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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799325/comparison-between-next-generation-and-sanger-based-sequencing-for-the-detection-of-transmitted-drug-resistance-mutations-among-recently-infected-hiv-1-patients-in-israel-2000-2014
#1
Roy Moscona, Daniela Ram, Marina Wax, Efrat Bucris, Itzchak Levy, Ella Mendelson, Orna Mor
INTRODUCTION: Transmitted drug-resistance mutations (TDRM) may hamper successful anti-HIV-1 therapy and impact future control of the HIV-1 epidemic. Recently infected, therapy-naïve individuals are best suited for surveillance of such TDRM. In this study, TDRM, detected by next-generation sequencing (NGS) were compared to those identified by Sanger-based population sequencing (SBS) in recently infected HIV-1 patients. METHODS: Historical samples from 80 recently infected HIV-1 patients, diagnosed between 2000 and 2014, were analysed by MiSeq (NGS) and ABI (SBS)...
August 11, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763465/antiretroviral-resistance-following-immunological-monitoring-in-a-resource-limited-setting-of-western-india-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Santosh K Karade, Smita S Kulkarni, Manisha V Ghate, Ajit A Patil, Rajkumar Londhe, Sonali P Salvi, Dileep B Kadam, Rajneesh K Joshi, Bharat B Rewari, Raman R Gangakhedkar
BACKGROUND: The free antiretroviral therapy (ART) program in India still relies on the clinico-immunological monitoring for diagnosis of treatment failure. As the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbone is shared in first- and second-line regimens, accumulation of drug resistant mutations (DRMs) can compromise the efficacy of NRTI. This study was undertaken to describe the pattern of HIV DRMs following immunological monitoring and investigate its impact on the cycling of NRTI between first- and second-line ART...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753637/collaborative-update-of-a-rule-based-expert-system-for-hiv-1-genotypic-resistance-test-interpretation
#3
Roger Paredes, Philip L Tzou, Gert van Zyl, Geoff Barrow, Ricardo Camacho, Sergio Carmona, Philip M Grant, Ravindra K Gupta, Raph L Hamers, P Richard Harrigan, Michael R Jordan, Rami Kantor, David A Katzenstein, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Frank Maldarelli, Dan Otelea, Carole L Wallis, Jonathan M Schapiro, Robert W Shafer
INTRODUCTION: HIV-1 genotypic resistance test (GRT) interpretation systems (IS) require updates as new studies on HIV-1 drug resistance are published and as treatment guidelines evolve. METHODS: An expert panel was created to provide recommendations for the update of the Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database (HIVDB) GRT-IS. The panel was polled on the ARVs to be included in a GRT report, and the drug-resistance interpretations associated with 160 drug-resistance mutation (DRM) pattern-ARV combinations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750647/high-level-of-hiv-1-drug-resistance-mutations-in-patients-with-unsuppressed-viral-loads-in-rural-northern-south-africa
#4
Elizabeth M Etta, Lufuno Mavhandu, Cecile Manhaeve, Keanan McGonigle, Patrick Jackson, David Rekosh, Marie-Louise Hammarskjold, Pascal O Bessong, Denis M Tebit
BACKGROUND: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has significantly reduced HIV morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. However, the sustainability of cART may be compromised by the emergence of viral drug resistance mutations (DRM) and the cellular persistence of proviruses carrying these DRM. This is potentially a more serious problem in resource limited settings. METHODS: DRM were evaluated in individuals with unsuppressed viral loads after first or multiple lines of cART at two sites in rural Limpopo, South Africa...
