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Christopher I McHugh, Jawana M Lawhorn-Crews, Dipenkumar Modi, Kirk A Douglas, Steven K Jones, Thomas J Mangner, Jerry M Collins, Anthony F Shields
BACKGROUND: A principal goal for the use of positron emission tomography (PET) in oncology is for real-time evaluation of tumor response to chemotherapy. Given that many contemporary anti-neoplastic agents function by impairing cellular proliferation, it is of interest to develop imaging modalities to monitor these pathways. Here we examined the effect of capecitabine on the uptake of thymidine analogs used with PET: 3'-deoxy-3'-[(18)F]fluorothymidine ((18)F-FLT), 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-[(18)F]fluoro-β-D-arabinofuranosyl) thymidine ((18)F-FMAU), and 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-[(18)F]fluoro-β-D-arabinofuranosyl) uracil ((18)F-FAU) in patients with advanced cancer...
October 17, 2016: Cancer Imaging: the Official Publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
Prabhu Thirusangu, V Vigneshwaran, T Prashanth, B R Vijay Avin, Vikas H Malojirao, H Rakesh, Shaukath Ara Khanum, Riaz Mahmood, B T Prabhakar
Hypoxia is a feature of all solid tumours, contributing to tumour progression. Activation of HIF-1α plays a critical role in promoting tumour angiogenesis and metastasis. Since its expression is positively correlated with poor prognosis for cancer patients, HIF-1α is one of the most convincing anticancer targets. BP-1T is a novel antiproliferative agent with promising antiangiogenic effects. In the present study, the molecular mechanism underlying cytotoxic/antiangiogenic effects of BP-1T on tumour/non-tumour angiogenesis was evaluated...
October 14, 2016: Angiogenesis
Shang-You Yang, Nora Strong, Xuan Gong, Michael H Heggeness
BACKGROUND: Stem cell-involved tissue engineering has gained dramatic attention as a therapeutic strategy for tissue regeneration including bone repair. However, the currently available possibilities to use embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPCs) face potential ethical issues, as well as risks of malignant transformation and immune rejection. Recently identified peripheral nerve-derived adult pluripotent cells (NEDAPS) that quickly proliferate after exposure to BMP-2 or nerve trauma and exhibit many embryonic stem cell characteristics may provide an attractive source cells for a variety of regenerative therapies...
October 10, 2016: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Chun-Yi Wu, Jo-Hsin Tang, Pei-Chia Chan, Jia-Je Li, Ming-Hsien Lin, Chih-Chieh Shen, Ren-Shyan Liu, Hsin-Ell Wang
PURPOSE: Surgical resection is the standard treatment for localized colorectal cancer, which is the most common type of gastrointestinal cancer. However, over 40 % cases are diagnosed metastasized and apparently inoperable. Systemic chemotherapy provides an alternative to these patients. This study aims to evaluate the therapeutic potential of liposomal doxorubicin (lipoDox) in combination with liposomal vinorelbine (lipoVNB) in a CT-26 colon carcinoma-bearing mouse model. PROCEDURES: The in vitro cytotoxicity of Dox and VNB on CT-26 cancer cells was determined by MTT and colony formation assays...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Andrea Maria Mess, Ana Claudia Oliveira Carreira, Cláudia Marinovic de Oliveira, Paula Fratini, Phelipe Oliveira Favaron, Rodrigo da Silva Nunes Barreto, Christiane Pfarrer, Flávio Vieira Meirelles, Maria Angelica Miglino
Reproductive technologies are widely used in cattle, although many are associated with high-embryonic mortality, especially during early gestation, when the yolk sac undergoes macroscopic changes in structure. We hypothesized that vasculogenesis and angiogenesis are affected, thereby affecting embryonic and placental differentiation. To test this, we studied yolk sac development and gene expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor system (VEGF-A, VEGFR-1/Flt-1, VEGFR-2/KDR). Samples from Days 25 to 40/41 of pregnancy from control cattle (n = 8) and from pregnancies established with IVF, (n = 7) or somatic cell nuclear transfer/clones (n = 5) were examined by histology, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR...
September 13, 2016: Theriogenology
Stefan Wiehr, Anna-Maria Rolle, Philipp Warnke, Ursula Kohlhofer, Leticia Quintanilla-Martinez, Gerald Reischl, Ingo B Autenrieth, Bernd J Pichler, Stella E Autenrieth
Most frequently, gram-negative bacterial infections in humans are caused by Enterobacteriaceae and remain a major challenge in medical diagnostics. We non-invasively imaged moderate and severe systemic Yersinia enterocolitica infections in mice using the positron emission tomography (PET) tracer 3'-deoxy-3'-[18F]fluorothymidine ([18F]FLT), which is a marker of proliferation, and compared the in vivo results to the ex vivo biodistributions, bacterial loads, and histologies of the corresponding organs. Y. enterocolitica infection is detectable with histology using H&E staining and immunohistochemistry for Ki 67...
