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L-B Zhao, G-D Zhen, Y Zhang, Y-Y Pan, G-H Du, S-Z Zhou, Z-F Li
OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical efficacy of melatonin on acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this randomized control trial, a total of 59 AOPP patients with subsequent delirium were randomly divided into two groups, the melatonin group (n=29) and the placebo-controlled group (n=30). Patients in the melatonin group (n=29) underwent oral administration of melatonin in addition to the symptomatic treatment, while those in the placebo-controlled group took a placebo in addition to the symptomatic treatment...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Honghong Li, Yujie Feng, Xuesheng Li, Dongqiang Zeng
This work investigated drinking water contamination by 11 commonly used herbicides in sugarcane production areas in Guangxi, China. The work developed an analytical method for determination of these herbicides in environmental waters. This work studied herbicide residues in drinking water in Guangxi, China. The maximum residues and percent of detects were: (0.091 µg/L, 29.2%, atrazine), (0.018 µg/L, 8.3%, ametryne), (0.188 µg/L, 8.3%, aetolaehlor), (0.139 µg/L, 4%, simazine), (0.585 µg/L, 62.5%, atrazine), (0...
March 21, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Hannah Hesselbach, Ricarda Scheiner
Due to intensive agriculture honeybees are threatened by various pesticides. The use of one group of them, the neonicotinoids, was recently restricted by the European Union. These chemicals bind to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAchR) in the honeybee brain. Recently, Bayer AG released a new pesticide by the name of "Sivanto" against sucking insects. It is assumed to be harmless for honeybees, although its active ingredient, flupyradifurone, binds nAchR similar to the neonicotinoids. We investigated if this pesticide affects the taste for sugar and cognitive performance in honeybee foragers...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jianxiu Yao, Yu Cheng Zhu, John Adamczyk, Randall Luttrell
Acephate (organophosphate) is frequently used to control piercing/sucking insects in field crops in southern United States, which may pose a risk to honey bees. In this study, toxicity of acephate (formulation Bracket® 97) was examined in honey bees through feeding treatments with sublethal (pollen residue level: 0.168 mg/L) and median-lethal (LC50 : 6.97 mg/L) concentrations. Results indicated that adult bees treated with acephate at residue concentration did not show significant increase in mortality, but esterase activity was significantly suppressed...
March 18, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
M Clare Butler Ellis, Marc C Kennedy, Christian J Kuster, Rafael Alanis, Clive R Tuck
The BREAM (Bystander and Resident Exposure Assessment Model) (Kennedy et al. in BREAM: A probabilistic bystander and resident exposure assessment model of spray drift from an agricultural boom sprayer. Comput Electron Agric 2012;88:63-71) for bystander and resident exposure to spray drift from boom sprayers has recently been incorporated into the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) guidance for determining non-dietary exposures of humans to plant protection products. The component of BREAM, which relates airborne spray concentrations to bystander and resident dermal exposure, has been reviewed to identify whether it is possible to improve this and its description of variability captured in the model...
March 17, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Panteleimon D Mavroudis, Helen E Hermes, Donato Teutonico, Thomas G Preuss, Sebastian Schneckener
The environmental fates of pharmaceuticals and the effects of crop protection products on non-target species are subjects that are undergoing intense review. Since measuring the concentrations and effects of xenobiotics on all affected species under all conceivable scenarios is not feasible, standard laboratory animals such as rabbits are tested, and the observed adverse effects are translated to focal species for environmental risk assessments. In that respect, mathematical modelling is becoming increasingly important for evaluating the consequences of pesticides in untested scenarios...
2018: PloS One
Boyang Hu, Hanqing Zhao, Zili Chen, Chen Xu, Jianzhuang Zhao, Wenting Zhao
Triazole pesticides are organic nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds, which contain 1,2,3-triazole ring. In order to develop potential glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase (GlmS) inhibitor fungicides, forty compounds of triazole derivatives were synthesized in an efficient way, thirty nine of them were new compounds. The structures of all the compounds were confirmed by high resolution mass spectrometer (HRMS), ¹H-NMR and13 C-NMR. The fungicidal activities results based on means of mycelium growth rate method indicated that some of the compounds exhibited good fungicidal activities against P...