July 27, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749986/the-role-of-the-tissue-factor-and-its-inhibitor-in-the-development-of-subclinical-atherosclerosis-in-people-living-with-hiv
#5
Katarzyna Barska, Wiesława Kwiatkowska, Brygida Knysz, Katarzyna Arczyńska, Maciej Karczewski, Wojciech Witkiewicz
INTRODUCTION: HIV infection is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in connection with atherosclerosis and thromboembolic complications. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is still unclear in this group of patients. Studies on pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in the general population emphasize the role of the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation, particularly the tissue factor (TF) and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI). The effect of persistent activation of the immune system on enhanced expression of TF on the surface of monocytes in subjects infected with HIV is known to be correlated with the level of HIV RNA in blood serum...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738474/-hiv-1-drug-resistance-transmission-threshold-survey-in-dehong-prefecture-of-yunnan-province-2015
#6
M Chen, J B Wang, H Xing, Y L Ma, J Yang, H C Chen, S T Yao, H B Luo, X Duan, Y K Wang, S Duan, M H Jia
Objective: To study the HIV-1 drug resistance transmission level in HIV infected persons receiving no antiviral therapy in Dehong prefecture of Yunnan province in 2015. Methods: A total of 72 plasma samples were collected from recently reported HIV-infected persons aged 16-25 years in Dehong from January to July 2015 for drug resistance gene detection. Results: Forty eight samples were successfully sequenced and analyzed. Among them, 31.2% (15/48) were from Chinese, and 68.8% (33/48) were from Burmese. Based on pol sequences, HIV genotypes included URF (52...
July 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737291/nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor-reducing-strategies-in-hiv-treatment-assessing-the-evidence
#7
REVIEW
C Orkin, J M Llibre, S Gallien, A Antinori, Gmn Behrens, A Carr
Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, comprising a backbone of two nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) plus another ARV, is the recognized standard of care (SOC), which has helped extend life expectancy in people living with HIV. In a quest to reduce lifelong drug exposure and minimize or avoid the toxicity of NRTIs, "NRTI-reducing" regimens have been investigated. This descriptive review assessing the results of NRTI-reducing strategies from the largest randomized trials focuses on virological efficacy, resistance, regimen safety (in terms of bone mineral density, renal function, lipids and central nervous system function) and simplicity...
July 24, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722244/risk-of-liver-decompensation-with-cumulative-use-of-mitochondrial-toxic-nucleoside-analogues-in-hiv-hepatitis-c-virus-coinfection
#8
Vincent Lo Re Rd, Bret Zeldow, Michael J Kallan, Janet P Tate, Dena M Carbonari, Sean Hennessy, Jay R Kostman, Joseph K Lim, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Robert Gross, Amy C Justice, Jason A Roy
PURPOSE: Among patients dually infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV), use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing mitochondrial toxic nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (mtNRTIs) might induce chronic hepatic injury, which could accelerate HCV-associated liver fibrosis and increase the risk of hepatic decompensation and death. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study among 1747 HIV/HCV patients initiating NRTI-containing ART within the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (2002-2009) to determine if cumulative mtNRTI use increased the risk of hepatic decompensation and death among HIV-/HCV-coinfected patients...
July 19, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701257/physician-testing-for-hiv-in-patients-treated-with-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-and-lamivudine-monotherapy-for-hepatitis-b-virus
#9
Jillian S Y Lau, Dilip Ratnam, Ian Woolley
Previously we found that local patients were often not tested for HIV prior to commencing nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcription inhibitor (NRTI) therapy for hepatitis B virus. We performed a national cross-sectional cohort study of physician practices via an online survey. A small majority (23/44; 52%) of participants reported always testing their hepatitis B virus patients for HIV prior to NRTI therapy, and 8/44 (18%) reported testing for HIV the majority of the time. Thirteen (30%) respondents reported testing only if risk factors were present...
