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Adult Trauma

Stefanie Franke, Christine Kalweit, Annelene Frey, Hanna Heddergott, Astrid-Christine Mitschke, Matthias Wehrmeyer, Nina Heinrichs, Christoph Kröger
AIM OF THE STUDY: Coping with psychological trauma plays a central role in victims of acts of violence. The Victim Reparation Law (in German: Opferentschädigungsgesetz, OEG) provides services for the reparation of participation. To further improve the care of the affected persons, the characteristics of the victims were determined in relation to the acts and the perpetrators. METHOD: 312 OEG-files of adult victims were sighted. On the basis of a system of categories, demographic data, trauma specific and health-related characteristics of the victims, relevant characteristics of the perpetrators and the violence, as well as predictors for the time difference between the violent act and the application were determined...
June 22, 2018: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Matthias Knefel, Brigitte Lueger-Schuster, Thanos Karatzias, Mark Shevlin, Phil Hyland
OBJECTIVE: Complex post-traumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) will be introduced in ICD-11 and comprises symptoms of PTSD and disturbances in self-organisation (DSO). The association of trauma with PTSD and DSO is not yet fully understood. We investigated the path from child maltreatment to PTSD and DSO and examined the mediating role of emotion regulation (ER) and adult interpersonal re-victimisation. METHOD: Adult patients (N = 193) from a Scottish National Health Service clinic participated in the project...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Nuria Martín, Patricia Guilabert, Luis Abarca, Gemma Mª Usua, Jordi Serracanta, Maria J Colomina
Patients with major burn injury undergo a series of pathophysiologic changes that begin with a systemic inflammatory response and coagulation abnormalities, similar to those experienced by patients with sepsis or severe trauma. Coagulation changes in patients with burns are generally characterized by procoagulant abnormalities, but alterations in fibrinolysis and anticoagulation factors have also been observed. Around 40% of patients with major burn show changes on standard coagulation tests, and these have been related to the severity of the lesions, smoke inhalation, and administration of intensive fluid resuscitation therapy...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Mpho D Mhlongo, Andrew Tomita, Lindokuhle Thela, Varsha Maharaj, Jonathan K Burns
Background: While there is considerable research in developed countries on the nature and extent of post-traumatic stress among refugees and migrants, few report on female Africans migrating within Africa. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between exposure to traumatic life events and post-traumatic stress disorder risk in refugees and migrants in Durban, South Africa, with specific focus on sexual trauma events among women. Methods: Interviews were conducted on 157 consenting non-South African adults using a sociodemographic questionnaire, Life Events Checklist (documenting traumatic events experienced) and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (measuring post-traumatic symptomatology)...
2018: South African Journal of Psychiatry: SAJP: the Journal of the Society of Psychiatrists of South Africa
Allan E Stolarski, Claire P Miller, Ashar Ata, Kimberly Owens, Lauren Evans, Carl Rosati, Steven C Stain, Marcel Tafen
BACKGROUND: Anticoagulant and antiplatelet agents (ACAP) have been shown to negatively affect trauma patients. METHODS: Outcomes in adults with rib fractures were reviewed. Pearson chi-square test was used for analysis. Multivariate logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders. RESULTS: Of the 1448 included patients, 149 (10.3%) took preinjury ACAP; these patients were significantly older than non-anticoagulated patients (72 vs...
June 18, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
Lauren L Nowak, Niloofar Dehghan, Michael D McKee, Emil H Schemitsch
Proximal humerus, humeral shaft, and distal humerus fractures are all common adult fractures, and often occur in older patients. While the treatment of proximal humerus fractures remains controversial, certain fractures benefit from plate fixation such as fracture-dislocations and head-split fractures. When plate fixation is chosen, anatomic reduction and restoration of the medial calcar are important for successful results. Further research is required to minimize complications and determine the optimal surgical candidates for plate fixation...