March 21, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Juliana M Schöntag, Alcione A Alves, Luis G Romero Esquivel, Maurício L Sens
Population growth requires more food production and as a consequence, there is the indiscriminate use of agrochemicals, among them major group are carbamates. At times, runoff of pesticides leads to surface water pollution that serves as a source of public supply. Thus, the presence of these microcontaminants in surface water has become increasingly frequent. The treatment developed in this work uses the principle of adsorption as a technology for the removal of carbamates, more specifically carbofuran. Two methods of coating the polystyrene beads with iron oxide were used to adsorb these microcontaminants from the water...
March 21, 2018: Environmental Technology
Steven Lam, Giang Pham, Hung Nguyen-Viet
Background Agricultural intensification is having profound impacts on food security and rural livelihoods; however, concerns remain about the potential implications on public health. Objectives We aim to examine and synthesize the evidence for human health risks of agricultural intensification in Southeast Asia. Methods We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed articles published between January 2000 and December 2015 from two electronic databases (PubMed, CAB Direct). Results A total of 73 relevant studies were included and evaluated...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
Jun Min, Jinpei Wang, Weiwei Chen, Xiaoke Hu
Cupriavidus sp. strain CNP-8 isolated from a pesticide-contaminated soil was able to utilize 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol (2C4NP) as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen and energy, together with the release of nitrite and chloride ions. It could degrade 2C4NP at temperatures from 20 to 40 °C and at pH values from 5 to 10, and degrade 2C4NP as high as 1.6 mM. Kinetics assay showed that biodegradation of 2C4NP followed Haldane substrate inhibition model, with the maximum specific growth rate (μmax ) of 0.148/h, half saturation constant (Ks ) of 0...
March 20, 2018: AMB Express
Yuxin Gu, Yu Yang, Bin Wan, Minjie Li, Liang-Hong Guo
Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), as alternatives of brominated flame retardants, can cause neurodevelopmental effects similar to organophosphate pesticides. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity remain elusive. O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) regulates numerous neural processes through the O-GlcNAcylation modification of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. In this study, we aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms accounting for the developmental neurotoxicity of OPFRs by identifying potential targets of OPFRs and the attendant effects...
March 17, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Anthony N Oliveri, Erica Ortiz, Edward D Levin
Human exposure to organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) is widespread, including pregnant women and young children with whom developmental neurotoxic risk is a concern. Given similarities of OPFRs to organophosphate (OP) pesticides, research into the possible neurotoxic impacts of developmental OPFR exposure has been growing. Building upon research implicating exposure to OP pesticides in dopaminergic (DA) dysfunction, we exposed developing zebrafish to the OPFR tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP), during the first 5 days following fertilization...
March 17, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Nurgul Atmaca, Sevket Arikan, Dinc Essiz, Hakan Kalender, Ozkan Simsek, Fatih Sultan Bilmen, Ruhi Kabakci
Mancozeb, metalaxyl and tebucanazole are widely used pesticides in agriculture and industry to treat plant pathogenic fungi. Livestock may be exposed to such substances by consuming contaminated plants. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of these three fungicides on bovine luteal cell steroidogenesis. Luteal slices from mid-cycle corpus luteum were dissociated into single cell suspension in aerated (O2 ) culture media (DMEM/F12) by enzymatic digestion. The cells were incubated in newborn calf serum (10%) for 18 h and then with serum-free media containing mancozeb (0...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Wenjuan Tan, Qin Gao, Chaoyi Deng, Yi Wang, Wen-Yee Lee, Jose A Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose R Peralta-Videa, Jorge L Gardea-Torresdey
In this study, low and high anthocyanin basil (Ocimum basilicum) varieties (LAV and HAV) were sprayed with 4.8 mg Cu/per pot from Cu(OH)2 nanowires, Cu(OH)2 bulk (CuPro), or CuSO4 and cultivated for 45 days. In both varieties, significantly higher Cu was determined in leaves of CuSO4 exposed plants (691 and 672.6 mg/kg for LAV and HAV, respectively); however, only in roots of HAV, Cu was higher, compared to control (p ≤ 0.05). Nanowires increased n-decanoic, dodecanoic, octanoic, and nonanoic acids in LAV, but reduced n-decanoic, dodecanoic, octanoic, and tetradecanoic acids in HAV, compared with control...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Żaneta Bargańska, Dimitra Lambropoulou, Jacek Namieśnik
Bumblebees play an important role in the pollination process of many crops and flowers. Therefore, taking action to protect and assess the impact of pesticides on these insects is fully justified. Pesticides may cause mortality and also sub-lethal effects that are not always directly visible. Bumblebees, like honeybees, can be used as indicators for environmental monitoring contamination. Two approaches are mainly used for the determination of pesticide residues in pollinating insects: a toxicological test (to know effects) and multi-stage analytical methodologies (to know exposure)...
