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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645175/perturbation-to-cholesterol-at-the-neuromuscular-junction-confers-botulinum-neurotoxin-a-sensitivity-to-neonatal-mice
#1
Baskaran Thyagarajan, Joseph G Potian, Joseph J McArdle, Padmamalini Baskaran
Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) cleaves SNAP25 at the motor nerve terminals (MNT) and inhibits stimulus evoked acetylcholine release (SEAR). This causes skeletal muscle paralysis. However, younger neonatal mice (<P7; less than 7 days old) are resistant to the neuroparalytic effects of BoNT/A. That is, in vivo injection of BoNT/A at the innervations of Extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle in the hindlimbs inhibited the toe spread reflex within 24 hours following BoNT/A injection in adult mouse and in older (> P7) neonatal mice younger than 7 days-age remained unaffected by BoNT/A injection...
June 22, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644969/premotor-symptoms-and-the-risk-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-case-control-study-in-mexican-population
#2
Mayela Rodríguez-Violante, Adib Jorge de Saráchaga, Amin Cervantes-Arriaga, Ned Merari Davila-Avila, Edith Carreón-Bautista, Ingrid Estrada-Bellmann, Guillermo Parra-López, Diego Cruz-Fino, Francisco Pascasio-Astudillo
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of pre-motor symptoms and estimate the risk for developing Parkinson's disease in Mexican population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A case-control study was carried out with consecutive subjects with Parkinson's disease from two different referral centers in Mexico. Gender- and age-matched controls were randomly selected from the participating hospitals. All subjects were assessed using a structured questionnaire for the assessment of pre-motor symptoms (hyposmia, depression, anxiety, constipation, and sleep disorders)...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644758/an-independent-shopping-experience-for-wheelchair-users-through-augmented-reality-and-rfid
#3
Zulqarnain Rashid, Rafael Pous, Christopher S Norrie
People with physical and mobility impairments continue to struggle to attain independence in the performance of routine activities and tasks. For example, browsing in a store and interacting with products located beyond an arm's length may be impossible without the enabling intervention of a human assistant. This research article describes a study undertaken to design, develop, and evaluate potential interaction methods for motor-impaired individuals, specifically those who use wheelchairs. Our study includes a user-centered approach, and a categorization of wheelchair users based upon the severity of their disability and their individual needs...
June 23, 2017: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644567/reliability-of-surface-emg-measurements-from-the-suprahyoid-muscle-complex
#4
Mohit Kothari, Peter William Stubbs, Asger Roer Pedersen, Jim Jensen, Jørgen Feldbaek Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Assessment of swallowing musculature using motor evoked potentials (MEPs) can be used to evaluate neural pathways. However, recording of the swallowing musculature is often invasive, uncomfortable and unrealistic in normal clinical practise. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possibility of using the suprahyoid muscle complex (SMC) using surface electromyography (sEMG) to assess changes to neural pathways by determining the reliability of measurements in healthy participants over days...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644242/effects-of-participation-in-sports-programs-on-walking-ability-and-endurance-over-time-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#5
Sandy A Ross, Morgan Yount, Sara Ankarstad, Samantha Bock, Britta Orso, Kimberly Perry, Jennifer Miros, Janice E Brunstrom-Hernandez
OBJECTIVE: Children with cerebral palsy may benefit from maintaining a high level of physical fitness similar to typically developing children especially in terms of long-term physical performance, although in practice this is often difficult. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of participation in sports programs on walking ability and endurance over time. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study included participants with cerebral palsy, aged 6 to 20 yrs, who attended a summer sports program from 2004 to 2012...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644175/guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-after-elective-spinal-surgery
#6
Eric Yensen Chen, Corinne Stratton, Brian Mercer, Anna Hohler, Tony Y Tannoury, Chadi Tannoury
Guillain-Barré syndrome is a rare autoimmune condition characterized by ascending motor weakness of the extremities that can ascend to the diaphragm, causing substantial morbidity and mortality. This case report describes a 57-year-old man who exhibited characteristics of Guillain-Barré syndrome 9 days after undergoing lumbar fusion at L3-S1. The diagnosis was based on the patient's ascending motor weakness and areflexia and was confirmed with electromyography. The patient progressed to respiratory failure, requiring mechanical ventilation...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644012/sigma-2-receptor-tmem97-agonists-produce-long-lasting-anti-neuropathic-pain-effects-in-mice
#7
James J Sahn, Galo L Mejia, Pradipta R Ray, Stephen F Martin, Theodore John Price
Neuropathic pain is an important medical problem with few effective treatments. The sigma 1 receptor (σ1R) is a potential target for neuropathic pain therapeutics, and antagonists for this receptor are effective in preclinical models and are currently in phase II clinical trials. Relatively little is known about the σ2R, which has recently been identified as transmembrane protein 97 (Tmem97). We generated a series of σ1R and σ2R/Tmem97 agonists and antagonists and tested them for efficacy in the mouse spared nerve injury (SNI) model...