July 13, 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693084/-survey-of-hiv-1-drug-resistance-threshold-in-shandong-province-in-2013-2015
#10
X G Sun, H Y Yu, S L Su, B Lin, J H Li, L Lin, X R Tao, Y S Qian, D M Kang, H Xing
Objective: To survey the prevalence of drug resistant HIV-1 in Shandong province in 2013-2015. Methods: WHO truncated sequential sampling technique was adopted by using 77 and 53 samples of newly diagnosed as HIV-1 positive and aged 16-25 years in Shandong province in 2013 and 2015. RNA was prepared and HIV-1 pol region was amplified by RT-PCR and nested PCR. Pol genetic mutation associated with drug resistance was analyzed. Results: The success rates for sequence acquisition of the survey were 100% (77/77) and 94% (50/53) in 2013 and 2015, and the main subtype was CRF01_AE...
July 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690229/-hiv-resistance-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-a-meta-analysis
#11
Lin Yang, Ruiwei Xu, Guanglu Zhao, Tiejian Feng, Pingcheng Hu
To assess the prevalence of HIV primary drug resistance and drug resistance gene mutations among men who have sex with men (MSM).
 Methods: We searched eight electronic databases (CNKI, VIP, CBM, Wanfang Database, PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Springer, Medline) for the studies of HIV drug resistance relevant to MSM. Drug resistance and drug resistance mutations data were pooled and analyzed according to statistical test of homogeneity. Subgroups were further divided according to sample size, location, race, quality rating score, sampling time...
June 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671790/-update-in-hiv-therapy-tenofovir-alafenamide
#12
Anne-Sophie Sauvage, Gilles Darcis, Michel Moutschen
Since the first treatments against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have appeared in 1987, important progress has been accomplished. Twenty-four molecules are currently available but only some of them are in common use on account of their easy administration or their weak adverse effects. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is a commonly used nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) of HIV. However, taking TDF is sometimes associated with renal toxicity and increased bone demineralization. Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is a new prodrug of tenofovir (TFV) whose security profile is more interesting as far as renal and bone complications are concerned, due to a much lower serum concentration and a high intracellular concentration...
August 24, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652115/longitudinal-trends-of-hiv-drug-resistance-in-a-large-canadian-cohort-1996-2016
#13
Genevieve Rocheleau, Chanson J Brumme, Jeannie Shoveller, Viviane Lima, Richard Harrigan
OBJECTIVES: We aim to identify long-term trends in HIV drug resistance before and after combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation. METHODS: IAS-USA (2015) mutations were identified in 23,271 HIV protease-reverse transcriptase sequences from 6543 treatment naïve British Columbia adults. Participants that started cART between 1996-2014 were followed until April 2016. Equality of proportions test compared the percentage of participants with acquired drug resistance (ADR) or transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in 1996, to those in 2014...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651173/development-validation-and-clinical-application-of-a-method-for-the-simultaneous-quantification-of-lamivudine-emtricitabine-and-tenofovir-in-dried-blood-and-dried-breast-milk-spots-using-lc-ms-ms
#14
Catriona Waitt, Sujan Diliiy Penchala, Adeniyi Olagunju, Alieu Amara, Laura Else, Mohammed Lamorde, Saye Khoo
OBJECTIVES: To present the validation and clinical application of a LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of lamivudine (3TC), emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir (TFV) in dried blood spots (DBS) and dried breast milk spots (DBMS). METHODS: DBS and DBMS were prepared from 50 and 30μL of drug-spiked whole blood and human breast milk, respectively. Following extraction with acetonitrile and water, chromatographic separation utilised a Synergi polar column with a gradient mobile phase program consisting of 0...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650382/hiv-drug-resistance-in-infants-increases-with-changing-pmtct-regimens
#15
Lisa K Poppe, Catherine Chunda-Liyoka, Eun Hee Kwon, Clement Gondwe, John T West, Chipepo Kankasa, Clement B Ndongmo, Charles Wood
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine HIV drug resistance prevalence in Zambian infants upon diagnosis, and to determine how changing prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) regimens affect drug resistance. DESIGN: Dried blood spot (DBS) samples from infants in the Lusaka District of Zambia, obtained during routine diagnostic screening, were collected during four different years representing three different PMTCT treatment regimens...