March 20, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Elena Okada, Débora Pérez, Eduardo De Gerónimo, Virginia Aparicio, Héctor Massone, José Luis Costa
We measured the occurrence and seasonal variations of glyphosate and its metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), in different environmental compartments within the limits of an agricultural basin. This topic is of high relevance since glyphosate is the most applied pesticide in agricultural systems worldwide. We were able to quantify the seasonal variations of glyphosate that result mainly from endo-drift inputs, that is, from direct spraying either onto genetically modified (GM) crops (i.e., soybean and maize) or onto weeds in no-till practices...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Richard Odemer, Lisa Nilles, Nadine Linder, Peter Rosenkranz
Neonicotinoids alone or in combination with pathogens are considered to be involved in the worldwide weakening of honey bees. We here present a new approach for testing sublethal and/or synergistic effects in free flying colonies. In our experiment individually marked honey bees were kept in free flying mini-hives and chronically exposed to sublethal doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin. Additional groups of bees were challenged with Nosema infections or with combinations of the pesticide and pathogens. Longevity and flight activity of the differentially treated bees were monitored for a period of 18 days...
March 19, 2018: Ecotoxicology
J K Dubey, S K Patyal, Ajay Sharma
In the present day scenario of increasing awareness and concern about the pesticides, it is very important to ensure the quality of data being generated in pesticide residue analysis. To impart confidence in the products, terms like quality assurance and quality control are used as an integral part of quality management. In order to ensure better quality of results in pesticide residue analysis, validation of analytical methods to be used is extremely important. Keeping in view the importance of validation of method, the validation of QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) a multiresidue method for extraction of 13 organochlorines and seven synthetic pyrethroids in fruits and vegetables followed by GC ECD for quantification was done so as to use this method for analysis of samples received in the laboratory...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Kazuhiko Akutsu, Yoko Kitagawa, Masato Yoshimitsu, Satoshi Takatori, Naoki Fukui, Masakazu Osakada, Kotaro Uchida, Emiko Azuma, Keiji Kajimura
Polyethylene glycol 300 is commonly used as a base material for "analyte protection" in multiresidue pesticide analysis via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. However, the disadvantage of the co-injection method using polyethylene glycol 300 is that it causes peak instability in α-cyano pyrethroids (type II pyrethroids) such as fluvalinate. In this study, we confirmed the instability phenomenon in type II pyrethroids and developed novel analyte protectants for acetone/n-hexane mixture solution to suppress the phenomenon...
March 20, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Shashikant Sharma, Gowri K Uggini, Venus Patel, Isha Desai, Suresh Balakrishnan
Pesticide exposure to the non target groups especially during embryonic development has quite often resulted in congenital malformations. A commercially available combination insecticide (Ci, 50% chlorpyrifos and 5% cypermethrin) is known to induce ventral body wall defects (VBWDs) wherein abdominal viscera protrude out of the ventral body wall. Herein, an attempt was made to understand the mechanistic insight into Ci induced VBWDs. For this, before incubation, the chick embryos were dosed with the test chemical and then at different developmental stages of incubation, they were monitored for the changes in the expression of certain genes, which are indispensable for the ventral body wall closure since they regulate the cell fate, proliferation and survival...
2018: Toxicology Reports
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