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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231477/effects-of-tdcs-on-motor-learning-and-memory-formation-a-consensus-and-critical-position-paper
#1
REVIEW
Ethan R Buch, Emiliano Santarnecchi, Andrea Antal, Jan Born, Pablo A Celnik, Joseph Classen, Christian Gerloff, Mark Hallett, Friedhelm C Hummel, Michael A Nitsche, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Walter J Paulus, Janine Reis, Edwin M Robertson, John C Rothwell, Marco Sandrini, Heidi M Schambra, Eric M Wassermann, Ulf Ziemann, Leonardo G Cohen
Motor skills are required for activities of daily living. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied in association with motor skill learning has been investigated as a tool for enhancing training effects in health and disease. Here, we review the published literature investigating whether tDCS can facilitate the acquisition, retention or adaptation of motor skills. Work in multiple laboratories is underway to develop a mechanistic understanding of tDCS effects on different forms of learning and to optimize stimulation protocols...
January 29, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231269/a-mouse-model-of-paralytic-myelitis-caused-by-enterovirus-d68
#2
Alison M Hixon, Guixia Yu, J Smith Leser, Shigeo Yagi, Penny Clarke, Charles Y Chiu, Kenneth L Tyler
In 2014, the United States experienced an epidemic of acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) cases in children coincident with a nationwide outbreak of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) respiratory disease. Up to half of the 2014 AFM patients had EV-D68 RNA detected by RT-PCR in their respiratory secretions, although EV-D68 was only detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from one 2014 AFM patient. Given previously described molecular and epidemiologic associations between EV-D68 and AFM, we sought to develop an animal model by screening seven EV-D68 strains for the ability to induce neurological disease in neonatal mice...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230572/automated-bone-screw-tightening-to-adaptive-levels-of-stripping-torque
#3
Karen J Reynolds, Aaron A Mohtar, Tammy M Cleek, Melissa K Ryan, Trevor C Hearn
OBJECTIVE: To use relationships between tightening parameters, related to bone quality, to develop an automated system that determines and controls the level of screw tightening. METHODS: An algorithm relating current at head contact (IHC) to current at construct failure (Imax) was developed. The algorithm was used to trigger cessation of screw insertion at a pre-defined tightening level, in real time, between head contact and maximum current. The ability of the device to stop at the pre-defined level was assessed...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229309/nusinersen-first-global-approval
#4
Sheridan M Hoy
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by muscle atrophy and weakness resulting from motor neuron degeneration in the spinal cord and brainstem. It is most commonly caused by insufficient levels of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein (which is critical for motor neuron maintenance) secondary to deletions or mutations in the SMN1 gene. Nusinersen (SPINRAZA™) is a modified antisense oligonucleotide that binds to a specific sequence in the intron, downstream of exon 7 on the pre-messenger ribonucleic acid (pre-mRNA) of the SMN2 gene...
February 22, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229125/the-clinical-neuroanatomical-and-neuropathologic-phenotype-of-tbk1-associated-frontotemporal-dementia-a-longitudinal-case-report
#5
Carolin A M Koriath, Martina Bocchetta, Emilie Brotherhood, Ione O C Woollacott, Penny Norsworthy, Javier Simón-Sánchez, Cornelis Blauwendraat, Katrina M Dick, Elizabeth Gordon, Sophie R Harding, Nick C Fox, Sebastian Crutch, Jason D Warren, Tamas Revesz, Tammaryn Lashley, Simon Mead, Jonathan D Rohrer
INTRODUCTION: Mutations in the TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) gene have recently been shown to cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD). However, the phenotype of TBK1-associated FTD is currently unclear. METHODS: We performed a single case longitudinal study of a patient who was subsequently found to have a novel A705fs mutation in the TBK1 gene. He was assessed annually over a 7-year period with a series of clinical, cognitive, and magnetic resonance imaging assessments...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228733/maturation-of-airway-defensive-reflexes-is-related-to-development-of-feeding-behavior-during-growth-in-rabbits
