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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094565/the-decline-in-hiv-1-drug-resistance-in-heavily-antiretroviral-experienced-patients-is-associated-with-optimized-prescriptions-in-a-treatment-roll-out-program-in-mexico
#1
Juan J Calva, Silvana Larrea, Marco A Tapia-Maltos, Mauricio Ostrosky-Frid, Carolina Lara, Pedro Aguilar-Salinas, Héctor Rivera, Juan P Ramírez
A decrease in the rate of acquired antiretroviral (ARV) drug-resistance (ADR) over time has been documented in high-income settings, but data on the determinants of this phenomenon are lacking. We tested the hypothesis that in heavily ARV-experienced patients in the Mexican ARV therapy (ART) roll-out program, the drop in ADR would be associated with changes in ARV drug usage. Genotypic resistance tests obtained from 974 HIV-infected patients with virologic failure and at least 2 previously failed ARV regimens from throughout the country were analyzed for the presence of nRTI, NNRTI and PI resistance-associated mutations (RAMs)...
January 17, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088884/dual-raltegravir-etravirine-combination-as-maintenance-regimen-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-1-infected-patients
#2
Leonardo Calza, Eleonora Magistrelli, Vincenzo Colangeli, Roberto Manfredi, Marco Borderi, Nicolò Rossi, Matteo Conti, Rita Mancini, Pierluigi Viale
BACKGROUND: Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)- and protease inhibitor (PI)-sparing antiretroviral regimens may be useful in selected HIV-infected patients with resistance or intolerance to these drug classes. METHODS: This was an observational prospective study of patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy containing two NRTIs plus one ritonavir-boosted PI who switched to a dual regimen containing raltegravir plus etravirine. Patients were required not to have prior virological failure to raltegravir and to have efficacy of etravirine showed through the genotypic resistance assay in case of prior non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) virological failure...
January 15, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017912/differences-in-the-integrase-and-reverse-transcriptase-transmitted-resistance-patterns-in-northern-poland
#3
Miłosz Parczewski, Magdalena Leszczyszyn-Pynka, Anna Urbańska
INTRODUCTION: With the widespread introduction of the integrase (In) inhibitors into clinical practice, transmission of drug resistance to this class of antiretroviral medications may expand. The aim of this study was to analyze the recent patterns of In resistance in treatment naive individuals in Northern Poland and its association with transmitted protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) mutations. METHODS: Study included 172 PR, RT and InI sequences from antiretroviral treatment naive HIV-1 infected patients linked to care in Northern Poland from 2010 to 2015...
December 22, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017554/trends-and-predictors-of-hiv-1-acquired-drug-resistance-in-minas-gerais-brazil-2002-2012
#4
Helena Duani, Agdemir Waleria Aleixo, Unaí Tupinambás
Several studies show that the prevalence of multidrug-resistant HIV-1 virus is declining over time. A retrospective cohort study was carried out to evaluate the trends of drug resistance in antiretroviral treatment-exposed (ART) individuals in a state of a middle-income country, Minas Gerais, southeast region of Brazil. We analyzed 2115 HIV-1 sequences from 2002 up to 2012, from 52 cities of Minas Gerais. The groups were analyzed according to the definitions: "IAS - 3 class mutations", if ≥1 drug resistance mutation from IAS 2015 list (DRM) was present in each class; "No fully susceptible drugs" as the absence of any fully susceptible drug in Stanford algorithm; and "GSS≥2", when a maximum calculated GSS (genotypic susceptibility score) was ≥2 or ≥3, counting only drugs available in Brazil and USA at given calendar years...
December 22, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010730/from-antiretroviral-therapy-access-to-provision-of-third-line-regimens-evidence-of-hiv-drug-resistance-mutations-to-first-and-second-line-regimens-among-ugandan-adults
#5
Ivan Namakoola, Ivan Kasamba, Billy N Mayanja, Patrick Kazooba, Joseph Lutaakome, Fred Lyagoba, Anne A Kapaata, Pontiano Kaleebu, Paula Munderi
BACKGROUND: HIV care programs in resource-limited settings have hitherto concentrated on antiretroviral therapy (ART) access, but HIV drug resistance is emerging. In a cross-sectional study of HIV-positive adults on ART for ≥6 months enrolled into a prospective cohort in Uganda, plasma HIV RNA was measured and genotyped if ≥1000 copies/ml. Identified Drug resistance mutations (DRMs) were interpreted using the Stanford database, 2009 WHO list of DRMs and the IAS 2014 update on DRMs, and examined and tabulated by ART drug classes...
