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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938676/risk-factors-for-mortality-from-pneumocystis-carinii-pneumonia-pcp-in-non-hiv-patients-a-meta-analysis
#1
Yao Liu, Lili Su, Shu-Juan Jiang, Hui Qu
The number of patients with non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is increasing with widespread immunosuppressive treatment. We performed a meta-analysis to describe the clinical characteristics and factors associated with outcomes of PCP in HIV-negative patients. A total of 13 studies including 867 patients with non-HIV related PCP was included. The overall mortality for non-HIV patients with PCP was 30.6%. The most common underlying disorder for the development of PCP is hematological malignancies (29...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938311/feasibility-of-monotherapy-by-rituximab-without-additional-desensitization-in-abo-incompatible-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#2
Hidekazu Yamamoto, Koshi Uchida, Seiichi Kawabata, Kaori Isono, Kohei Miura, Shintaro Hayashida, Yuki Oya, Yasuhiko Sugawara, Yukihiro Inomata
BACKGROUND: Rituximab is a cornerstone in the regimens of desensitization for ABO-incompatible living donor liver transplantation (ABO-i LT) that makes this modality an acceptable option for liver transplantation. Plasmapheresis (PP) to reduce anti-ABO antibody titer and local infusion therapy (LI) were practiced as the strategies for desensitization before the application of rituximab and were reported as additional treatments. The aim of this study was to clarify the feasibility of monotherapy by rituximab without any additional desensitization treatments in ABO-i LT...
September 20, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937821/rethinking-conventional-wisdom-are-locally-adapted-parasites-ahead-in-the-coevolutionary-race
#3
Scott L Nuismer
The metaphors of the Red Queen and the arms race have inspired a large amount of research aimed at understanding the process of antagonistic coevolution between hosts and parasites. One approach that has been heavily used is to estimate the strength of parasite local adaptation using a reciprocal cross infection or transplant study. These studies frequently conclude that the locally adapted species is ahead in the coevolutionary race. Here, I use mathematical models to decompose parasite infectivity into components attributable to local versus global adaptation and to develop a robust index of which species is ahead in the coevolutionary race, which I term coevolutionary advantage...
October 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937081/direct-acting-antiviral-drugs-against-hepatitis-c-virus-in-renal-transplant-recipients-is-it-the-dawn-of-an-interferon-free-era
#4
Dharshan Rangaswamy, Shankar P Nagaraju, Ravindra P Attur
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a significant problem among hemodialysis population, especially in India where renal transplant often gets delayed in the presence of live-related donors. An acceleration of liver cirrhosis and poor renal allograft outcomes are often witnessed in allograft recipients with high viral load. Use of interferon in the postrenal transplant setting for the treatment of hepatitis C viral infection was limited to a few grave situations, fearing the precipitation of allograft rejection and poor efficacy for sustained virological remission...
September 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937070/renal-transplantation-in-hiv-positive-patients-no-more-a-scare
#5
Eswarappa Mahesh, Manns Manohar John, Gurudev Channabasappa Konana, Rakesh Madhyastha Parampalli, Sujeeth Reddy Bande, Sarita Suryadevara
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has posed as a major global health epidemic for almost three decades. With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy in 1996 and the application of prophylaxis and management of opportunistic infections, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome mortality has decreased markedly. The most aggressive HIV-related renal disease is end-stage renal disease due to HIV-associated nephropathy. Presence of HIV infection used to be viewed as a contraindication to renal transplantation for multiple reasons; concerns for exacerbation of an already immunocompromised state by administration of additional immunosuppressants; the use of a limited supply of donor organs with unknown long-term outcomes...
September 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936948/control-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-by-defined-microbial-communities
#6
James Collins, Jennifer M Auchtung
Each year in the United States, billions of dollars are spent combating almost half a million Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) and trying to reduce the ∼29,000 patient deaths in which C. difficile has an attributed role. In Europe, disease prevalence varies by country and level of surveillance, though yearly costs are estimated at €3 billion. One factor contributing to the significant health care burden of C. difficile is the relatively high frequency of recurrent CDIs. Recurrent CDI, i.e., a second episode of symptomatic CDI occurring within 8 weeks of successful initial CDI treatment, occurs in ∼25% of patients, with 35 to 65% of these patients experiencing multiple episodes of recurrent disease...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936471/analysis-of-hepatitis-c-virus-particle-heterogeneity-in-immunodeficient-human-liver-chimeric-fah-mice
#7
Ursula Andreo, Ype P de Jong, Margaret A Scull, Jing W Xiao, Koen Vercauteren, Corrine Quirk, Michiel C Mommersteeg, Sonia Bergaya, Arjun Menon, Edward A Fisher, Charles M Rice
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic liver diseases and the most common indication for liver transplantation in the United States. HCV particles in the blood of infected patients are characterized by heterogeneous buoyant densities, likely owing to HCV association with lipoproteins. However, clinical isolates are not infectious in vitro and the relative infectivity of the particles with respect to their buoyant density therefore cannot be determined, pointing to the need for better in vivo model systems...
