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M Arias-Andrés, R Rämö, F Mena Torres, R Ugalde, L Grandas, C Ruepert, L E Castillo, P J Van den Brink, J S Gunnarsson
Costa Rica is a tropical country with one of the highest biodiversity on Earth. It also has an intensive agriculture, and pesticide runoff from banana and pineapple plantations may cause a high toxicity risk to non-target species in rivers downstream the plantations. We performed a first tier risk assessment of the maximum measured concentrations of 32 pesticides detected over 4 years in the River Madre de Dios (RMD) and its coastal lagoon on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) were plotted in order to derive HC5 values for each pesticide, i...
October 25, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ying Hu, Shihua Qi, Linxi Yuan, Hongxia Liu, Xinli Xing
Twenty-one organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in the muscle of six predominant waterbird species from Jianghan Plain, Hubei Province, Central China. Among OCPs, DDTs were the most prevalent compounds, with average concentration ranging from 31.1 to 1445 ng/g lipid weight. Little egrets (Egretta garzetta) and Chinese pond herons (Ardeola bacchus) showed significantly higher concentrations of OCPs (p < 0.05) due to their dietary habits and migratory patterns. There were no statistically significant differences (p > 0...
October 25, 2016: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Chunjiang Zhao, Daming Dong, Xiaofan Du, Wengang Zheng
Sensing and mapping element distributions in plant tissues and its growth environment has great significance for understanding the uptake, transport, and accumulation of nutrients and harmful elements in plants, as well as for understanding interactions between plants and the environment. In this study, we developed a 3-dimensional elemental mapping system based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy that can be deployed in- field to directly measure the distribution of multiple elements in living plants as well as in the soil...
October 22, 2016: Sensors
Junfan Niu, Jun Chen, Zhihong Xu, Xiang Zhu, Qinglai Wu, Junkai Li
Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) is a natural product that has been characterized by special chemical structures, interesting bioactivities and has been registered for fungicide against rice sheath blight in China. Phloem mobility is of great significance to long-distance transport of systemic pesticides in plants. In order to improve the phloem mobility and bioactivities of PCA, seventeen PCA-amino acid ester conjugates were designed and synthesized by conjugating PCA with different amino-acid esters. The conjugates were evaluated for their fungicidal activities against Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn and their phloem mobility was determined by HPLC...
October 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Gandhali Bapat, Chaitali Labade, Amol Chaudhari, Smita Zinjarde
Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) find applications in the fields of drug delivery, catalysis, immobilization and sensing. Their synthesis can be mediated in a facile manner and they display broad range compatibility and stability. Their existence in the form of spheres, wires and sheets renders them suitable for varied purposes. This review summarizes the use of silica nanostructures in developing techniques for extraction, detection and degradation of pesticides. Silica nanostructures on account of their sorbent properties, porous nature and increased surface area allow effective extraction of pesticides...
June 10, 2016: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Catherine Jumarie, Philippe Aras, Monique Boily
The increasing loss of bee colonies in many countries has prompted a surge of studies on the factors affecting bee health. In North America, main crops such as maize and soybean are cultivated with extensive use of pesticides that may affect non-target organisms such as bees. Also, biosolids, used as a soil amendment, represent additional sources of metals in agroecosystems; however, there is no information about how these metals could affect the bees. In previous studies we investigated the effects of environmentally relevant doses of herbicides and metals, each individually, on caged honey bees...
October 22, 2016: Chemosphere
Jorge Regueiro, Noelia Negreira, Marc H G Berntssen
Ion mobility spectrometry allows for the measurement of the collision cross section (CCS), which provides information about the shape of an ionic molecule in the gas phase. While the hyphenation of travelling-wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS) with high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS) has been mainly used for structural elucidation purposes, its potential for fast screening of small molecules in complex samples has not yet been thoroughly evaluated. The current work explores the capabilities of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to a new design TWIMS-QTOFMS for the screening and identification of a large set of pesticides in complex salmon feed matrices...