December 23, 2016: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999048/pre-existent-nrti-and-nnrti-resistance-impacts-on-maintenance-of-virological-suppression-in-hiv-1-infected-patients-who-switch-to-a-tenofovir-emtricitabine-rilpivirine-single-tablet-regimen
#6
D Armenia, D Di Carlo, A Calcagno, G Vendemiati, F Forbici, A Bertoli, G Berno, S Carta, F Continenza, V Fedele, R Bellagamba, S Cicalini, A Ammassari, R Libertone, M Zaccarelli, V Ghisetti, M Andreoni, F Ceccherini-Silberstein, S Bonora, G Di Perri, A Antinori, C F Perno, M M Santoro
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the maintenance of virological suppression (VS) in antiretroviral-treated HIV-1-suppressed patients switching to a tenofovir/emtricitabine/rilpivirine (TDF/FTC/RPV) single-tablet regimen, by considering pre-existent resistance (pRes). METHODS: pRes was evaluated according to resistance on all previous plasma genotypic resistance tests. Probability and predictors of virological rebound (VR) were evaluated. RESULTS: Three hundred and nine patients were analysed; 5...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943261/efavirenz-or-nevirapine-in-three-drug-combination-therapy-with-two-nucleoside-or-nucleotide-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-for-initial-treatment-of-hiv-infection-in-antiretroviral-na%C3%A3-ve-individuals
#7
REVIEW
Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Sara Mursleen, James H Irlam, Alicen B Spaulding, George W Rutherford, Nandi Siegfried
BACKGROUND: The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) has reduced the morbidity and mortality due to HIV infection. The World Health Organization (WHO) ART guidelines focus on three classes of antiretroviral drugs, namely nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) and protease inhibitors. Two of the most common medications given as first-line treatment are the NNRTIs, efavirenz (EFV) and nevirapine (NVP)...
10, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888600/-darunavir-cobicistat-monotherapy-experience-in-a-tertiary-hospital
#8
L Yunquera-Romero, R Asensi-Díez, J C Del Rio-Valencia, I Muñoz-Castillo, M A Castaño-Carracedo
OBJECTIVE: Ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (IP/r) monotherapy: darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) or lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) monotherapy is only provided in the major treatment guidelines in pretreated patients to prevent toxicity associated with nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), reduce costs and simplify antiretroviral treatment. To start IP/r monotherapy, according to GESIDA guidelines 2016, patients need to meet the following criteria: absence of chronic hepatitis B, plasma viral load <50 copies/ mL for at least 6 months and absence of protease inhibitors mutations or previous virologic failures to IP/r...
December 2016: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888453/evaluation-of-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor-dosing-during-continuous-veno-venous-hemofiltration
#9
Milena M McLaughlin, Inela Masic, Lana Gerzenshtein
Background Unpredictable drug concentrations may lead to suboptimal exposure to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) due to inadequate doses administered during continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH), which in turn may lead to decreased antiretroviral efficacy and possibly further HIV disease progression. Objective To compare administered doses of NRTIs to calculated doses of NRTIs to evaluate if patients were expected to have a favorable pharmacokinetic exposure profile while receiving CVVH...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798676/hiv-1-variants-and-drug-resistance-in-pregnant-women-from-bata-equatorial-guinea-2012-2013
#10
Patricia Alvarez, Carolina Fernández McPhee, Luis Prieto, Leticia Martín, Jacinta Obiang, Pedro Avedillo, Antonio Vargas, Pablo Rojo, Agustín Benito, José Tomás Ramos, África Holguín
OBJECTIVES: This is the first study describing drug resistance mutations (DRM) and HIV-1 variants among infected pregnant women in Equatorial Guinea (GQ), a country with high (6.2%) and increasing HIV prevalence. METHODS: Dried blood spots (DBS) were collected from November 2012 to December 2013 from 69 HIV-1 infected women participating in a prevention of mother-to-child transmission program in the Hospital Regional of Bata and Primary Health Care Centre María Rafols, Bata, GQ...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798641/switch-to-ritonavir-boosted-versus-unboosted-atazanavir-plus-raltegravir-dual-drug-therapy-leads-to-similar-efficacy-and-safety-outcomes-in-clinical-practice
#11
Pierre Gantner, Firouze Bani-Sadr, Rodolphe Garraffo, Pierre-Marie Roger, Michèle Treger, Thomas Jovelin, Pascal Pugliese, David Rey
OBJECTIVES: To assess immunovirological response, safety and pharmacokinetic of NRTI-sparing regimen dual therapy of atazanavir (ATV) and raltegravir (RAL) in maintenance strategy. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on a cohort of HIV-infected adults followed in French centers (Dat'AIDS cohort), comparing the proportions of virological and therapeutic failures between ATV + RAL and ATV/ritonavir + RAL dual therapy regimens. RESULTS: 283 patients were assessed: 185 switched for ATV + RAL and 98 for ATV/ritonavir + RAL dual therapy...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789684/pretreatment-hiv-1-drug-resistance-in-argentina-results-from-a-surveillance-study-performed-according-to-who-proposed-new-methodology-in-2014-15