June 2018: Injury
Pierre Langer, Cameron Black, Padraig Egan, Noel Fitzpatrick
BACKGROUND: To date, calvarial defects in dogs have traditionally been addressed with different types of implants including bone allograft, polymethylmethacrylate and titanium mesh secured with conventional metallic fixation methods. This report describes the use of an absorbable and non absorbable novel polymer fixation method, Bonewelding® technology, in combination with titanium mesh for the repair of calvarial defects in two dogs. The clinical outcomes and comparative complication using resorbable and non-resorbable thermoplastic pins were compared...
June 22, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Laura M Heath, Jill Torrie, Kathryn J Gill
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the physical and mental health of Cree adults, as well as the personal, clinical, and environmental factors associated with the presence of lifetime anxiety and mood disorders. METHODS: Mental health was assessed using the computerised version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (CDIS-IV), and standardised instruments were used to assess physical health, addiction severity, and psychological distress in 506 randomly selected participants from 4 Northern Cree communities in Quebec...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Sorena Keihani, Ross E Anderson, Michelle Fiander, Mary M McFarland, Gregory J Stoddard, James M Hotaling, Jeremy B Myers
Background: Collecting system injury and urinary extravasation is an important yet understudied aspect of renal trauma. We aimed to examine the incidence of urinary extravasation and also the rates of ureteral stenting after high-grade renal trauma (HGRT) in adults. Methods: A search strategy was developed to search Ovid Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library. Two reviewers screened titles and abstracts, followed by full-text review of the relevant publications...
May 2018: Translational Andrology and Urology
Ji Hyun Baek, Kiwon Kim, Jin Pyo Hong, Maeng Je Cho, Maurizio Fava, David Mischoulon, Sung Man Chang, Ji Yeon Kim, Hana Cho, Hong Jin Jeon
Eating disorders comorbid with depression are an established risk factor for suicide. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of binge eating (BE) symptoms on suicidality and related clinical characteristics in major depressive disorder (MDD). A total of 817 community participants with MDD were included. We compared two groups (with and without lifetime BE symptoms). The MDD with BE group was subdivided into a frequent BE (FBE) subgroup (BE symptoms greater than twice weekly) and any BE (ABE) subgroup (BE symptoms greater than twice weekly)...
2018: PloS One
Arinobu Hori, Tomohiro Morita, Izumi Yoshida, Masaharu Tsubokura
Cognitive-behavioural therapy is a first-line treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but it is difficult to implement in disaster settings. We report the case of an 80-year-old Japanese woman, who was diagnosed with PTSD after the 2011 triple disaster (earthquake, tsunami and nuclear plant accident) in Fukushima. Her recovery was greatly enhanced by the social support she received while living in Idobata-Nagaya community housing, established by Soma city in Fukushima, where residents could naturally discuss their traumatic experiences...
June 19, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Justine M Gatt, Karen L O Burton, Kylie M Routledge, Katrina L Grasby, Mayuresh S Korgaonkar, Stuart M Grieve, Peter R Schofield, Anthony W F Harris, C Richard Clark, Leanne M Williams
BACKGROUND: Associations between well-being, resilience to trauma and the volume of grey-matter regions involved in affective processing (e.g., threat/reward circuits) are largely unexplored, as are the roles of shared genetic and environmental factors derived from multivariate twin modelling. METHODS: This study presents, to our knowledge, the first exploration of well-being and volumes of grey-matter regions involved in affective processing using a region-of-interest, voxel-based approach in 263 healthy adult twins (60% monozygotic pairs, 61% females, mean age 39...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Gurdeeshpal Randhawa, Ataa Azarbar, Huiru Dong, M J Milloy, Thomas Kerr, Kanna Hayashi
Childhood traumatic experiences can disrupt attachment, influence personality development, and precipitate chronic disease. Although the repercussions of these experiences may also pose a barrier to healthcare, few studies have examined the association between childhood trauma and access to healthcare. Therefore, we sought to investigate whether a history of childhood trauma is associated with self-reported inability to access hospital care among persons who inject drugs (PWID). Data were derived from two prospective cohorts of PWID in Vancouver, Canada...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Bo Li, RuYin Hu, Li Sun, Rui Luo, JinMin Zhao, XiaoBin Tian