#6
Laurianne Coutier-Marie, Iulia Ioan, Claude Bonabel, Bruno Demoulin, Anne-Laure Leblanc, Ludivine Debitu, Cyril Schweitzer, François Marchal, Silvia Demoulin-Alexikova
Introduction: Cough and expiration reflex are major lower airway defense mechanisms that have not been studied throughout development in relation with the feeding behavior. Aim: To describe airway defense reflexes evoked by mechanical stimulation of the trachea in developing rabbit pups. Material and Methods: Sixty one pups were allocated to 3 groups according to their feeding behavior: suckling (n = 22), weanling (n = 21) and weaning (n = 18) group. The incidence and sensitivity of defense reflexes triggered by mechanical tracheal stimulation were studied in anesthetized and tracheotomized animals...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228723/presynaptic-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-and-trkb-receptor-cooperate-in-the-elimination-of-redundant-motor-nerve-terminals-during-development
#7
Laura Nadal, Neus Garcia, Erica Hurtado, Anna Simó, Marta Tomàs, Maria A Lanuza, Victor Cilleros, Josep Tomàs
The development of the nervous system involves the overproduction of synapses but connectivity is refined by Hebbian activity-dependent axonal competition. The newborn skeletal muscle fibers are polyinnervated but, at the end of the competition process, some days later, become innervated by a single axon. We used quantitative confocal imaging of the autofluorescent axons from transgenic B6.Cg-Tg (Thy1-YFP)16 Jrs/J mice to investigate the possible cooperation of the muscarinic autoreceptors (mAChR, M1-, M2- and M4-subtypes) and the tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) receptor in the control of axonal elimination after the mice Levator auris longus (LAL) muscle had been exposed to several selective antagonist of the corresponding receptor pathways in vivo...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228721/patients-with-chronic-spinal-cord-injury-exhibit-reduced-autonomic-modulation-during-an-emotion-recognition-task
#8
Gonzalo Varas-Díaz, Enzo P Brunetti, Gonzalo Rivera-Lillo, Pedro E Maldonado
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating event for individuals, who frequently develop motor and sensory impairment as well as autonomic dysfunction. Previous studies reported that autonomic activity plays a major role in social cognition and that difficulties in the ability to interpret social information are commonly observed in a variety of mental disorders, which in turn correlate with a poor autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation. It is well established that subjects with SCI have an alteration in ANS regulation mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228579/network-wide-oscillations-in-the-parkinsonian-state-alterations-in-neuronal-activities-occur-in-the-premotor-cortex-in-parkinsonian-non-human-primates
#9
Jing Wang, Luke A Johnson, Alicia L Jensen, Kenneth B Baker, Jerrold L Vitek
A number of studies suggest that Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with alterations of neuronal activity patterns in the basal-ganglia-thalamocortical circuit. There are limited electrophysiological data, however, describing how premotor cortex, which is involved in movement and decision making, is likely impacted in PD. In this study, spontaneous local field potential (LFP) and single unit neuronal activity were recorded in the dorsal premotor area of non-human primates in both the naïve and parkinsonian state using the MPTP model of parkinsonism...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228116/examination-of-motor-skill-competency-in-students-evidence-based-physical-education-curriculum
#10
Weiyun Chen, Austin Hammond-Bennett, Andrew Hypnar
BACKGROUND: Researchers found that children with a competent level of motor skill performance are more likely to be physically active. This study examined how well K-1 students demonstrated motor skill competency in relation to Physical Education Content Standard 1. METHODS: Participants were K-1 grade students (N = 1,223-1,588; boys = 568-857; girls = 526-695; Mean age = 5.5 yrs old) who were enrolled in nine elementary schools. The K-1 students' motor skill competency in running, weight transferring, hand dribbling, and underhand catching skills was assessed using four PE Metrics skill assessment rubrics in the intervention year 1 and year 2, respectively...