2016: PloS One
Sang-Gyu Lee, Kishore Gangangari, Teja Muralidhar Kalidindi, Blesida Punzalan, Steven M Larson, Naga Vara Kishore Pillarsetty
INTRODUCTION: Bone marrow is the soft tissue compartment inside the bones made up of hematopoietic cells, adipocytes, stromal cells, phagocytic cells, stem cells, and sinusoids. While [(18)F]-FLT has been utilized to image proliferative marrow, to date, there are no reports of particle based positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents for imaging bone marrow. We have developed copper-64 labeled liposomal formulation that selectively targets bone marrow and therefore serves as an efficient PET probe for imaging bone marrow...
August 27, 2016: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Martin A Lodge, Matthias Holdhoff, Jeffrey P Leal, Asim K Bag, L Burt Nabors, Akiva Mintz, Glenn J Lesser, David A Mankoff, Arati S Desai, James M Mountz, Frank S Lieberman, Joy D Fisher, Serena Desideri, Xiaobu Ye, Stuart A Grossman, David Schiff, Richard L Wahl
: Quantitative (18)F-3'-fluoro-3'-deoxy-L-thymidine ((18)F-FLT) positron emission tomography (PET) has potential as a non-invasive tumor biomarker for the objective assessment of response to treatment. To guide interpretation of these quantitative data, we evaluated the repeatability of (18)F-FLT PET as part of a multi-center trial involving patients with high grade glioma. METHODS: (18)F-FLT PET was performed on 10 patients with recurrent high grade glioma at 5 different institutions within the Adult Brain Tumor Consortium trial ABTC1101...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Mary Spencer Cain, Stacy Watt Garceau, Shelley W Linens
CONTEXT: Chronic Ankle Instability (CAI) describes the residual symptoms present after repetitive ankle sprains. Current rehabilitation programs in the high school population focus on a multi-station approach or general lower extremity injury prevention program. Specific rehabilitation techniques for CAI have not been established. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of a 4-week Biomechanical Ankle Platform System (BAPS) Board protocol on balance of high school athletes with CAI...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Lei Wang, Yuquan Jiang, Zheng Jiang, Lizhang Han
BACKGROUND: Latest studies show that low-energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) can upregulate levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF can ease nervous tissue harm after spinal cord injury (SCI). This study aims to explore whether low-energy ESWT can promote expression of VEGF, protect nervous tissue after SCI, and improve motor function. METHODS: Ninety adult female rats were divided into the following groups: Group A (simple laminectomy), Group B (laminectomy and low-energy ESWT), Group C (spinal cord injury), and Group D (spinal cord injury and low-energy ESWT)...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
C C O'Sullivan, M Lindenberg, C Bryla, N Patronas, C J Peer, L Amiri-Kordestani, N Davarpanah, E M Gonzalez, M Burotto, P Choyke, S M Steinberg, D J Liewehr, W D Figg, T Fojo, S Balasubramaniam, S E Bates
PURPOSE: Improved therapies and imaging modalities are needed for the treatment of breast cancer brain metastases (BCBM). ANG1005 is a drug conjugate consisting of paclitaxel covalently linked to Angiopep-2, designed to cross the blood-brain barrier. We conducted a biomarker substudy to evaluate (18)F-FLT-PET for response assessment. METHODS: Ten patients with measurable BCBM received ANG1005 at a dose of 550 mg/m(2) IV every 21 days. Before and after cycle 1, patients underwent PET imaging with (18)F-FLT, a thymidine analog, retention of which reflects cellular proliferation, for comparison with gadolinium-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (Gd-MRI) in brain metastases detection and response assessment...
November 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Grigorios A Karampas, Makarios I Eleftheriades, Konstantinos C Panoulis, Myrto D Rizou, Alexander D Haliassos, Dimitra K Metallinou, George P Mastorakos, Demetrios A Rizos
OBJECTIVE: To determine the performance of maternal characteristics, Doppler and a set of biochemical markers for pre-eclampsia (PE) screening at 11+0 to 13+6 and 20+1 to 25+6 weeks' gestation. STUDY DESIGN: Prospectively enrolled women at 11+0 to 13+6 and 20+1 to 25+6 weeks. Maternal characteristics, uterine artery pulsatility index (UtA-PI), ductus venosus pulsatility index (DV-PI) and serum biomarkers including pregnancy associated plasma protein - A (PAPP-A), placental growth factor (PlGF), soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1), s-Flt-1/PLGF ratio, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and MMP-9/NGAL complex were recorded...
