Mori, S M Dolan, S Tough, S Mittal, V Bataglia, B Yadamsuren, M S Kramer
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the extent to which stillbirths affect international comparisons of preterm birth rates in low- and middle-income countries. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a multi-country cross-sectional study. SETTING: 29 countries participating in the World Health Organization Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health. POPULATION: 258 215 singleton deliveries in 286 hospitals. METHODS: We describe how inclusion or exclusion of stillbirth affect rates of preterm births in 29 countries...
February 20, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214725/child-mortality-commodity-price-volatility-and-the-resource-curse
#5
Yousef Makhlouf, Neil M Kellard, Dmitri Vinogradov
Given many developing economies depend on primary commodities, the fluctuations of commodity prices may imply significant effects for the wellbeing of children. To investigate, this paper examines the relationship between child mortality and commodity price movements as reflected by country-specific commodity terms-of-trade. Employing a panel of 69 low and lower-middle income countries over the period 1970-2010, we show that commodity terms-of-trade volatility increases child mortality in highly commodity-dependent importers suggesting a type of 'scarce' resource curse...
February 1, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209677/narratives-in-family-medicine-a-global-perspective-the-besrour-papers-a-series-on-the-state-of-family-medicine-in-the-world
#6
REVIEW
Christine Gibson, Robert Woollard, Videsh Kapoor, David Ponka
OBJECTIVE: To explore the development of family medicine postgraduate training in countries with varying levels of resources at different stages of development of the discipline. COMPOSITION OF THE COMMITTEE: Since 2012, the College of Family Physicians of Canada has hosted the Besrour Conferences to reflect on its role in advancing the discipline of family medicine globally. The Besrour Narrative Working Group was conceived in 2012 at the first Besrour Conference...
February 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202089/suicidal-ideation-and-behaviour-among-community-and-health-care-seeking-populations-in-five-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
M Jordans, S Rathod, A Fekadu, G Medhin, F Kigozi, B Kohrt, N Luitel, I Petersen, R Shidhaye, J Ssebunnya, V Patel, C Lund
: Aims Suicidal behaviour is an under-reported and hidden cause of death in most low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) due to lack of national systematic reporting for cause-specific mortality, high levels of stigma and religious or cultural sanctions. The lack of information on non-fatal suicidal behaviour (ideation, plans and attempts) in LMIC is a major barrier to design and implementation of prevention strategies. This study aims to determine the prevalence of non-fatal suicidal behaviour within community- and health facility-based populations in LMIC...
February 16, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198081/latent-autoimmune-diabetes-in-adults-lada-in-asian-and-european-populations
#8
REVIEW
Alok Kumar, Alberto de Leiva
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic disorder caused by relative or absolute insulin deficiency and characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia. It is expected that by year 2025, 80% of all Type 2 Diabetic patients will be living in developing or low and middle income countries. Among Asians, there has been an overall increase in abdominal obesity however, the risk of diabetes in these populations starts at much lower body mass index (BMI) as compared to Caucasians. A significant proportion of diabetic patients with adult-onset, initially non-requiring insulin treatment, depicts diabetes-associated autoantibodies in their sera...
February 14, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193397/socioeconomic-status-and-non-communicable-disease-behavioural-risk-factors-in-low-income-and-lower-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#9
Luke Allen, Julianne Williams, Nick Townsend, Bente Mikkelsen, Nia Roberts, Charlie Foster, Kremlin Wickramasinghe
BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases are the leading global cause of death and disproportionately afflict those living in low-income and lower-middle-income countries (LLMICs). The association between socioeconomic status and non-communicable disease behavioural risk factors is well established in high-income countries, but it is not clear how behavioural risk factors are distributed within LLMICs. We aimed to systematically review evidence on the association between socioeconomic status and harmful use of alcohol, tobacco use, unhealthy diets, and physical inactivity within LLMICs...
March 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193380/socioeconomic-status-and-risk-factors-for-non-communicable-diseases-in-low-income-and-lower-middle-income-countries
#10
Silvia Stringhini, Pascal Bovet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190744/use-of-m-health-in-polio-eradication-and-other-immunization-activities-in-developing-countries
#11
REVIEW
Sara S Kim, Manish Patel, Alan Hinman
INTRODUCTION: Reaching the children that are chronically missed by routine immunization services has been a key pillar of success in achieving progress toward polio eradication. The rapid advancement and accessibility of mobile technology ("mHealth") in low and lower middle income countries provides an important opportunity to apply novel, innovative approaches to provide vaccine services. We sought to document the use and effectiveness of mHealth in immunization programs in low and lower middle income countries...
February 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188941/association-between-breast-reconstruction-surgery-and-quality-of-life-in-iranian-breast-cancer-patients
#12
Farnaz Sinaei, Kazem Zendehdel, Mahsa Adili, Atefeh Ardestani, Ali Montazeri, Mohammad Ali Mohagheghi
Breast reconstruction (BR) surgery is not common for the treatment of breast cancer in low- and middle-income countries, including Iran. We evaluated the quality of life (QoL) in Iranian breast cancer patients who underwent BR at the Cancer Institute of Iran. We compared patients who had BR with breast cancer patients who had a radical mastectomy as the control group, matched for age, and time since surgery. We interviewed the cases and controls and collected data about QoL using EORTC-Q30 and EORTC-Q23 questionnaires...