February 23, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227915/relationship-between-magnitude-of-applied-torque-in-pre-swing-phase-and-gait-change-for-prevention-of-trip-in-elderly-people
#11
Tamon Miyake, Mariko Tsukune, Yo Kobayashi, Shigeki Sugano, Masakatsu G Fujie, Tamon Miyake, Mariko Tsukune, Yo Kobayashi, Shigeki Sugano, Masakatsu G Fujie, Shigeki Sugano, Tamon Miyake, Masakatsu G Fujie, Yo Kobayashi, Mariko Tsukune
Elderly people are at risk of tripping because of their narrow range of articular motion. To avoid tripping, gait training that improves their range of articular motion would be beneficial. In this study we propose a gait-training robot that applies a torque during the pre-swing phase to achieve this goal. We investigated the relationship between magnitude of applied torque and change in the range of knee-articular motion while walking before and after the application of this torque. We developed a wearable robot and carried out an experiment on human participants in which a motor pulls a string embedded on the robotic frame, applying torque in the pre-swing phase for a period of 20 [s]...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227898/automatic-assessment-of-medication-states-of-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-using-wearable-sensors
#12
Murtadha D Hssayeni, Michelle A Burack, Behnaz Ghoraani, Murtadha D Hssayeni, Michelle A Burack, Behnaz Ghoraani, Behnaz Ghoraani, Michelle A Burack, Murtadha D Hssayeni
Motor fluctuations are a major focus of clinical managements in patients with mid-stage and advance Parkinson's disease (PD). In this paper, we develop a new patient-specific algorithm that can classify those fluctuations during a variety of activities. We extract a set of temporal and spectral features from the ambulatory signals and then introduce a semi-supervised classification algorithm based on K-means and self-organizing tree map clustering methods. Two different types of cluster labeling are introduced: hard and fuzzy labeling...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227843/investigating-motor-imagery-tasks-by-their-neural-effects-a-case-study
#13
I E Nicolae, M M C Stefan, B Hurezeanu, D D Taralunga, R Strungaru, T M Vasile, O A Bajenaru, G M Ungureanu, I E Nicolae, M M C Stefan, B Hurezeanu, D D Taralunga, R Strungaru, T M Vasile, O A Bajenaru, G M Ungureanu, B Hurezeanu, R Strungaru, G M Ungureanu, O A Bajenaru, D D Taralunga, T M Vasile, I E Nicolae, M M C Stefan
Motor imagery, one of the first investigated neural process for Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) still provides a great challenge nowadays. Aiming a better and more accurate control, multiple researches have been conducted by the scientific community. Nevertheless, there is still no robust and confident application developed. In order to augment the potential referring to motor imagery, and to attract user's interest, we propose multiple motor imagery tasks in combination with different visual or auditory stimuli...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227800/a-fresh-perspective-on-dissecting-action-into-discrete-submotions
#14
Justin Horowitz, Yazan Abdel Majeed, James Patton, Justin Horowitz, Yazan Abdel Majeed, James Patton, Justin Horowitz, Yazan Abdel Majeed, James Patton
The hypothesis that reaching motions are constructed from discrete components has been explored since the earliest scientific investigations of human movement, although composition specifics have been contentious. We reinspect this process by analyzing the underlying motor intent (rather than actual motion) using our recently-developed intent determination technique. First, synthetic data analysis was used to determine our accuracy in detecting submotion events. Next, we evaluated this on healthy reaching movements and overcame the problem of indistinguishably blended submotions by exposing subjects to strong, abruptly changing forces, which lead to clear corrections identifiable using direction-based clustering...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227689/robotic-system-with-multiplex-power-transmission-for-mri-guided-percutaneous-interventions
#15
Yang Wang, Sungmin Kim, Everette C Burdette, Peter Kazanzides, Iulian Iordachita, Yang Wang, Sungmin Kim, Everette C Burdette, Peter Kazanzides, Iulian Iordachita, Sungmin Kim, Peter Kazanzides, Everette C Burdette, Iulian Iordachita, Yang Wang
In minimally invasive prostate percutaneous interventions, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) compatible robotic assistive systems developed over the years tend to have multiple degrees of freedom (DOF) to accomplish complex surgical tasks. This paper presents a novel design of an MRI-compatible transmission that allows one driving motor to control a multiplexed DOF robot system. The transmission could reduce the number of motors in the system, while maintaining the functionality of the system, by controlling each motion sequentially rather than simultaneously...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227646/a-wearable-robotic-orthosis-with-a-spring-assist-actuator
#16
Seungmin Jung, Chankyu Kim, Jisu Park, Dongyoub Yu, Jaehwan Park, Junho Choi, Seungmin Jung, Chankyu Kim, Jisu Park, Dongyoub Yu, Jaehwan Park, Junho Choi, Dongyoub Yu, Jaehwan Park, Junho Choi, Seungmin Jung, Chankyu Kim, Jisu Park
