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Microorganism, microRNA

Murali Gopal, Alka Gupta
"No plant is an island too…" Plants, though sessile, have developed a unique strategy to counter biotic and abiotic stresses by symbiotically co-evolving with microorganisms and tapping into their genome for this purpose. Soil is the bank of microbial diversity from which a plant selectively sources its microbiome to suit its needs. Besides soil, seeds, which carry the genetic blueprint of plants during trans-generational propagation, are home to diverse microbiota that acts as the principal source of microbial inoculum in crop cultivation...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Chet Raj Ojha, Myosotys Rodriguez, Seth M Dever, Rita Mukhopadhyay, Nazira El-Hage
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which are small non-coding RNAs expressed by almost all metazoans, have key roles in the regulation of cell differentiation, organism development and gene expression. Thousands of miRNAs regulating approximately 60 % of the total human genome have been identified. They regulate genetic expression either by direct cleavage or by translational repression of the target mRNAs recognized through partial complementary base pairing. The active and functional unit of miRNA is its complex with Argonaute proteins known as the microRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC)...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
J C Polonio, A D Polli, J L Azevedo, J A Pamphile
Endophytic microorganisms, mainly bacteria and fungi, have intrinsic relationships with the host plants, involving complex chemical and genetic communication networks. The relationship among these organisms involves the development of regulatory mechanisms of gene expression that control their development and response to different interactions. Although RNA molecules are already being used in studies of microorganism diversity and taxonomy, for example, using comparisons of rRNA regions, they may also be useful tools in the exploration of gene regulation and modeling of other molecules, such as the analysis of microRNA and small interfering RNAs...
September 19, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Ze Wang, Panfeng Li, Yan Yang, Yingjun Chi, Baofang Fan, Zhixiang Chen
Legumes fix atmospheric nitrogen through symbiosis with microorganisms and contain special traits in nitrogen assimilation and associated processes. Recently, we have reported a novel WRKY-related protein (GmWRP1) and a new clade of Exo70 proteins (GmExo70J) from soybean with homologs found only in legumes. GmWRP1 and some of the GmExo70J proteins are localized to Golgi apparatus through a novel N-terminal transmembrane domain. Here, we report further analysis of expression and functions of the novel GmWRP1 and GmExo70J genes...
2016: Scientific Reports
Fernando Granado-Lorencio, Elena Hernández-Alvarez
BACKGROUND: Increased consumer´s interest in health has driven the development of foods that offer specific beneficial effects. The list of foods and ingredients includes essential and non-essential nutrients, plant and marine components, whole foods, microorganisms, microalgae and technological approaches. Traditionally, health outcomes focussed on the prevention of chronic diseases but health targets have expanded to cover areas such as brain health, inflammation, eye health, women´s health, healthy ageing and beauty...
2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Jean-Malo Couzigou, Jean-Philippe Combier
Contents 22 I. 22 II. 24 III. 25 IV. 27 V. 29 VI. 10 31 References 32 SUMMARY: Plants have evolved a remarkable faculty of adaptation to deal with various and changing environmental conditions. In this context, the roots have taken over nutritional aspects and the root system architecture can be modulated in response to nutrient availability or biotic interactions with soil microorganisms. This adaptability requires a fine tuning of gene expression. Indeed, root specification and development are highly complex processes requiring gene regulatory networks involved in hormonal regulations and cell identity...
October 2016: New Phytologist
Joëlle V Fritz, Anna Heintz-Buschart, Anubrata Ghosal, Linda Wampach, Alton Etheridge, David Galas, Paul Wilmes
Various biotypes of endogenous small RNAs (sRNAs) have been detected in human circulation, including microRNAs, transfer RNAs, ribosomal RNA, and yRNA fragments. These extracellular sRNAs (ex-sRNAs) are packaged and secreted by many different cell types. Ex-sRNAs exhibit differences in abundance in several disease states and have, therefore, been proposed for use as effective biomarkers. Furthermore, exosome-borne ex-sRNAs have been reported to elicit physiological responses in acceptor cells. Exogenous ex-sRNAs derived from diet (most prominently from plants) and microorganisms have also been reported in human blood...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
William Kk Wu, Jun Yu, Matthew Tv Chan, Ka F To, Alfred Sl Cheng
Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodelling and microRNAs, convert environmental signals to transcriptional outputs but are commonly hijacked by pathogenic microorganisms. Recent advances in cancer epigenomics have shed new light on the importance of epigenetic deregulation in Helicobacter pylori- and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven gastric tumourigenesis. Moreover, it is becoming apparent that epigenetic mechanisms interact through crosstalk and feedback loops, which modify global gene expression patterns...
