Read by QxMD icon Read


Alana T Brennan, Mary-Ann Davies, Jacob Bor, Gilles Wandeler, Kathryn Stinson, Robin Wood, Hans Prozesky, Frank Tanser, Geoffrey Fatti, Andrew Boulle, Izukanji Sikazwe, Kara Wool-Kaloustian, Constantin Yiannoutsos, Valériane Leroy, Nathalie de Rekeneire, Matthew P Fox
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the relationship between phasing out stavudine in first-line antiretroviral therapy(ART) in accordance with World Health Organization 2010 policy and single-drug substitutions (SDS)(substituting the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor(NRTI) in first-line ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN: Prospective cohort analysis (IeDEA-Multiregional) including ART-naïve, HIV-infected patients ≥16 years initiating ART between January 2005-December 2012...
October 20, 2016: AIDS
Lauren E Cain, Ellen C Caniglia, Andrew Phillips, Ashley Olson, Roberto Muga, Santiago Pérez-Hoyos, Sophie Abgrall, Dominique Costagliola, Rafael Rubio, Inma Jarrín, Heiner Bucher, Jan Fehr, Ard van Sighem, Peter Reiss, François Dabis, Marie-Anne Vandenhende, Roger Logan, James Robins, Jonathan A C Sterne, Amy Justice, Janet Tate, Giota Touloumi, Vasilis Paparizos, Anna Esteve, Jordi Casabona, Rémonie Seng, Laurence Meyer, Sophie Jose, Caroline Sabin, Miguel A Hernán
OBJECTIVE: To compare regimens consisting of either ritonavir-boosted atazanavir or efavirenz and a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbone with respect to clinical, immunologic, and virologic outcomes. DESIGN: Prospective studies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals in Europe and the United States included in the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration. METHODS: HIV-positive, antiretroviral therapy-naive, and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-free individuals were followed from the time they started an atazanavir or efavirenz regimen...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Santiago Avila-Ríos, Claudia García-Morales, Margarita Matías-Florentino, Daniela Tapia-Trejo, Bismarck F Hernández-Álvarez, Sumaya E Moreira-López, Carlos J Quant-Durán, Guillermo Porras-Cortés, Gustavo Reyes-Terán
BACKGROUND: Increasing HIV pre-treatment drug resistance (PDR) levels have been observed in regions with increasing antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage. However, data is lacking for several low/middle-income countries. We present the first PDR survey in Nicaragua since ART introduction in the country in 2003. METHODS: HIV-infected, ART-naïve Nicaraguan individuals were enrolled at Roberto Calderón Hospital, the largest national HIV referral center, from 2011 to 2015...
2016: PloS One
K Steegen, M Bronze, M A Papathanasopoulos, G van Zyl, D Goedhals, E Variava, W MacLeod, I Sanne, W S Stevens, S Carmona
BACKGROUND: Routine HIV-1 antiretroviral drug resistance testing for patients failing NNRTI-based regimens is not recommended in resource-limited settings. Therefore, surveys are required to monitor resistance profiles in patients failing ART. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst patients failing NNRTI-based regimens in the public sector throughout South Africa. Virological failure was defined as two consecutive HIV-1 viral load results >1000 RNA copies/mL...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Santosh K Karade, Manisha V Ghate, Devidas N Chaturbhuj, Dileep B Kadam, Subramanian Shankar, Nitin Gaikwad, Shraddha Gurav, Rajneesh Joshi, Suvarna S Sane, Smita S Kulkarni, Swarali N Kurle, Ramesh S Paranjape, Bharat B Rewari, Raman R Gangakhedkar
The free antiretroviral therapy (ART) program in India has scaled up to register second largest number of people living with HIV/AIDS across the globe. To assess the effectiveness of current first-line regimen we estimated virological suppression on completion of 1 year of ART. The study describes the correlates of virological failure (VF) and multinucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) drug resistance mutations (DRMs).In this cross-sectional study conducted between June and August 2014, consecutive adults from 4 State sponsored ART clinics of western India were recruited for plasma viral load screening at 12 ± 2 months of ART initiation...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Katia Falasca, Marcella Reale, Claudio Ucciferri, Marta Di Nicola, Giuseppe Di Martino, Chiara D'Angelo, Simona Coladonato, Jacopo Vecchiet
The HIV may trigger a process of neuronal loss and axonal degeneration throughout the brain, which is carried on by the immune system releasing of proinflammatory cytokines, so that chronic inflammation associated with dysregulated innate immune response, glial cell dysfunction, and adverse antiretroviral therapy (ART) effect play an important role causing milder HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders or asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment. All patients have been tested for neurocognitive functioning through a comprehensive, five-domain neuropsychological battery performed in the study...