This paper introduces a wearable robotic orthosis with spring-assist actuators, which is designed to assist people who have difficulty in walking. The spring-assist actuator consists of an electrical motor and a spring, which are attached to a rotational axis in parallel to each other. The spring-assist actuator is developed based on the analysis on the stiffness of the knee and hip joints during walking. "COWALK-Mobile," which is a wearable robotic orthosis, is developed using the spring-assist actuators to reduce the required motor torque during walking...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227556/case-studies-in-poststroke-hemiplegic-patients-using-semul-a-passive-2-dof-rehabilitation-robot
#17
Ken'ichi Koyanagi, Yuya Kuwahara, Takehiro Kamida, Takuya Ozawa, Rieko Mizukami, Kiyokazu Genda, Ayaka Mori, Tatsuo Motoyoshi, Hiroyuki Masuta, Toru Oshima, Ken'ichi Koyanagi, Yuya Kuwahara, Takehiro Kamida, Takuya Ozawa, Rieko Mizukami, Kiyokazu Genda, Ayaka Mori, Tatsuo Motoyoshi, Hiroyuki Masuta, Toru Oshima, Tatsuo Motoyoshi, Toru Oshima, Rieko Mizukami, Kiyokazu Genda, Takehiro Kamida, Takuya Ozawa, Ken'ichi Koyanagi, Ayaka Mori, Yuya Kuwahara, Hiroyuki Masuta
Following stroke, rehabilitation exercises paired with medical treatment are important for the recovery and maintenance of upper limb function. We developed a 2-DOF passive haptic system for upper limb rehabilitation and software focusing on reaching exercises, known as the coin collecting program, which provides training and evaluation of motor function, particularly dexterity. Past studies have revealed quantitative, reproducible evaluation indices using this software. In this paper, we compared case studies of post-stroke patients with results from healthy participants, and confirmed the reliability of the evaluation indices in grading or scoring motor skills...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227547/a-low-cost-open-source-compliant-hand-for-enabling-sensorimotor-control-for-people-with-transradial-amputations
#18
Aadeel Akhtar, Kyung Yun Choi, Michael Fatina, Jesse Cornman, Edward Wu, Joseph Sombeck, Chris Yim, Patrick Slade, Jason Lee, Jack Moore, Daniel Gonzales, Alvin Wu, Garrett Anderson, David Rotter, Cliff Shin, Timothy Bretl, Aadeel Akhtar, Kyung Yun Choi, Michael Fatina, Jesse Cornman, Edward Wu, Joseph Sombeck, Chris Yim, Patrick Slade, Jason Lee, Jack Moore, Daniel Gonzales, Alvin Wu, Garrett Anderson, David Rotter, Cliff Shin, Timothy Bretl, Kyung Yun Choi, Michael Fatina, Chris Yim, Jesse Cornman, Alvin Wu, Garrett Anderson, Jason Lee, Edward Wu, Daniel Gonzales, Aadeel Akhtar, David Rotter, Cliff Shin, Timothy Bretl, Patrick Slade, Jack Moore, Joseph Sombeck
In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a low-cost, open-source prosthetic hand that enables both motor control and sensory feedback for people with transradial amputations. We integrate electromyographic pattern recognition for motor control along with contact reflexes and sensory substitution to provide feedback to the user. Compliant joints allow for robustness to impacts. The entire hand can be built for around $550. This low cost makes research and development of sensorimotor prosthetic hands more accessible to researchers worldwide, while also being affordable for people with amputations in developing nations...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227529/development-of-sit-to-stand-and-stand-to-sit-training-system-for-hemiplegic-patients
#19
Ryoichiro Shiraishi, Hiroaki Kawamoto, Yoshiyuki Sankai, Ryoichiro Shiraishi, Hiroaki Kawamoto, Yoshiyuki Sankai, Ryoichiro Shiraishi, Yoshiyuki Sankai, Hiroaki Kawamoto
As one of the several characteristics of hemiplegic patients after stroke, the patients conduct sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit (STS) motion using their unaffected leg. The purpose of this study is to develop a STS motion support system for helping the patients decrease the difference of the usage ratio between the affected side and the unaffected side, and increase the usage of the affected leg. The developed system supports the STS motions by moving the seat linearly. The system also provides the user visual motor information for each leg by measuring the floor reaction force (FRF) during STS motions...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227512/implantation-and-testing-of-wfma-stimulators-in-macaque
#20
Philip R Trovk, David Frim, Ben Roitberg, Vernon L Towle, Kazutaka Takahashi, Sungjae Suh, Martin Bak, Sam Bredeson, Zhe Hu, Philip R Trovk, David Frim, Ben Roitberg, Vernon L Towle, Kazutaka Takahashi, Sungjae Suh, Martin Bak, Sam Bredeson, Zhe Hu, Vernon L Towle, David Frim, Kazutaka Takahashi, Zhe Hu, Sam Bredeson, Martin Bak, Ben Roitberg, Sungjae Suh
Our on-going work to develop an intracortical visual prosthesis has motivated the design, fabrication, and testing of a Wireless Floating Microelectrode Array (WFMA) stimulator. This implantable device can be used for an electrical stimulation interface in the peripheral and the central nervous system. Previously, its use in a sciatic nerve rodent model was described. Here implantation of two WFMAs in motor cortex of two NHP (macaque - two devices/animal) is presented. Preliminary functional tests show the implanted devices to be fully functional with stimulation-induced motor movements obtained...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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