October 25, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Ivy Shiue
Links between environmental chemicals and human health have emerged over the last few decades, but the effects from polyaromatic hydrocarbons were less studied, compared to other commonly known environmental chemicals such as heavy metals, phthalates, arsenic, phenols, pesticides, etc. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine the relationships of urinary polyaromatic hydrocarbons and adult respiratory health conditions using a large human sample in a national and population-based setting in recent years...
October 24, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Benjamin C Maki, Kathryn R Hodges, Scott C Ford, Ruth M Sofield
Historic applications of lead arsenate pesticides and smelting activities have resulted in elevated concentrations of arsenic in Washington State soils. For example, old orchard topsoils in Washington have concentrations reaching upwards of 350 mg As/kg soil with an estimated 187,590 acres of arsenic contamination from pesticide application alone. Iron oxides have been indicated as a key factor in modulating the fate and transport of arsenic in the soil environment. We employed a factorial design to investigate the role of a specific iron oxide, hydrous ferric oxide (HFO), and terrestrial organisms on the mobility, bioavailability, and fate of arsenic and iron in locally collected soils...
October 24, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xuan Cao, Yu-Bei Lv, Jun Chen, Tadayuki Imanaka, Liu-Jing Wei, Qiang Hua
BACKGROUND: Limonene, a monocyclic monoterpene, is known for its using as an important precursor of many flavoring, pharmaceutical, and biodiesel products. Currently, d-limonene has been produced via fractionation from essential oils or as a byproduct of orange juice production, however, considering the increasing need for limonene and a certain amount of pesticides may exist in the limonene obtained from the citrus industry, some other methods should be explored to produce limonene. RESULTS: To construct the limonene synthetic pathway in Yarrowia lipolytica, two genes encoding neryl diphosphate synthase 1 (NDPS1) and limonene synthase (LS) were codon-optimized and heterologously expressed in Y...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Elvira Mennillo, Valentina Casu, Federica Tardelli, Lucia De Marchi, Rosa Freitas, Carlo Pretti
Cholinesterases of Diopatra neapolitana were characterized for their activity in whole body and different body segments (apical, intermediate, posterior), substrate affinity (acetyl-, butyryl-, propionylthiocholine), kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax) and in vitro response to model inhibitors (eserine hemisulfate, isoOMPA, BW284C51) and carbamates (carbofuran, methomyl, aldicarb and carbaryl). Results showed that the rate of hydrolysis for acetyl- and propionylthiocholine was higher in the posterior segment than the apical/intermediate segments and whole body...
October 21, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Manuel Tejada, Esmeralda Morillo, Isidoro Gómez, Fernando Madrid, Tomás Undabeytia
The use of pesticides in agriculture is essential because it reduces the economic losses caused by pests, improving crop yields. In spite of the growing number of studies concerning the development and application of controlled release formulations (CRFs) of pesticides in agricultural soils, there are no studies about the effects of such formulations on the biochemical properties. In this paper the dissipation of diuron and alachlor in three agricultural soils for 127days, applied either as commercial or CRFs, was determined as well as their concomitant effects on soil biochemical properties...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Mohammad H Rahbar, Maureen Samms-Vaughan, Manouchehr Hessabi, Aisha S Dickerson, MinJae Lee, Jan Bressler, Sara E Tomechko, Emily K Moreno, Katherine A Loveland, Charlene Coore Desai, Sydonnie Shakespeare-Pellington, Jody-Ann Reece, Renee Morgan, Matthew J Geiger, Michael E O'Keefe, Megan L Grove, Eric Boerwinkle
To date much of the biomonitoring related to exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides is from middle to high income countries, including the U.S., Canada and Europe, but such data are lacking for the majority of low to middle income countries. Using data from 64 pregnant mothers who were enrolled in 2011, we aimed to assess the concentrations of the aforementioned toxins in umbilical cord blood serum of 67 Jamaican newborns. For 97 of the 100 PCB congeners and 16 of the 17 OC pesticides, all (100%) concentrations were below their respective limits of detection (LOD)...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Rekhadevi P V, M F Rahman, M Mahboob, S I Kumari, S Chinde, Bhanuramya M, Naresh D, Paramjit Grover
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to determine the genotoxic effect of exposure to a mixture of pesticides in 106 female agricultural workers employed in cotton fields from India. METHODS: Comet, micronucleus and chromosomal aberrations tests were carried out in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Micronucleus test was also performed in buccal epithelial cells. Levels of antioxidant enzymes, RBC Acetylcholinesterase and hematological parameters were analyzed in the blood samples of the study subjects...
