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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324709/improvement-of-virus-removal-using-ultrafiltration-membranes-modified-with-grafted-zwitterionic-polymer-hydrogels
#1
Ruiqing Lu, Chang Zhang, Maria Piatkovsky, Mathias Ulbricht, Moshe Herzberg, Thanh H Nguyen
Potable water reuse has been adopted by cities suffering water scarcity in recent years. The microbial safety in water reuse, especially with respect to pathogenic viruses, is still a concern for water consumers. Membrane filtration can achieve sufficient removal of pathogenic viruses without disinfection byproducts, but the required energy is intensive. In this study, we graft-polymerized zwitterionic SPP ([3-(methacryloylamino) propyl] dimethyl (3-sulfopropyl) ammonium hydroxide) on a 150 kDa ultrafiltration polyethersulfone membrane to achieve a significantly higher virus removal...
March 9, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324708/removal-of-haloacetic-acids-from-swimming-pool-water-by-reverse-osmosis-and-nanofiltration
#2
Linyan Yang, Qianhong She, Man Pun Wan, Rong Wang, Victor W-C Chang, Chuyang Y Tang
Recent studies report high concentrations of haloacetic acids (HAAs), a prevalent class of toxic disinfection by-products, in swimming pool water (SPW). We investigated the removal of 9 HAAs by four commercial reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membranes. Under typical SPW conditions (pH 7.5 and 50 mM ionic strength), HAA rejections were >60% for NF270 with molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) equal to 266 Da and equal or higher than 90% for XLE, NF90 and SB50 with MWCOs of 96, 118 and 152 Da, respectively, as a result of the combined effects of size exclusion and charge repulsion...
March 10, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319884/sodium-chlorate-induces-dna-damage-and-dna-protein-cross-linking-in-rat-intestine-a-dose-dependent-study
#3
Shaikh Nisar Ali, Fariheen Aisha Ansari, Hussain Arif, Riaz Mahmood
Sodium chlorate (NaClO3) is widely used in paper and pulp industries and as a non-selective herbicide. It is also a major by-product generated upon disinfection of drinking water by chlorine dioxide. In this study, we have investigated the genotoxicity of NaClO3 on the small intestine of rats. Adult male rats were divided into 5 groups: one control and four NaClO3 treated groups. The NaClO3 treated groups were given a single acute oral dose of NaClO3 (100, 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg body weight) and sacrificed 24 h later...
March 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319530/oral-chemical-burns-reported-to-the-poisons-information-centre-in-erfurt-germany-from-1997-to-2014
#4
Juliane Nehrlich, Hans-Peter Klöcking, Helmut Hentschel, Amelie Lupp
Devastating oral burns often followed by lifelong complications can result from ingestion of caustic substances. However, although being one of the most challenging situations in clinical practice, literature data on the epidemiology of oral burns are still scarce. Retrospective analysis of all cases of oral burns after ingestion of corrosive substances reported to the Poisons Information Centre in Erfurt, Germany, from 1997 to 2014 was performed. In total, 482 calls because of oral burns were registered, with no change in the numbers of cases during the years...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318580/the-canadian-national-dairy-study-2015-adoption-of-milking-practices-in-canadian-dairy-herds
#5
E Belage, S Dufour, C Bauman, A Jones-Bitton, D F Kelton
Several studies have investigated which management practices have the greatest effect on udder health, but little information is available on how broadly the recommended milking practices are adopted across Canada. The National Dairy Study 2015 was designed to gather dairy cattle health and management data on dairy farms across Canada. The objectives of the present study were to describe the current proportions of adoption of milking practices on Canadian dairy farms, and identify factors associated with their use on farms...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317187/occupational-allergic-contact-dermatitis-caused-by-1-propanol-in-a-hand-disinfectant
#6
Hilde M Bosker, Klaziena Politiek, Merel C Urgert, Peter A Flach, Pieter-Jan Coenraads, Marie Louise Schuttelaar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Contact Dermatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315491/vibrating-mesh-nebulizer-maintenance-by-cf-patients-results-from-a-french-survey
#7
Melisande Baravalle-Einaudi, Nadine Dufeu, Christian Dupont, Laurent Vecellio, Bertrand Delaisi, Ania Carsin, Jean-Christophe Dubus
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Vibrating-mesh nebulizers are widely used at home for cystic fibrosis (CF) treatment, with a therapeutic efficiency closely linked to the mesh performance. This national study looks at the maintenance at home by CF patients and their families of the mesh of the eFlow(®)rapid nebulizer. Ninety-two patients from 34 French CF centers, treated at home with inhaled drugs delivered with a vibrating-mesh nebulizer, answered to a phone standardized questionnaire specifying the different techniques of maintenance of the nebulizer...
