keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

nrti

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214156/off-target-effects-of-drugs-that-disrupt-human-mitochondrial-dna-maintenance
#1
REVIEW
Matthew J Young
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) were the first drugs used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Development of severe mitochondrial toxicity has been well documented in patients infected with HIV and administered NRTIs. In vitro biochemical experiments have demonstrated that the replicative mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymerase gamma, Polg, is a sensitive target for inhibition by metabolically active forms of NRTIs, nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210661/impact-of-different-antiretroviral-strategies-on-total-hiv-dna-level-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-1-infected-patients
#2
Isabella Bon, Leonardo Calza, Giuseppina Musumeci, Serena Longo, Alessia Bertoldi, Vanessa D'Urbano, Davide Gibellini, Eleonora Magistrelli, Pier Luigi Viale, Maria Carla Re
Background Total HIV-DNA load in peripheral blood cell (PBMCs) reflects the global viral reservoir that seems to be not affect by antiretroviral treatment. However, some studies reported a different permeability of different drugs in cellular compartments. Objective To investigate the relation between the amount of total HIV-1 DNA and different treatment strategies. Method Total HIV-1 DNA was quantified by real time PCR in PBMCs collected from 161 patients with long-term undetectable HIV-RNA receiving different therapy schedules (3-drug regimens or 2-drug regimen containing Raltegravir as integrase inhibitor)...
December 6, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206748/pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-atazanavir-in-hiv-1-infected-children-treated-with-atazanavir-powder-and-ritonavir-combined-analysis-of-the-prince-1-and-2-studies
#3
Heather Sevinsky, Luna Zaru, Reena Wang, Xiaohui Xu, Cheryl Pikora, Todd A Correll, Timothy Eley
BACKGROUND: Two clinical studies (PRINCE-1 and -2) in HIV-1-infected children assessed the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of dual nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) background therapy plus once-daily atazanavir powder formulation boosted with ritonavir (ATV+RTV). Here, we present a combined analysis of ATV pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics across these studies. METHODS: Intensive 24-hour pharmacokinetic profiles at steady state compared ATV exposures (area under the concentration-time curve in one dosing interval [AUCτ]) in 5 ATV+RTV baseline weight-band dosing categories with historic data in adults receiving ATV+RTV 300/100-mg capsules...
December 4, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206747/safety-and-efficacy-of-atazanavir-powder-and-ritonavir-in-hiv-1-infected-infants-and-children-aged-from-3-months-to-11-years-the-prince-2-study
#4
Mark F Cotton, Afaaf Liberty, Indiana Torres-Escobar, Maria Isabel Gonzalez-Tome, Jurgen Lissens, Luna Zaru, Isabelle Klauck, Daniela Cambilargiu, Cheryl Pikora, Todd A Correll
BACKGROUND: Novel antiretroviral formulations that are palatable, safe, and effective are needed for infants and children. METHODS: PRINCE-2 is an ongoing clinical trial assessing safety, efficacy, and palatability of once-daily atazanavir powder formulation boosted with ritonavir (ATV+RTV) plus optimized dual NRTI therapy in ARV-naïve/experienced children with screening HIV-1 RNA ≥1000 copies/mL. Children aged 3 months to <11 years received ATV+RTV by 5 baseline weight bands: 5 to <10kg=150/80mg; 5 to <10kg=200/80mg; 10 to <15kg=200/80mg; 15 to <25kg=250/80mg; and 25 to <35kg=300/100mg...