October 24, 2016: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
B Estors Sastre, P Bragagnini Rodríguez, R Fernández Atuan, R Delgado Alvira, M A Rihuete Heras, J Gracia Romero
AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the association between endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) exposure and other paternal factors in the etiology of hipospadias and cryptorchidism. METHODS: A case-control study. Cases were infants between 0 and 6 years of age diagnosed with hypospadias or cryptorchidism in our pediatric urology and general pediatric surgery services during a period of 6 months, and controls were infants with the same range of age attending the same services without any urological problem...
April 20, 2016: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
Rachael A Smith, Michael St J Warne, Kerrie Mengersen, Ryan D R Turner
Pollutant loads are widely used to set pollution reduction targets and assess regulatory compliance for the protection of receiving waterbodies. However, when a pollutant load is comprised of a mixture of chemicals, reducing the overall load (mass) will not necessarily reduce the toxicity by a similar amount. This can be overcome by setting targets based on toxicity-based loads (toxic loads), where the load is modified according to the relative toxicity (expressed as toxic equivalency factors- TEFs) of each toxicant...
October 24, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Xiaoting Jin, Xiangyang Yu, Guangyan Zhu, Zuntao Zheng, Fayun Feng, Zhiyong Zhang
A high capacity of laccase from Trametes versicolor capable of degrading pesticides has been revealed. The conditions for degrading of five selected pesticides including chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, pyrimethanil, atrazine and isoproturon with the purified laccases from Trametes versicolor were optimized. The results showed that the optimum conditions for the highest activity were pH at 5.0 and temperature at 25 °C. The best mediators were violuric acid for pyrimethanil and isoproturon, vanillin for chlorpyrifos, and acetosyringone and HBT for chlorothalonil and atrazine, respectively...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Abdul Hameed, Mariya Al-Rashida, Maliha Uroos, Syed Ali, Khalid M Khan
Schiff bases are synthetically accessible and structurally diverse compounds, typically obtained by facile condensation between an aldehyde, or a ketone with primary amines. Schiff bases contain an azomethine (-C=N-) linkage that stitches together two or more biologically active aromatic/heterocyclic scaffolds to form various molecular hybrids with interesting biological properties. Schiff bases are versatile metal complexing agents and have been known to coordinate all metals to form stable metal complexes with vast therapeutic applications...
October 24, 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Hattan A Alharbi, Jane Alcorn, Ahmed Al-Mousa, John P Giesy, Steve B Wiseman
Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is generated during extraction of bitumen in the surface mining oil sands industry in Alberta, Canada. Studies were performed in vitro by use of Caco-2 cells, and in vivo with larvae of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) to determine if organic compounds from the aqueous phase of OSPW inhibit ATP binding cassette protein ABCB1 (permeability-glycoprotein, P-gp). Neutral and basic fractions of OSPW inhibited activity of P-gp in Caco-2 cells by 1.9- and 2.0-fold, respectively, while the acidic fraction had the least effect...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Ivan V Smirnov, Andrey V Golovin, Spyros D Chatziefthimiou, Anastasiya V Stepanova, Yingjie Peng, Olga I Zolotareva, Alexey A Belogurov, Inna N Kurkova, Natalie A Ponomarenko, Matthias Wilmanns, G Michael Blackburn, Alexander G Gabibov, Richard A Lerner
In vitro selection of antibodies from large repertoires of immunoglobulin (Ig) combining sites using combinatorial libraries is a powerful tool, with great potential for generating in vivo scavengers for toxins. However, addition of a maturation function is necessary to enable these selected antibodies to more closely mimic the full mammalian immune response. We approached this goal using quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations to achieve maturation in silico. We preselected A17, an Ig template, from a naïve library for its ability to disarm a toxic pesticide related to organophosphorus nerve agents...
October 2016: Science Advances
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