July 2016: Journal of Pathology
Paulo Bettencourt, David Pires, Elsa Anes
MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that have emerged as key regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by sequence-specific binding to target mRNAs. Some microRNAs block translation, while others promote mRNA degradation, leading to a reduction in protein availability. A single miRNA can potentially regulate the expression of multiple genes and their encoded proteins. Therefore, miRNAs can influence molecular signalling pathways and regulate many biological processes in health and disease...
March 2016: Tuberculosis
Benjamin Frank, Ana Marcu, Antonio Luis de Oliveira Almeida Petersen, Heike Weber, Christian Stigloher, Jeremy C Mottram, Claus Juergen Scholz, Uta Schurigt
BACKGROUND: Autophagy participates in innate immunity by eliminating intracellular pathogens. Consequently, numerous microorganisms have developed strategies to impair the autophagic machinery in phagocytes. In the current study, interactions between Leishmania major (L. m.) and the autophagic machinery of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) were analyzed. METHODS: BMDM were generated from BALB/c mice, and the cells were infected with L. m. promastigotes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron tomography were used to investigate the ultrastructure of BMDM and the intracellular parasites...
July 31, 2015: Parasites & Vectors
Marialbert Acosta-Herrera, Fabian Lorenzo-Diaz, Maria Pino-Yanes, Almudena Corrales, Francisco Valladares, Tilman E Klassert, Basilio Valladares, Hortense Slevogt, Shwu-Fan Ma, Jesus Villar, Carlos Flores
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a severe inflammatory process of the lung. The only proven life-saving support is mechanical ventilation (MV) using low tidal volumes (LVT) plus moderate to high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). However, it is currently unknown how they exert the protective effects. To identify the molecular mechanisms modulated by protective MV, this study reports transcriptomic analyses based on microarray and microRNA sequencing in lung tissues from a clinically relevant animal model of sepsis-induced ALI...
2015: PloS One
Cristina-Sorina Cătană, Ioana Berindan Neagoe, Vasile Cozma, Cristian Magdaş, Flaviu Tăbăran, Dan Lucian Dumitraşcu
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic disorders of modern society, requiring management strategies aimed at prolonging an active life and establishing the exact etiology and pathogenesis. These idiopathic diseases have environmental, genetic, immunologic, inflammatory, and oxidative stress components. On the one hand, recent advances have shown that abnormal immune reactions against the microorganisms of the intestinal flora are responsible for the inflammation in genetically susceptible individuals...
May 21, 2015: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Vera Paschon, Silvia Honda Takada, Juliane Midori Ikebara, Erica Sousa, Reza Raeisossadati, Henning Ulrich, Alexandre Hiroaki Kihara
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, microvesicles and apoptotic bodies, participate in intercellular communication, and particularly, in paracrine and endocrine signalling. The EVs and their specific contents have been considered hallmarks of different diseases. It has been recently discovered that EVs can co-transport nucleic acids such as DNAs, ribosomal RNAs, circular RNAs (circRNAs), long noncoding RNAs (lnRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs are important regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, although they may also play other roles...
April 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Xiling Du, Haipeng Wang, Fuhui Xu, Yongyi Huang, Zhixue Liu, Te Liu
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a pathogenic microorganism that causes hand, foot and mouth disease. However, the epigenetic mechanisms behind how EV71 regulates host cell proliferation and apoptosis are unclear. In the present study, the ability of EV71 to induce apoptosis was analyzed in the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line and the effect of this virus on the mRNA expression levels of various apoptotic markers, miRNA let-7b and cyclin D1 (CCND1), was also investigated. The results demonstrated that EV71 induced SH-SY5Y cell apoptosis...
July 2015: Molecular Medicine Reports
Marah C Runtsch, June L Round, Ryan M O'Connell
The mammalian intestinal tract is a unique site in which a large portion of our immune system and the 10(14) commensal organisms that make up the microbiota reside in intimate contact with each other. Despite the potential for inflammatory immune responses, this complex interface contains host immune cells and epithelial cells interacting with the microbiota in a manner that promotes symbiosis. Due to the complexity of the cell types and microorganisms involved, this process requires elaborate regulatory mechanisms to ensure mutualism and prevent disease...
2014: Frontiers in Genetics
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