October 12, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
D Y Sun, J Liu, W Xu, C He, J Yan, H Xing, X J Xue, P Y Fan, N Li, Q Zhu, Z Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate HIV-1 subtype diversity and the frequency of primary drug resistance in newly confirmed HIV infections/AIDS, and the ratio of recently infected cases in Henan. METHODS: Newly confirmed HIV infections/AIDS from June 2013 to October 2013 and from June 2014 to October 2014 in the municipal CDC and county CDC of six cities in Henan province (Nanyang, Luohe, Pingdingshan, Shangqiu, Xuchang and Zhengzhou) were included in this study. Information on demographics, route of infection and antiviral therapy regimen were obtained from report cards, and at follow-up visits...
August 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Claudia Alteri, Matteo Surdo, Velia Chiara Di Maio, Fabiola Di Santo, Giosuè Costa, Lucia Parrotta, Isabella Romeo, Caterina Gori, Maria Mercedes Santoro, Valentina Fedele, Stefania Carta, Fabio Continenza, Carmela Pinnetti, Rita Bellagamba, Giuseppina Liuzzi, Nicoletta Orchi, Alessandra Latini, Ada Bertoli, Enrico Girardi, Stefano Alcaro, Massimo Giuliani, Nicola Petrosillo, Massimo Andreoni, Andrea Antinori, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Anna Artese, Carlo Federico Perno, Valentina Svicher
The impact of baseline HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) polymorphisms on response to first-line modern HAART containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC) was evaluated. The impact of each RT polymorphism on virological success (VS) was evaluated in 604 HIV-1 subtype B-infected patients starting TDF+FTC-containing HAART. TDF and FTC antiviral activity was also tested in PBMCs infected by mutagenised HIV. Structural analysis based on docking simulations was performed. A98S was the only mutation significantly correlated with an increased proportion of patients achieving VS at 24 weeks (94...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Martina Kovarova, Uma Shanmugasundaram, Caroline E Baker, Rae Ann Spagnuolo, Chandrav De, Christopher C Nixon, Angela Wahl, J Victor Garcia
BACKGROUND: Approximately 1.5 million HIV-positive women become pregnant annually. Without treatment, up to 45% will transmit HIV to their infants, primarily through breastfeeding. These numbers highlight that HIV acquisition is a major health concern for women and children globally. They also emphasize the urgent need for novel approaches to prevent HIV acquisition that are safe, effective and convenient to use by women and children in places where they are most needed. METHODS: 4'-Ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine, a potent NRTI with low cytotoxicity, was administered orally to NOD/SCID/γc(-/-) mice and to bone marrow/liver/thymus (BLT) humanized mice, a preclinical model of HIV infection...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
A Tostevin, E White, D Dunn, S Croxford, V Delpech, I Williams, D Asboe, A Pozniak, D Churchill, A M Geretti, D Pillay, C Sabin, A Leigh-Brown, E Smit
OBJECTIVES: Transmission of drug-resistant HIV-1 has decreased in the UK since the early 2000s. This analysis reports recent trends and characteristics of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in the UK from 2010 to 2013. METHODS: Resistance tests conducted in antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve individuals between 2010 and 2013 were analysed for the presence of transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRMs), defined as any mutations from a modified 2009 World Health Organization surveillance list, or a modified 2013 International Antiviral Society-USA list for integrase tests...