December 4, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206723/assessing-the-association-between-changing-nrtis-when-initiating-second-line-art-and-treatment-outcomes
#5
Julia K Rohr, Prudence Ive, C Robert Horsburgh, Rebecca Berhanu, Christopher J Hoffmann, Robin Wood, Andrew Boulle, Janet Giddy, Hans Prozesky, Michael Vinikoor, Mwanza Wa Mwanza, Gilles Wandeler, Mary-Ann Davies, Matthew P Fox
BACKGROUND: After first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure, the importance of change in nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) in second-line is uncertain due to the high potency of protease inhibitors used in second-line. SETTING: We used clinical data from 6,290 adult patients in South Africa and Zambia from the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS-Southern Africa cohort. METHODS: We included patients who initiated on standard first-line ART and had evidence of first-line failure...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206721/viral-drug-resistance-through-48-weeks-in-a-phase-2b-randomized-controlled-trial-of-the-hiv-1-attachment-inhibitor-prodrug-fostemsavir
#6
Max Lataillade, Nannan Zhou, Samit R Joshi, Sangil Lee, David A Stock, George J Hanna, Mark Krystal
[Journal limit: 250 words, currently 250] BACKGROUND:: Fostemsavir is a prodrug of temsavir, an attachment inhibitor that binds to HIV-1 gp120, blocking viral attachment to host CD4+ T-cells. The Phase 2b trial AI438011 investigated the safety, efficacy and dose-response of fostemsavir vs ATV/r in treatment-experienced, HIV-1-infected subjects. METHODS: 251 treatment-experienced subjects with baseline susceptibility to study drugs (temsavir IC50 <100 nM, Phenosense Entry assay) received fostemsavir or ATV/r, each with TDF+RAL...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206312/risk-of-cancer-in-children-exposed-to-antiretroviral-nucleoside-analogues-in-utero-the-french-experience
#7
Mira Hleyhel, Stéphanie Goujon, Jeanne Sibiude, Roland Tubiana, Catherine Dollfus, Albert Faye, Laurent Mandelbrot, Jacqueline Clavel, Josiane Warszawski, Stéphane Blanche
All nucleoside analogues for treating HIV infection, due to their capacity to integrate into and alter human DNA, are experimentally genotoxic to some extent. The long-term oncogenic risk after in utero exposure remains to be determined. Cancer incidence in uninfected children exposed to nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) was evaluated, by cross-checking against the National Cancer Registry, in the French perinatal study of children born to HIV+ mothers. Twenty-one cancers were identified in 15,163 children (median age: 9...
December 5, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140932/characteristics-of-treatment-experienced-hiv-infected-african-children-and-adolescents-initiating-darunavir-and-or-etravirine-based-antiretroviral-treatment
#8
Bethany Corrigan, Irene Mukui, Lloyd Mulenga, Nobuhle Mthethwa, Mosilinyane Letsie, Stephanie Bruno, Natella Rakhmanina
BACKGROUND: Data are limited on the selection and sequencing of second and third-line pediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART) in resource-limited settings. This study aimed to evaluate characteristics of African pediatric patients initiated on darunavir (DRV) and/or etravirine (ETR) through a specific drug donation program. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of baseline immunologic, virologic and demographic characteristics of children and adolescents initiating DRV- and/or ETR-based ART...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136743/-drug-resistance-mutations-and-its-associated-factors-among-579-hiv-aids-patients-experiencing-failure-of-antiretroviral-therapy-in-jiangsu-province-china
#9
P P Xiao, J Lu, H Y Hu, X Q Xu, P Ding, G F Fu, X P Huan, Y Zhou, H T Yang
Objective: To understand the incidence and related factors of HIV-1 drug resistance among HIV/AIDS patients experiencing treatment failure in Jiangsu province, China. Methods: The HIV/AIDS integrated prevention and control data information management system of China were used to collect the basic data of patients, blood specimens were collected from patients who had antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure with ≥12 months and older than 18 years in 2016 in Jiangsu, excluding cases with missing information, 713 cases were enrolled in this study...