June 23, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650379/tenofovir-induced-toxicity-in-renal-proximal-tubular-epithelial-cells-involvement-of-mitochondria
#16
Lara Milián, José E Peris, Patricia Gandía, Isabel Andújar, Luis Pallardó, Jose L Górriz, Ana Blas-García
OBJECTIVE: In-vivo studies suggest that mitochondria is involved in tenofovir (TFV)-induced renal toxicity, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of TFV and its prodrug, TFV disoproxil fumarate, on mitochondrial function and cell survival/viability in a renal proximal tubular cell line. DESIGN AND METHODS: We evaluated parameters of cellular proliferation/survival (cell count, cell cycle, viability) and mitochondrial function (oxygen consumption, mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen species production) in NRK-52E cells...
July 31, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649306/decreasing-prevalence-of-transmitted-drug-resistance-among-art-naive-hiv-1-infected-patients-in-iceland-1996-2012
#17
Malik Sallam, Gülşen Özkaya Şahin, Hlynur Indriðason, Joakim Esbjörnsson, Arthur Löve, Anders Widell, Magnus Gottfreðsson, Patrik Medstrand
Introduction: Resistance to antiretroviral drugs can complicate the management of HIV-1 infection and impair control of its spread. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence and transmission of HIV-1 drug resistance among 106 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients diagnosed in Iceland (1996-2012). Methods: HIV-1 polymerase sequences were analysed using the Calibrated Population Resistance tool. Domestic spread of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) was investigated through maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646196/nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-nrtis-induce-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-the-cns-via-wnt5a-signaling
#18
Ting Wu, Juan Zhang, Mingxing Geng, Shao-Jun Tang, Wenping Zhang, Jianhong Shu
HAART is very effective in suppressing HIV-1 replication in patients. However, patients staying on long-term HAART still develop various HIV-associated neurological disorders, even when the viral load is low. The underlying pathogenic mechanisms are largely unknown. Emerging evidence implicated that persistent neuroinflammation plays an important role in NeuroAIDS. Although residual virus or viral proteins are commonly thought as the causal factors, we are interested in the alternative possibility that HAART critically contributes to the neuroinflammation in the central nervous system (CNS)...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628528/increased-persistence-of-initial-treatment-for-hiv-infection-with-modern-antiretroviral-therapy
#19
Thibaut Davy-Mendez, Joseph J Eron, Oksana Zakharova, David A Wohl, Sonia Napravnik
BACKGROUND: Initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) early improves clinical outcomes and prevents transmission. Guidelines for first-line therapy have changed with the availability of newer ART agents. In this study, we compared persistence and virologic response to initial ART according to the class of anchor agent used. SETTING: An observational clinical cohort study in the Southeastern United States. METHODS: All HIV-infected patients participating in the UNC Center for AIDS Research Clinical Cohort (UCHCC) and initiating ART between 1996 and 2014 were included...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627486/the-association-between-detected-drug-resistance-mutations-and-cd4-t-cell-decline-in-hiv-positive-individuals-maintained-on-a-failing-treatment-regimen
#20
Anna Schultze, Roger Paredes, Caroline Sabin, Andrew N Phillips, Deenan Pillay, Nicola Mackie, Antonella Castagna, David Chadwick, Karolin Falconer, Anna Maria Geretti, Frank A Post, Teresa Hill, Ole Kirk, Anton Pozniak, Mark Nelson, Anna Tostevin, David Dunn, Jens Lundgren, Alessandro Cozzi-Lepri
BACKGROUND: To analyse the effect of drug resistance mutations (DRM) on CD4 cell trends in HIV-positive people maintained on virologically failing antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: Individuals from two large cohorts experiencing virological failure (VF) while maintained on ART with >1 CD4 count and >1 resistance test were included. CD4 cell slopes were estimated using linear mixed models. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to assess the effect of clusters of mutations, defined using extracted component based scores from the PCA, on CD4 cell decline...
June 19, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
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