#12
E Bissio, M G Barbás, M B Bouzas, A Cudolá, H Salomón, L Espínola, S Fernández Giuliano, S Kademián, L Mammana, M L Suárez Ornani, G Ravasi, M Vila, I Zapiola, C Falistocco
BACKGROUND: In Argentina, current national guidelines recommend starting with NNRTI-based regimens. Recently, there have been some local reports regarding concerning levels of NNRTI-transmitted resistance, but surveillance has never been carried out at a national level. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of HIV drug resistance in people starting ART in Argentina using a WHO-proposed methodology. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, nationally representative study...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776039/has-the-phasing-out-of-stavudine-in-accordance-with-changes-in-who-guidelines-led-to-a-decrease-in-single-drug-substitutions-in-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-for-hiv-in-sub-saharan-africa
#13
Alana T Brennan, Mary-Ann Davies, Jacob Bor, Gilles Wandeler, Kathryn Stinson, Robin Wood, Hans Prozesky, Frank Tanser, Geoffrey Fatti, Andrew Boulle, Izukanji Sikazwe, Kara Wool-Kaloustian, Constantin Yuannoutsos, Valériane Leroy, Nathalie de Rekeneire, Matthew P Fox
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the relationship between phasing out stavudine in first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in accordance with WHO 2010 policy and single-drug substitutions (SDS) (substituting the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor in first-line ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN: Prospective cohort analysis (International epidemiological Databases to Evaluate AIDS-Multiregional) including ART-naive, HIV-infected patients aged at least 16 years, initiating ART between January 2005 and December 2012...
January 2, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741139/efavirenz-versus-boosted-atazanavir-containing-regimens-and-immunologic-virologic-and-clinical-outcomes-a-prospective-study-of-hiv-positive-individuals
#14
Lauren E Cain, Ellen C Caniglia, Andrew Phillips, Ashley Olson, Roberto Muga, Santiago Pérez-Hoyos, Sophie Abgrall, Dominique Costagliola, Rafael Rubio, Inma Jarrín, Heiner Bucher, Jan Fehr, Ard van Sighem, Peter Reiss, François Dabis, Marie-Anne Vandenhende, Roger Logan, James Robins, Jonathan A C Sterne, Amy Justice, Janet Tate, Giota Touloumi, Vasilis Paparizos, Anna Esteve, Jordi Casabona, Rémonie Seng, Laurence Meyer, Sophie Jose, Caroline Sabin, Miguel A Hernán
OBJECTIVE: To compare regimens consisting of either ritonavir-boosted atazanavir or efavirenz and a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbone with respect to clinical, immunologic, and virologic outcomes. DESIGN: Prospective studies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals in Europe and the United States included in the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration. METHODS: HIV-positive, antiretroviral therapy-naive, and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-free individuals were followed from the time they started an atazanavir or efavirenz regimen...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736898/hiv-drug-resistance-in-antiretroviral-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-individuals-in-the-largest-public-hospital-in-nicaragua-2011-2015
#15
Santiago Avila-Ríos, Claudia García-Morales, Margarita Matías-Florentino, Daniela Tapia-Trejo, Bismarck F Hernández-Álvarez, Sumaya E Moreira-López, Carlos J Quant-Durán, Guillermo Porras-Cortés, Gustavo Reyes-Terán
BACKGROUND: Increasing HIV pre-treatment drug resistance (PDR) levels have been observed in regions with increasing antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage. However, data is lacking for several low/middle-income countries. We present the first PDR survey in Nicaragua since ART introduction in the country in 2003. METHODS: HIV-infected, ART-naïve Nicaraguan individuals were enrolled at Roberto Calderón Hospital, the largest national HIV referral center, from 2011 to 2015...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659733/hiv-1-antiretroviral-drug-resistance-patterns-in-patients-failing-nnrti-based-treatment-results-from-a-national-survey-in-south-africa
#16
K Steegen, M Bronze, M A Papathanasopoulos, G van Zyl, D Goedhals, E Variava, W MacLeod, I Sanne, W S Stevens, S Carmona
BACKGROUND: Routine HIV-1 antiretroviral drug resistance testing for patients failing NNRTI-based regimens is not recommended in resource-limited settings. Therefore, surveys are required to monitor resistance profiles in patients failing ART. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst patients failing NNRTI-based regimens in the public sector throughout South Africa. Virological failure was defined as two consecutive HIV-1 viral load results >1000 RNA copies/mL...