August 1, 2016: HIV Medicine
Mauro Zaccarelli, Maria Mercedes Santoro, Daniele Armenia, Vanni Borghi, William Gennari, Caterina Gori, Federica Forbici, Ada Bertoli, Lavinia Fabeni, Alberto Giannetti, Stefania Cicalini, Rita Bellagamba, Massimo Andreoni, Claudio Maria Mastroianni, Cristina Mussini, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Carlo Federico Perno, Andrea Antinori
BACKGROUND: Beyond the detection of resistant HIV strains found in plasma samples, archival HIV-DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) might represent a reservoir of additional resistance. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the HIV-1 resistance in PBMCs from patients with suppressed or low-level viremia (50-1000 copies/mL) and evaluate its added value compared to the resistance detected in previous plasma genotypic resistance tests (GRTs). STUDY DESIGN: HIV-1 infected patients selected for treatment change despite low/undetectable viremia were tested...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Maximilian Donath, Timo Wolf, Martin Stürmer, Eva Herrmann, Markus Bickel, Pavel Khaykin, Siri Göpel, Peter Gute, Annette Haberl, Philipp de Leuw, Gundolf Schüttfort, Annemarie Berger, Christoph Stephan
There are concerns about central nervous system (CNS)-replication of HIV-1 in patients on boosted protease inhibitors. Purpose of this study was to compare HIV-1 viral loads (VLs) from patients treated with only boosted dual protease inhibitor (bdPI), versus combination antiretroviral therapy (cART group), containing two nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and a third partner. All patients from a large German HIV-treatment cohort with available medication, clinical and demographic data, including results from simultaneous HIV-1 viral load (VL) assessments in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood plasma, were retrospectively evaluated as controlled cross-sectional study...
July 28, 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Sathasivam Sivamalar, Thongadi Ramesh Dinesha, Selvamurthi Gomathi, Ambrose Pradeep, Jayaseelan Boobalan, Sunil S Solomon, Selvamuthu Poongulali, Suniti Solomon, Balakrishnan Pachamuthu, Shanmugam Saravanan
Lack of HIV-1 viral load monitoring in resource-limited settings leads to development of HIV drug resistance mutations, although WHO recommends viral load testing for monitoring as this helps in preserving future treatment options and also avoid unnecessary switching to more expensive drugs. A total of 101 patients attaining first-line treatment failure (FTF) were followed till second-line treatment failure (STF) to study the rate of accumulation of TAMs, their future drug options, and genetic evolution. The result shows predominant NRTI mutations was M184V/I (87...
July 26, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Emanuele Focà, Massimiliano Fabbiani, Mattia Prosperi, Eugenia Quiros Roldan, Francesco Castelli, Franco Maggiolo, Elisa Di Filippo, Simona Di Giambenedetto, Roberta Gagliardini, Annalisa Saracino, Massimo Di Pietro, Andrea Gori, Laura Sighinolfi, Angelo Pan, Maria Concetta Postorino, Carlo Torti
INTRODUCTION: Patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) suffer from faster progression of liver fibrosis (LF) and have greater risk of worse clinical outcomes. We evaluated predictors and incidence of these events in a large multicentre cohort. METHODS: We selected all HIV-infected patients starting a first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), with detectable HCV-RNA, without exposure to interferon/ribavirin, with ≥2 fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4) classifications before cART...