October 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Nhat-Thang Tran, Valerie Amarger, Aurelie Bourdon, Emilie Misbert, Isabelle Grit, Norbert Winer, Dominique Darmaun
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of maternal citrulline supplementation on fetal growth and placental efficiency in a rat model of IUGR induced by maternal protein restriction. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups: NP (receiving a control 20% protein diet), LP (a 4% protein diet), or LP-CIT (an LP diet along with L-citrulline, 2 g/kg/d in drinking water). On the 15(th) and 21(st) day of gestation (GD15 and GD21, respectively), dams underwent a C-section, by which fetuses and placentas were extracted...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
A Tankiewicz-Kwedlo, J Hermanowicz, A Surażynski, D Rożkiewicz, A Pryczynicz, T Domaniewski, K Pawlak, A Kemona, D Pawlak
Anemia is a relatively common symptom coexisting with colorectal carcinoma. Besides having a positive impact on hematological parameters, erythropoietin (Epo) has the serious adverse effect of promoting the neoplastic process. The role of Epo in colon cancer has not been clearly shown. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Epo therapy on colorectal carcinoma cells both in in vitro and in animal models. Human colon adenocarcinoma cells DLD-1 and Ht-29 were cultured in medium with Epo beta in normoxia...
October 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Yue Xiao, Li-Li Miao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of PIGF and its receptor Flt-1 in patients with multiple myeloma, and to analyze their correlation with the efficacy of thalidomide-based chemotherapy so as to provide further theoretical basis for individualized treatment. METHODS: A total of 35 patients diagnosed as multiple myeloma from June 2012 to March 2013 in our hospital and 15 non-tumor patients as controls were enrolled in this study. MM patients were treated with thalidomide-based chemotherapy for 3 months, and then were grouped according to the curative effecacy...
August 2016: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Kathrin Heinzmann, Davina Jean Honess, David Yestin Lewis, Donna-Michelle Smith, Christopher Cawthorne, Heather Keen, Sandra Heskamp, Sonja Schelhaas, Timothy Howard Witney, Dmitry Soloviev, Kaye Janine Williams, Andreas Hans Jacobs, Eric Ofori Aboagye, John Richard Griffiths, Kevin Michael Brindle
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that 3'-deoxy-3'-[(18)F] fluorothymidine ([(18)F]FLT)) uptake depends on endogenous tumour thymidine concentration. The purpose of this study was to investigate tumour thymidine concentrations and whether they correlated with [(18)F]FLT uptake across a broad spectrum of murine cancer models. A modified liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was used to determine endogenous thymidine concentrations in plasma and tissues of tumour-bearing and non-tumour bearing mice and rats...
December 2016: EJNMMI Research
Yi Li, Peixi Zhang, Ying Liu, Wenwu Liu, Na Yin
This study aimed to investigate whether helium preconditioning (He-PC) is able to exert neuroprotective effects via improving focal neurovascular niche in a neonatal rat hypoxia/ischemia (HI) brain injury model. Seven day old rat pups were divided into control group, HI group and He-PC group. HI was induced by exposure to 8% oxygen for 90min one day after preconditioning with 70% helium-30% oxygen for three 5-min periods. At 3 and 7 days, the brain was collected for the detection of inflammation related factors (tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α], interleukin-1β [IL-1β], IL-10) and growth/neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], basic fibroblast growth factor [bFGF] and nerve growth factor [NGF]); at 7 days, neurobehaviors were evaluated, and the brain was collected for the detection of mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) by PCR, protein expression of angiogenesis related molecules (VEGF, Ang-1, Tie-2 and Flt-1) by Western blotting and microvessel density (MCD) by immunohistochemistry for vWF...
November 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Kazuyoshi Kanki, Masaaki Ii, Yoshito Terai, Masahide Ohmichi, Michio Asahi
Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been shown to contribute to not only angiogenesis in ischemic tissue but also neovascularization in uterine endometrium formation. Reduced neovascularization and elevation of serum soluble Flt-1, a functional blockage of VEGF, in the development of placenta is thought to be one of the major causes of repeated miscarriages in gestation. We then examined whether transfusion of VEGF expressing extrinsic EPCs prevented frequent miscarriage via its promotional effect on neovascularization with a VEGF-eNOS signaling pathway in a mouse miscarriage model...
August 5, 2016: Cell Transplantation
D L Stanculeanu, A Lazescu, D D Zob, R Bunghez, R Anghel, T D Poteca
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represents 3% of all cancers, with the highest incidence occurring in the most developed countries and representing the seventh most common cancer in men and the ninth most common cancer in women. The understanding of the tumor molecular biology and the discovery of new drugs that target molecular pathways have increased the arsenal against advanced renal cell carcinoma and improved the outcomes in the patients suffering from these affections. Studying the molecular signaling that controls the tumor growth and the progression has led to the development of molecular therapies targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways, resulting in a significant improvement in the overall survival and quality of life...
April 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
Jolanta Krajewska, Aleksandra Kukulska, Barbara Jarzab
INTRODUCTION: Radioiodine [RAI]-resistant advanced and progressive differentiated thyroid cancer [DTC], although rare, constitutes a real challenge as its prognosis is poor and available therapeutic options, until now, have been limited. Discovery of a crucial role of distinct tyrosine kinases in DTC pathogenesis opened up new options in systemic treatment. Lenvatinib is an oral potent multi kinase inhibitor [MKI] of different growth factor receptors including VEGFR1/Flt-1, VEGFR2/KDR, VEGFR3, FGFR1,2,3,4, PDGFR-β as well as RET and KIT signaling networks...
August 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
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