The effect of implanting a β-TCP bioceramic rod system (BRS) can be observed with using the 3-dimensional (3D) finite-element method on the biomechanics of early-stage osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH), to provide a theoretical basis for the biomechanics of applying the β-TCP BRS in the treatment of ONFH.A healthy 172 cm tall male adult volunteer (age: 40 years, weight: 70 kg, and femoral diameter: 50 mm) was selected for this study. The volunteer had no history of diseases in the hip, lower back, and lower limbs...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
A Bombay, R J McQuaid, F Schwartz, A Thomas, H Anisman, K Matheson
The Indian residential school (IRS) system in Canada ran for over a century until the last school closed in 1996. Conditions in the IRSs resulted in generations of Indigenous children being exposed to chronic childhood adversity. The current investigation used data from the 2008-2010 First Nations Regional Health Survey to explore whether parental IRS attendance was associated with suicidal thoughts and attempts in childhood, adolescence and in adulthood among a representative sample of First Nations peoples living on-reserve across Canada...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Yann Quidé, Sarah Cohen-Woods, Nicole O'Reilly, Vaughan J Carr, Bernet M Elzinga, Melissa J Green
OBJECTIVES: Childhood trauma is a common risk factor for adult psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar-I disorder (BD). However, its association with schizotypal personality traits, as well as cognitive and social cognitive abilities, is less well studied in these populations. METHODS: In a cohort of 79 SZ cases, 84 BD cases, and 75 healthy controls (HCs), clinically significant levels of childhood trauma exposure (according to scores on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire; CTQ) were evident in 54 SZ, 55 BD, and 26 HC individuals...
June 20, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Ludovic Ardouin, Alexandre Durand, André Gay, Marc Leroy
The management of distal radius fractures needs to be adapted to the increasingly complex traumas in patients with greater functional requirements. The goal remains to restore normal anatomy in order to preserve function. A pre-operative assessment using x-rays and thin-slice CT scans with three-dimensional reconstructions enables the best possible understanding of the fracture prior to surgery and planning of the pre-operative strategy. Arthroscopy is a technique that allows visualisation of the bone fragments and their displacement, as well as their reduction...
June 19, 2018: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
Thomas Le Corroller, Elodie Santiago, Arnaud Deniel, Anne Causeret, Pierre Champsaur, Raphaël Guillin
PURPOSE: To determine whether ultrasound allows precise assessment of the course and relations of the medial plantar proper digital nerve (MPPDN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This work was initially undertaken in six cadaveric specimens and followed by a high-resolution ultrasound study in 17 healthy adult volunteers (34 nerves) by two musculoskeletal radiologists in consensus. Location and course of the MPPDN and its relationship to adjacent anatomical structures were analysed...
June 19, 2018: European Radiology
Christiane G Kruppa, Justin D Khoriaty, Debra L Sietsema, Marcel Dudda, Thomas A Schildhauer, Clifford B Jones
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric pelvic injuries are rare. Due to anatomic differences of the immature pelvis, different injury patterns may occur as compared to adults. The purpose was to analyze the effect of skeletal maturity on pediatric pelvic injury pattern, associated injuries, and treatment intervention. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ninety children with a pelvic injury receiving treatment at a private orthopaedic practice in association with a Level One Teaching Trauma Center, between March 2002 and June 2011, were retrospectively analyzed...
June 16, 2018: Injury
Lucie Chauvelin, Morgane Gindt, Bertrand Olliac, Philippe Robert, Susanne Thümmler, Florence Askenazy
In the actual context of terrorism targeting children and families, it seems essential to describe different experiences of pediatric psychological emergency devices after such unexpected mass trauma. Here we testify our experience of the psychological emergency care setup dedicated to children and families during the first 48 hours after the terrorist attack of Nice, France, on July 14, 2016. Activated within the hour following the attack, the device included two child psychiatry teams turning over each day, receiving at least 163 individuals (99 children and 64 adults) within the first 2 days...
June 19, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
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