July 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Pierre de Truchis, Minh Patrick Lê, Mamane Daou, Boubacar Madougou, Yacouba Nouhou, Sahada Moussa Saley, Achirou Sani, Eric Adehossi, Elisabeth Rouveix, Mamadou Saidou, Gilles Peytavin, Constance Delaugerre
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine the rate of viral success in HIV-infected patients on first-line ART by the assessment of dried blood spot (DBS) viral load (VL) and to assess the performance of DBS sampling for VL measurement, genotypic resistance and antiretroviral concentration determinations. METHODS: HIV-infected patients treated for >1 year with first-line ART in Niamey, Niger were included. VL based on nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) assay (limit of quantification <800 copies/mL) was measured on DBS capillary samples...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Uma Shanmugasundaram, Martina Kovarova, Phong T Ho, Nathaniel Schramm, Angela Wahl, Michael A Parniak, J Victor Garcia
BACKGROUND: The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) 4'-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (EFdA) in preclinical development exhibits improved safety and antiviral activity profiles with minimal drug resistance compared to approved NRTIs. However, the systemic antiviral efficacy of EFdA has not been fully evaluated. In this study, we utilized bone marrow/liver/thymus (BLT) humanized mice to investigate the systemic effect of EFdA treatment on HIV replication and CD4+ T cell depletion in the peripheral blood (PB) and tissues...
2016: PloS One
Camille Bernaud, Lydie Khatchatourian, Audrey Rodallec, Nolwenn Hall, Philippe Perre, Marine Morrier, Solène Pineau, Thomas Jovelin, Elisabeth André-Garnier, François Raffi, Clotilde Allavena
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir DF/FTC/rilpivirine (TDF/FTC/RPV) is a single tablet regimen considered as safe and efficacious in HIV population as long as food requirements, concomitant PPI administration, and compromised antiviral activity have been carefully reviewed. We evaluated TDF/FTC/RPV in a real-life setting with focus on clinical and virological outcomes. METHODS: OCEAN II is a prospective, two-centre observational study. From September 2012 to December 2013, antiretroviral-naive patients with HIV RNA <100,000 copies/mL or wishing to switch for simplification were considered for TDF/FTC/RPV...
October 2016: Infectious Diseases
E Rouveix, E Mortier, A Beauchet, C Dupont, J Gerbe, V Daneluzzi, P Brazille, H Berthe, D Zucman, P Genet, A-M Simonpoli, P de Truchis
OBJECTIVE: Several therapeutic combination antiretroviral therapy regimen are available for initial treatment in naïve HIV infected patients. The choice of a particular regimen remains often subjective. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with the choice of molecules in initial ARV prescriptions. METHODS: From 01/01 to 30/10/2014, every initial cART prescription was analyzed regarding patients and physicians characteristics. Then, prescriptions were evaluated by an independent committee of ART prescribers...
June 29, 2016: La Revue de Médecine Interne
Hamed Naziri, Kazem Baesi, Abdolvahab Moradi, Mohammad R Aghasadeghi, Alijan Tabarraei, Willi McFarland, Mohamad Ali Davarpanah
Resistance to antiretroviral agents is a significant concern in the clinical management of HIV-infected individuals, particularly in areas of the world where treatment options are limited. In this study, we aimed to identify HIV drug-resistance-associated mutations in 40 drug-naïve patients and 62 patients under antiretroviral therapy (ART) referred to the Shiraz HIV/AIDS Research Center - the first such data available for the south of Iran. HIV reverse transcriptase and protease genes were amplified and sequenced to determine subtypes and antiretroviral- resistance-associated mutations (RAMs)...
September 2016: Archives of Virology
Santiago Avila-Rios, Omar Sued, Soo-Yon Rhee, Robert W Shafer, Gustavo Reyes-Teran, Giovanni Ravasi
BACKGROUND: HIV transmitted drug resistance (TDR) remains at moderate level in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). However, different epidemiologic scenarios could influence national and sub-regional TDR levels and trends. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a systematic review of currently available publications on TDR in antiretroviral treatment-naïve adults in LAC. Ninety-eight studies published between January 2000 and June 2015 were included according to critical appraisal criteria and classified by sub-region: Brazil (50), Mesoamerica (17), Southern Cone (16), Andean (8) and Caribbean (7)...
2016: PloS One
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"