November 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136032/virological-response-and-resistance-among-hiv-infected-children-receiving-long-term-antiretroviral-therapy-without-virological-monitoring-in-uganda-and-zimbabwe-observational-analyses-within-the-randomised-arrow-trial
#10
Alexander J Szubert, Andrew J Prendergast, Moira J Spyer, Victor Musiime, Philippa Musoke, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Patricia Nahirya-Ntege, Margaret J Thomason, Emmanuel Ndashimye, Immaculate Nkanya, Oscar Senfuma, Boniface Mudenge, Nigel Klein, Diana M Gibb, A Sarah Walker
BACKGROUND: Although WHO recommends viral load (VL) monitoring for those on antiretroviral therapy (ART), availability in low-income countries remains limited. We investigated long-term VL and resistance in HIV-infected children managed without real-time VL monitoring. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the ARROW factorial trial, 1,206 children initiating ART in Uganda and Zimbabwe between 15 March 2007 and 18 November 2008, aged a median 6 years old, with median CD4% of 12%, were randomised to monitoring with or without 12-weekly CD4 counts and to receive 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (2NRTI, mainly abacavir+lamivudine) with a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) or 3 NRTIs as long-term ART...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128646/hiv-drug-resistance-following-a-decade-of-free-antiretroviral-therapy-program-in-india-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Santosh Karade, Devidas N Chaturbhuj, Sourav Sen, Rajneesh K Joshi, Smita S Kulkarni, Subramanian Shankar, Raman R Gangakhedkar
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to assess the burden of HIV drug resistance mutations (DRM) in Indian adults exposed to first-line ART as per national guidelines. METHODS: We performed advanced search for the published literature on HIV drug resistance in India in PubMed and Scopus. From each publication data pertaining to age, sex, CD4 count and viral load, prevalence of NRTI/NNRTI drug resistance mutations (DRM) was extracted. Year-wise Indian HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences were retrieved from Los Alamos HIV database and mutation analyses were performed...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117130/characterization-of-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor-associated-mutations-in-the-rnase-h-region-of-hiv-1-subtype-c-infected-individuals
#12
Sinaye Ngcapu, Kristof Theys, Pieter Libin, Vincent C Marconi, Henry Sunpath, Thumbi Ndung'u, Michelle L Gordon
The South African national treatment programme includes nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in both first and second line highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens. Mutations in the RNase H domain have been associated with resistance to NRTIs but primarily in HIV-1 subtype B studies. Here, we investigated the prevalence and association of RNase H mutations with NRTI resistance in sequences from HIV-1 subtype C infected individuals. RNase H sequences from 112 NRTI treated but virologically failing individuals and 28 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive individuals were generated and analysed...
November 8, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108797/lopinavir-plus-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-lopinavir-plus-raltegravir-or-lopinavir-monotherapy-for-second-line-treatment-of-hiv-earnest-144-week-follow-up-results-from-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
James G Hakim, Jennifer Thompson, Cissy Kityo, Anne Hoppe, Andrew Kambugu, Joep J van Oosterhout, Abbas Lugemwa, Abraham Siika, Raymond Mwebaze, Aggrey Mweemba, George Abongomera, Margaret J Thomason, Philippa Easterbrook, Peter Mugyenyi, A Sarah Walker, Nicholas I Paton
BACKGROUND: Millions of HIV-infected people worldwide receive antiretroviral therapy (ART) in programmes using WHO-recommended standardised regimens. Recent WHO guidelines recommend a boosted protease inhibitor plus raltegravir as an alternative second-line combination. We assessed whether this treatment option offers any advantage over the standard protease inhibitor plus two nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) second-line combination after 144 weeks of follow-up in typical programme settings...
November 3, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095935/beyond-the-polymerase-%C3%AE-theory-production-of-ros-as-a-mode-of-nrti-induced-mitochondrial-toxicity
#14
Reuben L Smith, Josephine M E Tan, Martijs J Jonker, Aldo Jongejan, Thomas Buissink, Steve Veldhuijzen, Antoine H C van Kampen, Stanley Brul, Hans van der Spek
Use of some HIV-1 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) is associated with severe adverse events. However, the exact mechanisms behind their toxicity has not been fully understood. Mitochondrial dysfunction after chronic exposure to specific NRTIs has predominantly been assigned to mitochondrial polymerase-γ inhibition by NRTIs. However, an increasing amount of data suggests that this is not the sole mechanism. Many NRTI induced adverse events have been linked to the incurrence of oxidative stress, although the causality of events leading to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and their role in toxicity is unclear...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081666/high-rate-of-hiv-1-drug-resistance-in-treatment-failure-patients-in-taiwan-2009-2014