November 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936400/diminishing-use-of-liver-biopsy-among-liver-transplant-recipients-for-hepatitis-c
#8
Elizabeth Aby, Melissa A Jimenez, Jonathan F Grotts, Vatche Agopian, Samuel W French, Ronald W Busuttil, Sammy Saab
Background and Aims: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) cirrhosis is the leading indication for liver transplantation in the United States and recurrent HCV following liver transplantation is a major cause of allograft loss and mortality. Liver biopsies are commonly used to identify recurrent HCV and determine the need for antiviral therapy. The introduction of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has changed the management of recurrent HCV infection. This study aimed to describe the role of liver biopsies in liver transplant recipients with HCV after the introduction of DAAs...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936210/novel-mutations-of-the-tetratricopeptide-repeat-domain-7a-gene-and-phenotype-genotype-comparison
#9
Reyin Lien, Yung-Feng Lin, Min-Wei Lai, Hui-Ying Weng, Ren-Chin Wu, Tang-Her Jaing, Jing-Long Huang, Shih-Feng Tsai, Wen-I Lee
The gastrointestinal tract contains the largest lymphoid organ to react with pathogenic microorganisms and suppress excess inflammation. Patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) can suffer from refractory diarrhea. In this study, we present two siblings who began to suffer from refractory diarrhea with a poor response to aggressive antibiotic and immunosuppressive treatment after surgical release of neonatal intestinal obstruction. Their lymphocyte proliferation was low, but superoxide production and IL-10 signaling were normal...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935351/impact-of-left-ventricular-assist-device-related-complications-on-posttransplant-graft-survival
#10
Dhaval Chauhan, Alexis K Okoh, Setri Fugar, Rivandra Karanam, David Baran, Mark Zucker, Magarita Camacho, Mark J Russo
BACKGROUND: This study describes the impact of continuous-flow left-ventricular-assist device (CF-LVAD)-related complications on postoperative outcomes. METHODS: The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) heart transplant follow-up data from 2005 to 2015 were obtained. CF-LVAD patients who were bridged to transplant were studied. Device-related complications (DRCs) at patient's last follow-up before transplantation were reported in 5 categories: device thrombosis (B1), infection (B2), device malfunction (B3), life-threatening arrhythmias (B4), and others (B5)...
September 18, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935188/liver-transplantation-for-nash-cirrhosis-is-not-performed-at-the-expense-of-major-post-operative-morbidity
#11
Eline H van den Berg, Rianne M Douwes, Vincent E de Meijer, Tim C M A Schreuder, Hans Blokzijl
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an emerging indication for liver transplantation (LT) and coexists with multiple comorbidities. Obese and cirrhotic patients experience more perioperative complications. Limited data exist about short-term complications after LT for NASH cirrhosis. AIM: Investigate short-term complications in patients transplanted for NASH cirrhosis. METHODS: Single center retrospective cohort study including patients >18years who underwent LT between 2009-2015...
August 12, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934427/immunologic-profiling-of-human-metapneumovirus-for-the-development-of-targeted-immunotherapy
#12
Ifigeneia Tzannou, Sarah K Nicholas, Premal Lulla, Paibel I Aguayo-Hiraldo, Anisha Misra, Caridad A Martinez, Annette A Machado, Jordan S Orange, Pedro A Piedra, Juan F Vera, Ann M Leen
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a respiratory virus detected in ≥9% of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients, in whom it can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Given the lack of effective antivirals, we investigated the potential for immunotherapeutic intervention, using adoptively transferred T cells. Thus, we characterized the cellular immune response to the virus and identified F, N, M2-1, M, and P as immunodominant target antigens. Reactive T cells were polyclonal (ie, they expressed CD4 and CD8), T-helper type 1 polarized, and polyfunctional (ie, they produced interferon γ, tumor necrosis factor α, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and granzyme B), and they were able to kill autologous antigen-loaded targets...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934311/characteristics-and-risk-of-chronic-graft-versus-host-disease-of-liver-in-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#13
Chien-Ting Chen, Chun-Yu Liu, Yuan-Bin Yu, Chia-Jen Liu, Liang-Tsai Hsiao, Jyh-Pyng Gau, Tzeon-Jye Chiou, Jing-Hwang Liu, Yao-Chung Liu
Chronic graft-versus-host-disease (cGvHD) is a serious complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Among various organ-specific cGvHD, the cGvHD of liver is less well-characterized. In this study, we applied the National Institutes of Health 2014 scoring criteria of cGvHD to analyze a retrospective cohort of 362 allo-HSCT recipients focusing on cGvHD of liver. The overall incidence of liver cGvHD with a score of 3 by 1.5 years post-transplant was 5.8% (21/362). Poor outcome, in terms of overall survival (OS), were observed in patients with scores of 3 liver cGvHD, comparing to those with scores less than 3 (hazard ratio [HR] 2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933329/-mid-term-to-long-term-results-of-revision-total-hip-arthroplasty-using-the-oval-shaped-acetabular-cup-tc-type
#14
E Šťastný, T Trč, J Frýdl, Z Kopečný, T Philippou, J Lisý
INTRODUCTION The purpose of our paper is to evaluate the mid-term to long-term results and to confirm the basic criteria of a high-quality revision implant: safe bridging of bone defects, achievement of reliable primary fixation of revision acetabular cup, achievement of good secondary stability with documentable osteointegration of cup and demonstration of remodelling of transplanted bone tissue in the area of defects and in spaces between the implant ribs. MATERIAL AND METHODS Altogether 36 patients (38 cups) were evaluated who had undergone revision hip arthroplasty in the period from 2004 to 2010...