January 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183300/an-investigation-of-stigmatizing-attitudes-towards-people-living-with-hiv-aids-by-doctors-and-nurses-in-vientiane-lao-pdr
#13
Savina Vorasane, Masamine Jimba, Kimiyo Kikuchi, Junko Yasuoka, Keiko Nanishi, Jo Durham, Vanphanom Sychareun
BACKGROUND: Despite global efforts, HIV-related stigma continues to negatively impact the health and well-being of people living with HIV/AIDS. Even in healthcare settings, people with HIV/AIDS experience discrimination. Anecdotal evidence suggests that healthcare professionals in the Lao People's Democratic Republic, a lower-middle income country situated in Southeast Asia, stigmatize HIV/AID patients. The purpose of this study was to assess HIV stigmatizing attitudes within Laotian healthcare service providers and examine some of the factors associated with HIV/AIDS-related stigma among doctors and nurses...
February 10, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176250/hot-topic-global-burden-of-treating-hypertension-what-is-the-role-of-the-emergency-department
#14
REVIEW
Aaron M Brody, Vijaya A Kumar, Phillip D Levy
Hypertension (HTN) is the most common modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality worldwide. Lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are projected to bear the vast majority of this disease burden, but local and regional health care delivery systems in these countries are ill equipped to meet this need. Emergency care is receiving increased recognition as a crucial component of public and community health. The rapid evolution of emergency care in LMICs provides a unique opportunity to develop innovative strategies, incorporating existing strengths of emergency departments, to address this paradigm shift in the disease burden associated with HTN on a global scale...
January 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170413/baseline-assessment-of-who-s-target-for-both-availability-and-affordability-of-essential-medicines-to-treat-non-communicable-diseases
#15
Margaret Ewen, Marjolein Zweekhorst, Barbara Regeer, Richard Laing
BACKGROUND: WHO has set a voluntary target of 80% availability of affordable essential medicines, including generics, to treat major non-communicable diseases (NCDs), in the public and private sectors of countries by 2025. We undertook a secondary analysis of data from 30 surveys in low- and middle-income countries, conducted from 2008-2015 using the World Health Organization (WHO)/Health Action International (HAI) medicine availability and price survey methodology, to establish a baseline for this target...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167860/the-effect-of-the-treatment-with-heated-humidified-high-flow-nasal-cannula-on-neonatal-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-china-a-single-center-experience
#16
Ge Zheng, Xiao-Qiu Huang, Hui-Hui Zhao, Guo-Xing Jin, Bin Wang
Background. Noninvasive respiratory support is considered the optimal method of providing assistance to preterm babies with breathing problems, including nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) and humidified high flow nasal cannula (HHHFNC). The evidence of the efficacy and safety of HHHFNC used as the primary respiratory support for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is insufficient in low- and middle-income countries. Objective. To investigate the effect of heated humidified high flow nasal cannula on neonatal respiratory distress syndrome compared with nasal continuous positive airway pressure...
2017: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138364/practice-training-and-safety-of-laparoscopic-surgery-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#17
REVIEW
Maryam Alfa-Wali, Samuel Osaghae
Surgical management of diseases is recognised as a major unmet need in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Laparoscopic surgery has been present since the 1980s and offers the benefit of minimising the morbidity and potential mortality associated with laparotomies. Laparotomies are often carried out in LMICs for diagnosis and management, due to lack of radiological investigative and intervention options. The use of laparoscopy for diagnosis and treatment is globally variable, with high-income countries using laparoscopy routinely compared with LMICs...
January 27, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138051/child-gender-and-parental-reporting-of-illness-symptoms-in-sub-saharan-africa
#18
Peter C Rockers, Margaret McConnell
The overwhelming majority of evidence about the health of children in low- and middle-income countries is based on reports by parents. There is limited evidence on whether these reports suffer from systematic bias, particularly related to the gender of the child. We investigate differences in symptom reporting by child gender in a sample of countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Data from 35 Demographic and Health Surveys and 10 Malaria Indicator Surveys conducted since 2005 were analyzed. Parental reports of child symptoms were compared for girls and boys...
January 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137194/integrating-community-based-verbal-autopsy-into-civil-registration-and-vital-statistics-crvs-system-level-considerations
#19
Don de Savigny, Ian Riley, Daniel Chandramohan, Frank Odhiambo, Erin Nichols, Sam Notzon, Carla AbouZahr, Raj Mitra, Daniel Cobos Muñoz, Sonja Firth, Nicolas Maire, Osman Sankoh, Gay Bronson, Philip Setel, Peter Byass, Robert Jakob, Ties Boerma, Alan D Lopez
BACKGROUND: Reliable and representative cause of death (COD) statistics are essential to inform public health policy, respond to emerging health needs, and document progress towards Sustainable Development Goals. However, less than one-third of deaths worldwide are assigned a cause. Civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems in low- and lower-middle-income countries are failing to provide timely, complete and accurate vital statistics, and it will still be some time before they can provide physician-certified COD for every death...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132194/a-global-prospective-of-income-distribution-and-its-effect-on-life-cycle-assessment-of-municipal-solid-waste-management-a-review
#20
Pooja Yadav, S R Samadder
This study reviewed the municipal solid waste (MSW) composition, the management practices, and the use of life cycle assessment (LCA) tool for MSW management (MSWM) options in the various income group countries. LCA studies require inventory data, which is difficult to procure for any country including higher income group countries, and this issue gets compounded in low-income and lower middle-income group countries, which limits the implementation of LCA. This paper compared the use of LCA for MSWM between high-income and low-income group countries and also highlights the gap in using LCA for MSWM...
January 29, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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