March 14, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315376/effect-of-a-novel-quaternary-ammonium-silane-cavity-disinfectant-on-durability-of-resin-dentine-bond
#8
D Umer, C K Y Yiu, M F Burrow, L-N Niu, F R Tay
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the effect of a quaternary ammonium silane (QAS) cavity disinfectant on the viability of human dental pulp cells, dentine bond durability and nanoleakage of simplified etch-and-rinse adhesives. METHODS: Etched dentine surface of third molars were randomly divided into two adhesive groups, Adper™ Single Bond 2 and Prime & Bond(®) NT™. For each adhesive, the teeth were randomly assigned to five cavity disinfectant groups (N=6): Group 1: deionised water (control); Group 2: 2% chlorhexidine (CHX); Group 3: 2% QAS; Group 4: 5% QAS and Group 5: 10% QAS...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314125/impact-of-chitosan-and-polyacrylamide-on-formation-of-carbonaceous-and-nitrogenous-disinfection-by-products
#9
Zhao Li, Ting Chen, Fuyi Cui, Yuefeng Xie, Wenqing Xu
Coagulation is one of the most commonly used practices in water treatment to remove natural organic matter, which can serve as precursors for disinfection by-products (DBPs). Furthermore, some coagulant aids, particularly amine-based polymers, could foster the formation of both carbonaceous and nitrogenous DBPs (C-DBPs and N-DBPs, respectively). In this study, we evaluated the formation potentials of 11 C-DBPs and N-DBPs during chloramination when two coagulant aids, chitosan and polyacrylamide (PAM), were used under typical water treatment conditions...
March 1, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303128/a-high-throughput-screening-platform-of-microbial-natural-products-for-the-discovery-of-molecules-with-antibiofilm-properties-against-salmonella
#10
Sonia Paytubi, Mercedes de La Cruz, Jose R Tormo, Jesús Martín, Ignacio González, Victor González-Menendez, Olga Genilloud, Fernando Reyes, Francisca Vicente, Cristina Madrid, Carlos Balsalobre
In this report, we describe a High-Throughput Screening (HTS) to identify compounds that inhibit biofilm formation or cause the disintegration of an already formed biofilm using the Salmonella Enteritidis 3934 strain. Initially, we developed a new methodology for growing Salmonella biofilms suitable for HTS platforms. The biomass associated with biofilm at the solid-liquid interface was quantified by staining both with resazurin and crystal violet, to detect living cells and total biofilm mass, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302433/improving-water-quality-in-a-dialysis-unit-using-root-cause-analysis
#11
Pallavi Yadav, Dawn England, Caprice Vanderkolk, Pui-Ying Iroh Tam
BACKGROUND: Water quality levels from hemodialysis (HD) and reverse osmosis (RO) machines in dialysis units must meet standards set by the American Association of Medical Instrumentation. Researchers used a root cause analysis (RCA) approach to identify and address factors affecting water quality in the HD and portable RO machines at our institution. METHODS: A multidisciplinary team reviewed processes, interviewed staff members, and identified opportunities to improve the current sampling and machine disinfection processes...
March 13, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302307/bromine-incorporation-into-five-dbp-classes-upon-chlorination-of-water-with-extremely-low-suva-values
#12
Huachang Hong, Xiaoqing Yan, Xuhui Song, Yanyan Qin, Hongjie Sun, Hongjun Lin, Jianrong Chen, Yan Liang
The main objective of this study was to assess the effects of disinfection conditions on bromine incorporation into disinfection by-products (DBPs) during chlorination of water with low specific UV absorbance (SUVA). Five classes of DBPs were included: trihalomethanes (THMs), dihaloacetic acids (di-HAAs), trihaloacetic acids (tri-HAAs), dihaloacetonitriles (DHANs) and trihalonitromethanes (THNMs). Results showed that the bromine utilization in DBPs formation was positive related with reaction time, pH and temperature...
March 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301923/korean-society-of-gastrointestinal-endoscopy-guidelines-for-endoscope-reprocessing
#13
Byoung Kwan Son, Byung-Wook Kim, Won Hee Kim, Dae-Sung Myung, Young-Seok Cho, Byung Ik Jang
The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KSGE) issued guidelines for endoscope reprocessing for the first time in 1995, and the version of the guidelines was updated in August 2009, August 2012, and March 2015. Guidelines for endoscope reprocessing should be revised continuously, because new disinfectants and devices are developed and introduced. The current official version of the KSGE guidelines for endoscope reprocessing is explained herein to assist the reader in understanding the KSGE requirements for cleaning and disinfecting endoscopes...