2017: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933181/-heart-transplantation-and-infection
#15
Eva Ozábalová, Jan Krejčí, Petr Hude, Julius Godava, Tomáš Honek, Lenka Špinarová, Petr Pavlík, Helena Bedáňová, Petr Němec
Heart transplantation (HTx) is a method of treatment for patients with end-stage heart failure with severe symptoms despite complex therapy. Post-transplant difficulties include acute rejection and infectious complications, which are the most common reason of morbidity and mortality in the first year after heart transplant. It requires the patient to remain on immunosuppressive medication to avoid the possibility of graft rejection. Therefore the range of infection is much larger. The diagnosis and treatment of viral, bacterial and fungal infections is often difficult...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933179/-infectious-complications-related-to-liver-transplants
#16
Vladimír Mejzlík, Libuše Husová, Milan Kuman, Soňa Štěpánková, Jiří Ondrášek, Petr Němec
Infection is a feared complication in the process of transplantation. The study discusses sources of infection, screening of infection and risk factors for infection, time occurrence of individual infections during the peritransplantation and posttransplantation course. It describes the most frequent forms of bacterial, viral and mycotic infections. It specifies efficient prophylactic measures that considerably reduce the risk of infection following liver transplantation.Key words: bacterial infection - cytomegalovirus (CMV) - EB virus (EBV) - hepatitis B (HBV) - hepatitis C (HCV) - liver transplantation - mycotic infection prophylaxis - risk factors - viral infection...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933176/-myocarditis-and-inflammatory-cardiomyopathy
#17
Dalibor Mlejnek, Jan Krejčí
Myocarditis is an inflammation of the heart muscle. The most common cause of myocarditis is viral infection in industrialized countries. Myocarditis with left ventricular dysfunction is called inflammatory cardiomyopathy and is the major cause of dilated cardiomyopathy. The clinical picture is very diverse, most often the patient present with signs of heart failure, arrhythmic symptoms and chest pains. Despite significant advances in non-invasive diagnostics, particularly magnetic resonance imaging, endomyocardial biopsy remains the gold standard of myocarditis diagnosis...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933173/-cytomegalovirus-and-polyomavirus-infection-after-renal-transplantation
#18
Jana Machová, Tomáš Reischig
Viral infections are among the most common infectious complications affecting transplant recipients. Due to immunosuppressive therapy predominantly affecting cellular immunity and thus successfully reducing the incidence of acute rejection, there is a higher incidence of viral infections. Herpesviruses and polyomaviruses are ubiquitous pathogens which have the ability to persist in a state of latent infection. In addition to post-transplant reactivation, donor-induced primoinfection can also occur, leading to increased morbidity and contributing to decreased survival of patients...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932754/hair-growth-in-two-alopecia-patients-after-fecal-microbiota-transplant
#19
Dionne Rebello, Elaina Wang, Eugene Yen, Peter A Lio, Colleen R Kelly
Clostridium difficile infections can be life-threatening but are increasingly being treated successfully with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). We report two patients with alopecia universalis who developed subsequent hair regrowth after FMT for treatment of recurrent C. difficile infections. Gut microbiota may have immunomodulatory effects in autoimmune conditions such as alopecia areata, and further study may elucidate disease mechanisms and lead to alternative treatment options for these patients for whom treatment options are currently limited...
2017: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932715/hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-hlh-elusive-diagnosis-of-disseminated-mycobacterium-avium-complex-infection
#20
Eloy E Ordaya, Sulieman Abu Jarir, Robert Yoo, Pranatharthi H Chandrasekar
INTRODUCTION: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a clinical syndrome of hyperinflammation leading to an uncontrolled and ineffective immune response, associated with high mortality. CASE REPORT: A 26-year-old woman with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 8 months in remission, was found to have HLH. Without any improvement, stem cell transplantation was considered. Then, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection was identified as cause of her HLH. With appropriate therapy for infection, HLH improved and transplantation was averted...
September 2017: Germs
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