June 23, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643358/maximizing-functional-axon-repair-in-the-injured-cns-lessons-from-neuronal-development
#8
Andrew Kaplan, Mardja Bueno, Luyang Hua, Alyson E Fournier
The failure of damaged axons to regrow underlies disability in central nervous system injury and disease. Therapies that stimulate axon repair will be critical to restore function. Extensive axon regeneration can be induced by manipulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressors, however it has been difficult to translate this into functional recovery in models of spinal cord injury. The current challenge is to maximize the functional integration of regenerating axons to recover motor and sensory behaviours. Insights into axonal growth and wiring during nervous system development are helping guide new approaches to boost regeneration and functional connectivity after injury in the mature nervous system...
June 23, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642697/targeting-microglial-activation-states-as-a-therapeutic-avenue-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
Sudhakar R Subramaniam, Howard J Federoff
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive disorder characterized neuropathologically by loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra, intracellular proteinaceous inclusions, reduction of dopaminergic terminals in the striatum, and increased neuroinflammatory cells. The consequent reduction of dopamine in the basal ganglia results in the classical parkinsonian motor phenotype. A growing body of evidence suggest that neuroinflammation mediated by microglia, the resident macrophage-like immune cells in the brain, play a contributory role in PD pathogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642371/electrostatic-interactions-between-the-ctx-phage-minor-coat-protein-and-the-bacterial-host-receptor-tola-drives-the-pathogenic-conversion-of-vibrio-cholerae
#10
Laetitia Houot, Romain Navarro, Matthieu Nouailler, Denis Duché, Françoise Guerlesquin, Roland Lloubes
Vibrio cholerae is a natural inhabitant of aquatic environments and converts to a pathogen upon infection by a filamentous phage, CTXφ, that transmits the cholera toxin encoding genes. This toxigenic conversion of V. cholerae has evident implication in both genome plasticity and epidemic risk, but the early stages of the infection have not been thoroughly studied. CTXφ transit across the bacterial periplasm requires binding between the minor coat protein named pIII and a bacterial inner-membrane receptor, TolA, which is part of the conserved Tol-Pal molecular motor...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642071/the-link-between-motor-and-cognitive-development-in-children-born-preterm-and-or-with-low-birth-weight-a-review-of-current-evidence
#11
REVIEW
Ora Oudgenoeg-Paz, Hanna Mulder, Marian J Jongmans, Ineke J M van der Ham, Stefan Van der Stigchel
The current review focuses on evidence for a link between early motor development and later cognitive skills in children born preterm or with Low Birth Weight (LBW). Studies with term born children consistently show such a link. Motor and cognitive impairments or delays are often seen in children born preterm or with LBW throughout childhood and studies have established a cross-sectional association between the two. However, it is not yet clear if, and if so, how, motor and cognitive skills are longitudinally interrelated in these children...
June 19, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642069/chronic-choline-supplementation-improves-cognitive-and-motor-performance-via-modulating-oxidative-and-neurochemical-status-in-rats
#12
Saiqa Tabassum, Saida Haider, Saara Ahmad, Syeda Madiha, Tahira Parveen
Choline, an essential nutrient, accounts for multiple functions in the body and brain. While its beneficial effects on healthy adults are not clear, choline supplementation is important during pregnancy for brain development, in elderly patients for support of cognitive performance and in patients with neurological disorders to reduce memory deficits. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate whether choline administration in healthy adult rats beneficially impacts cognitive and locomotor performance, and associated oxidative and neurochemical outcomes...
June 19, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641538/glt-1-upregulation-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-ischemic-brain-injury
#13
Yu-Yan Hu, Li Li, Xiao-Hui Xian, Min Zhang, Xiao-Cai Sun, Shu-Qin Li, Xin Cui, Jie Qi, Wen-Bin Li
Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, which plays an important role in many aspects of normal brain function such as neural development, motor functions, learning and memory etc. However, excessive accumulation of glutamate in the extracellular fluid will induce excitotoxicity which is considered to be a major mechanism of cell death in brain ischemia. There is no enzyme to decompose the glutamate in extracellular fluid, so extracellular glutamate homeostasis within the central nervous system is mainly regulated by the uptake activity of excitatory amino acid transporters...
June 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641533/role-and-therapeutic-potential-of-astrocytes-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#14
Mariana Pehar, Benjamin A Harlan, Kelby M Killoy, Marcelo R Vargas
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by the progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brain stem, and motor cortex. The molecular mechanism underlying the progressive degeneration of motor neuron remains uncertain but involves a non-cell autonomous process. In acute injury or degenerative diseases astrocytes adopt a reactive phenotype known as astrogliosis. Astrogliosis is a complex remodeling of astrocyte biology and most likely represents a continuum of potential phenotypes that affect neuronal function and survival in an injury-specific manner...