#15
Hung-Chin Tsai, I-Tzu Chen, Kuan-Sheng Wu, Yu-Ting Tseng, Cheng-Len Sy, Jui-Kuang Chen, Susan Shin-Jung Lee, Yao-Shen Chen
BACKGROUND: Drug resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and protease inhibitors (PIs) has been associated with loss of viral suppression measured by a rise in HIV-1 RNA levels, a decline in CD4 cell counts, persistence on a failing treatment regimen, and lack of adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to monitor the prevalence and risk factors associated with drug resistance in Taiwan after failure of first-line therapy...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077926/no-impact-of-hiv-1-protease-minority-resistant-variants-on-the-virological-response-to-a-first-line-pi-based-regimen-containing-darunavir-or-atazanavir
#16
Marine Perrier, Benoit Visseaux, Roland Landman, Véronique Joly, Eve Todesco, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Vincent Calvez, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Diane Descamps, Charlotte Charpentier
Objectives: To evaluate, in a clinical cohort of HIV-1-infected patients, the prevalence of PI minority resistant variants (MRV) at ART baseline and their impact on the virological response to a first-line PI-based regimen. Patients and methods: In an observational single-centre cohort, we assessed all ART-naive patients initiating a first-line regimen including two NRTI and one boosted PI, darunavir/ritonavir or atazanavir/ritonavir, between January 2012 and March 2015...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074854/gag-p2-nc-and-pol-genetic-diversity-polymorphism-and-drug-resistance-mutations-in-hiv-1-crf02_ag-and-non-crf02_ag-infected-patients-in-yaound%C3%A3-cameroon
#17
Georges Teto, Claude T Tagny, Dora Mbanya, Julius Y Fonsah, Joseph Fokam, Emilienne Nchindap, Léopoldine Kenmogne, Alfred K Njamnshi, Georgette D Kanmogne
In HIV-1 subtype-B, specific mutations in Gag cleavage sites (CS) are associated with treatment failure, with limited knowledge among non-B subtypes. We analyzed non-B HIV-1 gag and pol (protease/reverse-transcriptase) sequences from Cameroonians for drug resistance mutations (DRMs) in the gag P2/NC CS, and pol major DRMs. Phylogeny of the 141 sequences revealed a high genetic diversity (12 subtypes): 67.37% CRF02_AG versus 32.6% non-CRF02_AG. Overall, 7.3% transmitted and 34.3% acquired DRMs were found, including M184V, thymidine analogue mutations (T215F, D67N, K70R, K219Q), NNRTIs (L100I, Y181C, K103N, V108I, Y188L), and PIs (V82L)...
October 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068286/dynamic-hiv-1-genetic-recombination-and-genotypic-drug-resistance-among-treatment-experienced-adults-in-northern-ghana
#18
Nicholas Israel Nii-Trebi, James Ashun Mensah Brandful, Shiro Ibe, Wataru Sugiura, Jacob Samson Barnor, Patrick Owiredu Bampoh, Shoji Yamaoka, Tetsuro Matano, Kazuhisa Yoshimura, Koichi Ishikawa, William Kwabena Ampofo
PURPOSE: There have been hardly any reports on the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug-resistance profile from northern Ghana since antiretroviral therapy (ART) was introduced over a decade ago. This study investigated prevailing HIV-1 subtypes and examined the occurrence of drug resistance in ART-experienced patients in Tamale, the capital of the Northern Region of Ghana. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was carried out on HIV-infected adult patients receiving first-line ART...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049402/upward-trends-of-acquired-drug-resistances-in-ethiopian-hiv-1c-isolates-a-decade-longitudinal-study
#19
Andargachew Mulu, Melanie Maier, Uwe Gerd Liebert
BACKGROUND: The emergence, accumulation and spread of HIV-1 drug resistance strains in Africa could compromise the effectiveness of HIV treatment programs. This study was aimed at determining the incidence of virological failure and acquired drug resistance mutations overtime and identifying the most common mutational pathways of resistance in a well characterized HIV-1C infected Ethiopian cohort. METHODS: A total of 320 patients (220 ART naïve and 100 on first lines ART) were included and followed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021409/hiv-1-viral-load-and-resistance-in-genital-secretions-in-patients-taking-protease-inhibitor-based-second-line-therapy-in-africa
#20
Anne Hoppe, Marina Giuliano, Abbas Lugemwa, Jennifer A Thompson, Marco Floridia, Ann S Walker, Ismail Senoga, Mary C Abwola, Maria F Pirillo, Cissy M Kityo, Alejandro Arenas-Pinto, Nicholas I Paton
BACKGROUND: HIV is transmitted primarily through sexual intercourse, and the objective of this study was therefore to assess whether there is occult viral replication and resistance in genital secretions in patients on protease inhibitor (PI)-based second-line therapy. METHODS: HIV-infected adults taking ritonavir-boosted lopinavir with either two NRTIs, raltegravir, or as monotherapy for 96 weeks were enrolled at seven clinical sites in Uganda. Viral load (VL) was measured in cervico-vaginal secretions or semen and in a corresponding plasma sample...
October 11, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
keyword
keyword
39741
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"