January 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631260/cross-sectional-study-of-virological-failure-and-multinucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor-resistance-at-12-months-of-antiretroviral-therapy-in-western-india
#17
Santosh K Karade, Manisha V Ghate, Devidas N Chaturbhuj, Dileep B Kadam, Subramanian Shankar, Nitin Gaikwad, Shraddha Gurav, Rajneesh Joshi, Suvarna S Sane, Smita S Kulkarni, Swarali N Kurle, Ramesh S Paranjape, Bharat B Rewari, Raman R Gangakhedkar
The free antiretroviral therapy (ART) program in India has scaled up to register second largest number of people living with HIV/AIDS across the globe. To assess the effectiveness of current first-line regimen we estimated virological suppression on completion of 1 year of ART. The study describes the correlates of virological failure (VF) and multinucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) drug resistance mutations (DRMs).In this cross-sectional study conducted between June and August 2014, consecutive adults from 4 State sponsored ART clinics of western India were recruited for plasma viral load screening at 12 ± 2 months of ART initiation...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615271/cytokines-hepatic-fibrosis-and-antiretroviral-therapy-role-in-neurocognitive-disorders-hiv-related
#18
Katia Falasca, Marcella Reale, Claudio Ucciferri, Marta Di Nicola, Giuseppe Di Martino, Chiara D'Angelo, Simona Coladonato, Jacopo Vecchiet
The HIV may trigger a process of neuronal loss and axonal degeneration throughout the brain, which is carried on by the immune system releasing of proinflammatory cytokines, so that chronic inflammation associated with dysregulated innate immune response, glial cell dysfunction, and adverse antiretroviral therapy (ART) effect play an important role causing milder HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders or asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment. All patients have been tested for neurocognitive functioning through a comprehensive, five-domain neuropsychological battery performed in the study...
October 12, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539528/-diversity-of-hiv-1-subtypes-and-primary-hiv-1-drug-resistance-among-302-newly-confirmed-hiv-infections-aids-in-henan-province-china
#19
D Y Sun, J Liu, W Xu, C He, J Yan, H Xing, X J Xue, P Y Fan, N Li, Q Zhu, Z Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate HIV-1 subtype diversity and the frequency of primary drug resistance in newly confirmed HIV infections/AIDS, and the ratio of recently infected cases in Henan. METHODS: Newly confirmed HIV infections/AIDS from June 2013 to October 2013 and from June 2014 to October 2014 in the municipal CDC and county CDC of six cities in Henan province (Nanyang, Luohe, Pingdingshan, Shangqiu, Xuchang and Zhengzhou) were included in this study. Information on demographics, route of infection and antiviral therapy regimen were obtained from report cards, and at follow-up visits...
August 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530997/the-hiv-1-reverse-transcriptase-polymorphism-a98s-improves-the-response-to-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-emtricitabine-containing-haart-both-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#20
Claudia Alteri, Matteo Surdo, Velia Chiara Di Maio, Fabiola Di Santo, Giosuè Costa, Lucia Parrotta, Isabella Romeo, Caterina Gori, Maria Mercedes Santoro, Valentina Fedele, Stefania Carta, Fabio Continenza, Carmela Pinnetti, Rita Bellagamba, Giuseppina Liuzzi, Nicoletta Orchi, Alessandra Latini, Ada Bertoli, Enrico Girardi, Stefano Alcaro, Massimo Giuliani, Nicola Petrosillo, Massimo Andreoni, Andrea Antinori, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Anna Artese, Carlo Federico Perno, Valentina Svicher
The impact of baseline HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) polymorphisms on response to first-line modern HAART containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC) was evaluated. The impact of each RT polymorphism on virological success (VS) was evaluated in 604 HIV-1 subtype B-infected patients starting TDF+FTC-containing HAART. TDF and FTC antiviral activity was also tested in PBMCs infected by mutagenised HIV. Structural analysis based on docking simulations was performed. A98S was the only mutation significantly correlated with an increased proportion of patients achieving VS at 24 weeks (94...
December 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
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