June 21, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641519/neural-stem-cells-and-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-model-rare-cns-diseases
#15
Lidia De Filippis, Cristina Zalfa, Daniela Ferrari
Despite the great effort spent over the last decades to unravel the pathological mechanisms underpinning the development of central nervous system disorders, most of them remain still unclear. In particular, the study of rare brain diseases is hurdled by the lack of post-mortem samples and of reliable epidemiological studies, thus the setting of in vitro modeling systems appears essential to dissect the puzzle of genetic and environmental alterations affecting neural cells viability and functionality The isolation and expansion in vitro of embryonic (ESC) and fetal neural stem cells (NSC) from human tissue has efficiently allowed to model several neurological diseases "in a dish" and has also provided a novel platform to test potential therapeutic strategies in a pre-clinical setting...
June 15, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640909/hiv-tat-regulates-macrophage-gene-expression-in-the-context-of-neuroaids
#16
Loreto Carvallo, Lillie Lopez, Jorge E Fajardo, Matias Jaureguiberry-Bravo, Andras Fiser, Joan W Berman
Despite the success of cART, greater than 50% of HIV infected people develop cognitive and motor deficits termed HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Macrophages are the major cell type infected in the CNS. Unlike for T cells, the virus does not kill macrophages and these long-lived cells may become HIV reservoirs in the brain. They produce cytokines/chemokines and viral proteins that promote inflammation and neuronal damage, playing a key role in HIV neuropathogenesis. HIV Tat is the transactivator of transcription that is essential for replication and transcriptional regulation of the virus and is the first protein to be produced after HIV infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640685/understanding-and-improving-arterial-roads-to-support-public-health-and-transportation-goals
#17
Carolyn McAndrews, Keshia M Pollack, David Berrigan, Andrew L Dannenberg, Ed J Christopher
Arterials are types of roads designed to carry high volumes of motorized traffic. They are an integral part of transportation systems worldwide and exposure to them is ubiquitous, especially in urban areas. Arterials provide access to diverse commercial and cultural resources, which can positively influence community health by supporting social cohesion as well as economic and cultural opportunities. They can negatively influence health via safety issues, noise, air pollution, and lack of economic development...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640007/evaluation-of-pulse-height-control-for-rapid-isometric-contractions-in-college-sprinters
#18
Seiji Ono, Atsushi Itaya, Tatsuya Hayami, Keigo Ohyama-Byun, Tomohiro Kizuka
The ability of rapid force development is one of the important factors for improving physical performance. It has been known that rapid isometric force is controlled by a central motor program to maintain the rise time relatively constant independent of force amplitude (pulse height control). The advantage of using pulse height control is that it increases the rate of force with force amplitude. However, this strategy is believed to be applicable up to about 50-60% of maximal voluntary contractions (MVC). When the force level increases further, individuals often switch to pulse width control to increase the time to peak force...
June 21, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638701/reinnervation-of-denervated-muscle-by-implantation-of-nerve-muscle-endplate-band-graft-to-the-native-motor-zone-of-the-target-muscle
#19
Liancai Mu, Stanislaw Sobotka, Jingming Chen, Themba Nyirenda
INTRODUCTION: Motor endplate reinnervation is critical for restoring motor function of the denervated muscle. We developed a novel surgical technique called nerve-muscle-endplate band grafting (NMEG) for muscle reinnervation. METHODS: Experimentally denervated sternomastoid muscle in the rat was reinnervated by transferring a NMEG from the ipsilateral sternohyoid muscle to the native motor zone (NMZ) of the target muscle. A NMEG pedicle contained a block of muscle (~ 6 × 6 × 3 mm), a nerve branch with axon terminals, and a motor endplate band with numerous neuromuscular junctions...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638591/replicable-in-vivo-physiological-and-behavioral-phenotypes-of-the-shank3b-null-mutant-mouse-model-of-autism
#20
Sameer C Dhamne, Jill L Silverman, Chloe E Super, Stephen H T Lammers, Mustafa Q Hameed, Meera E Modi, Nycole A Copping, Michael C Pride, Daniel G Smith, Alexander Rotenberg, Jacqueline N Crawley, Mustafa Sahin
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a clinically and biologically heterogeneous condition characterized by social, repetitive, and sensory behavioral abnormalities. No treatments are approved for the core diagnostic symptoms of ASD. To enable the earliest stages of therapeutic discovery and development for ASD, robust and reproducible behavioral phenotypes and biological markers are essential to establish in preclinical animal models. The goal of this study was to identify electroencephalographic (EEG) and behavioral phenotypes that are replicable between independent cohorts in a mouse model of ASD...
2017: Molecular Autism
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