March 17, 2017: Clinical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301286/chlorine-dioxide-oxidation-of-escherichia-coli-in-water-a-study-of-the-disinfection-kinetics-and-mechanism
#14
Isaac Ofori, Suresh Maddila, Johnson Lin, Sreekantha B Jonnalagadda
This study investigated the kinetics and mechanism of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) inactivation of a Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218) in oxidant demand free (ODF) water in detail as a function of disinfectant concentration (0.5-5.0 mg/L), water pH (6.5-8.5), temperature variations (4-37°C) and bacterial density (10(5)-10(7) cfu/mL). The effects of ClO2 on bacterial cell morphology, outer membrane permeability, cytoplasmic membrane disruption and intracellular enzymatic activity were also studied to elucidate the mechanism of action on the cells...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301246/persistence-of-highly-pathogenic-and-low-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-in-footbaths-and-poultry-manure
#15
R Hauck, B Crossley, D Rejmanek, H Zhou, R A Gallardo
A questionnaire was designed in order to gather information about bedding material and footbath preparation and maintenance in different productive units across the state of California.This information was used to plan two experiments. In the first experiment, we tested the effectiveness of footbaths in inactivating highly pathogenic (HP) and low pathogenic (LP) avian influenza viruses (AIVs) on rubber boots. Surprisingly, quaternary ammonia- and quaternary ammonia + glutaraldehyde-based footbaths were not able to eliminate live HPAIV (H5N8) and LPAIV (H6N2) particles on boots, while a chlorine-based granulated disinfectant was able to destroy the virus at contact...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300019/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-acute-care-hospitals-systematic-review-and-best-practices-for-prevention
#16
Irene K Louh, William G Greendyke, Emilia A Hermann, Karina W Davidson, Louise Falzon, David K Vawdrey, Jonathan A Shaffer, David P Calfee, E Yoko Furuya, Henry H Ting
OBJECTIVE Prevention of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in acute-care hospitals is a priority for hospitals and clinicians. We performed a qualitative systematic review to update the evidence on interventions to prevent CDI published since 2009. DESIGN We searched Ovid, MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, the ISI Web of Knowledge, and grey literature databases from January 1, 2009 to August 1, 2015. SETTING We included studies performed in acute-care hospitals. PATIENTS OR PARTICIPANTS We included studies conducted on hospitalized patients that investigated the impact of specific interventions on CDI rates...
April 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296395/chlorination-of-amino-acids-reaction-pathways-and-reaction-rates
#17
Zuo Tong How, Kathryn Linge, Francesco Busetti, Cynthia A Joll
Chlorination of amino acids can result in the formation of organic monochloramines or organic dichloramines, depending on the chlorine to amino acid ratio (Cl:AA). After formation, organic chloramines degrade into aldehydes, nitriles and N-chloraldimines. In this paper, the formation of organic chloramines from chlorination of lysine, tyrosine and valine were investigated. Chlorination of tyrosine and lysine demonstrated that the presence of a reactive secondary group can increase the Cl:AA ratio required for the formation of N,N-dichloramines, and potentially alter the reaction pathways between chlorine and amino acids, resulting in the formation of unexpected by-products...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296394/longitudinal-and-source-to-tap-new-orleans-la-usa-drinking-water-microbiology
#18
Natalie Marie Hull, Eric P Holinger, Kimberly A Ross, Charles E Robertson, J Kirk Harris, Mark J Stevens, Norman R Pace
The two municipal drinking water systems of New Orleans, LA, USA were sampled to compare microbiology of independent systems that treat the same surface water from the Mississippi River. To better understand temporal trends and sources of microbiology delivered to taps, these treatment plants and distribution systems were subjected to source-to-tap sampling over four years. Both plants employ traditional treatment by chloramination, applied during or after settling, followed by filtration before distribution in a warm, low water age system...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296252/research-on-handwashing-techniques-of-peritoneal-dialysis-patients-from-yiwu-southeast-china
#19
Yuanjun Ye, Xiaohui Zhang, Yansu Liu, Hongqing Lou, Zhangfei Shou
The aim of the present study was to evaluate handwashing technique, bacteriology, and factors influencing handwashing technique of 86 stable chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients from Yiwu City in Southeast China. Based on the "Hygienic standard for disinfection in the hospital", we also performed sampling for bacteriology from PD operators after they washed their hands. We compared their clinical features including the pathogenic bacteria of their previous peritonitis episodes and their handwashing evaluation results according to their bacteriologic sampling results...
March 10, 2017: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294602/surface-cleaning-and-disinfection-efficacy-assessment-of-four-chlorine-types-using-e-coli-and-the-ebola-surrogate-phi6
#20
Karin Gallandat, Marlene K Wolfe, Daniele S Lantagne
In the 2014 West African Ebola outbreak, international organizations provided conflicting recommendations for disinfecting surfaces contaminated by uncontrolled patient spills. We compared the efficacy of four chlorine solutions (sodium hypochlorite, sodium dichloroisocyanurate, high-test hypochlorite, and generated hypochlorite) for disinfection of three surface types (stainless steel, heavy duty tarp, and nitrile), with and without pre-cleaning practices (pre-wiping and/or covering) and soil load. The test organisms were E...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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