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systemic review

Emilie M Flament, Keith R Berend, Jason M Hurst, Michael J Morris, Joanne B Adams, Adolph V Lombardi
BACKGROUND: In past decades, polyethylene wear was a major cause of failure in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Polyethylene for use in arthroplasty has been vastly improved in recent years, with improved materials as well as manufacturing and sterilization processes. Testing has shown that infusion of vitamin E prevents oxidative degradation of polyethylene without remelting, allowing the material to maintain mechanical properties and wear resistance over time. The purpose of this study is to review the early result of patients undergoing primary TKA with vitamin E antioxidant-infused polyethylene inserts...
October 26, 2016: Surgical Technology International
Sabina Martí Gamboa, Olga Redrado Giménez, Jara Pascual Mancho, María Lapresta Moros, Julia Ruiz Sada, Sergio Castan Mateo
Objective The objective of this study was to determine ability to detect neonatal acidemia and interobserver agreement with the FIGO 3-tier and 5-tier fetal heart rate (FHR) classification systems. Design This was a case-control study. Setting This study was set at the University Medical Center. Population A total of 202 FHR tracings of 102 women who delivered an acidemic fetus (umbilical arterial cord gas pH ≤ 7.10 and BE < - 8) and 100 who delivered a nonacidemic fetus (umbilical arterial cord gas pH > 7...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Wolfgang Enard
Humans are a remarkable species, especially because of the remarkable properties of their brain. Since the split from the chimpanzee lineage, the human brain has increased three-fold in size and has acquired abilities for vocal learning, language and intense cooperation. To better understand the molecular basis of these changes is of great biological and biomedical interest. However, all the about 16 million fixed genetic changes that occurred during human evolution are fully correlated with all molecular, cellular, anatomical and behavioral changes that occurred during this time...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Damon A Clark, Jonathan B Demb
Sensory systems use receptors to extract information from the environment and neural circuits to perform subsequent computations. These computations may be described as algorithms composed of sequential mathematical operations. Comparing these operations across taxa reveals how different neural circuits have evolved to solve the same problem, even when using different mechanisms to implement the underlying math. In this review, we compare how insect and mammalian neural circuits have solved the problem of motion estimation, focusing on the fruit fly Drosophila and the mouse retina...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Joerg T Albert, Andrei S Kozlov
The evolution of hearing in terrestrial animals has resulted in remarkable adaptations enabling exquisitely sensitive sound detection by the ear and sophisticated sound analysis by the brain. In this review, we examine several such characteristics, using examples from insects and vertebrates. We focus on two strong and interdependent forces that have been shaping the auditory systems across taxa: the physical environment of auditory transducers on the small, subcellular scale, and the sensory-ecological environment within which hearing happens, on a larger, evolutionary scale...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
John C Tuthill, Rachel I Wilson
The ability of animals to flexibly navigate through complex environments depends on the integration of sensory information with motor commands. The sensory modality most tightly linked to motor control is mechanosensation. Adaptive motor control depends critically on an animal's ability to respond to mechanical forces generated both within and outside the body. The compact neural circuits of insects provide appealing systems to investigate how mechanical cues guide locomotion in rugged environments. Here, we review our current understanding of mechanosensation in insects and its role in adaptive motor control...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Ben J Hardcastle, Holger G Krapp
The use of vision to coordinate behavior requires an efficient control design that stabilizes the world on the retina or directs the gaze towards salient features in the surroundings. With a level gaze, visual processing tasks are simplified and behaviorally relevant features from the visual environment can be extracted. No matter how simple or sophisticated the eye design, mechanisms have evolved across phyla to stabilize gaze. In this review, we describe functional similarities in eyes and gaze stabilization reflexes, emphasizing their fundamental role in transforming sensory information into motor commands that support postural and locomotor control...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Jean-Stéphane Joly, Gaelle Recher, Alessandro Brombin, Kathy Ngo, Volker Hartenstein
The visual systems of vertebrates and many other bilaterian clades consist of complex neural structures guiding a wide spectrum of behaviors. Homologies at the level of cell types and even discrete neural circuits have been proposed, but many questions of how the architecture of visual neuropils evolved among different phyla remain open. In this review we argue that the profound conservation of genetic and developmental steps generating the eye and its target neuropils in fish and fruit flies supports a homology between some core elements of bilaterian visual circuitries...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Sean Maroney, Carlos Chavez de Paz, Marjunphilip Duldulao, Tracey Kim, Mark E Reeves, Kevork K Kazanjian, Naveenraj Solomon, Carlos Garberoglio
There have been few studies directly comparing the postoperative complications in patients with a diverting ileostomy to patients who were not diverted after low anterior resection (LAR) for rectal carcinoma. This study is a retrospective chart review of all rectal carcinoma patients (99) who underwent a LAR from January 2009 to December 2014 at Loma Linda University Medical Center and Veterans Affairs Loma Linda Healthcare System. A majority of patients were diverted (58% vs 42%). The diverted patients were more likely to have a low tumor location (P < 0...
October 2016: American Surgeon
Joe X Zhang, Jacob R Berry, Devin P Beckstrand
BACKGROUND: Arterial gas embolism (AGE) is a rare condition in the flying community most often only ever seen in flight while operating at high altitude or incidents involving hypobaric chambers. This article describes a severe case of AGE that occurred in a pilot of a fourth generation fighter aircraft at ground level. The environmental control system (ECS) malfunctioned, causing an overpressurized cockpit and a subsequent explosive decompression when the pilot opened the canopy to egress...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
James A Turner, Colin N E Ruscoe, Trevor R Perrior
This report provides an outline of a program for the discovery of new public health insecticides for malaria vector control. The status of malaria vector control is first reviewed in terms of the chemical, physical chemical, and biochemical properties of the current WHOPES-recommended and approved vector control agents. This review provides a basis for a discussion on the critical need for discovery and development of multiple new chemical malaria vector control agents with novel and diverse modes of action...
October 2016: Chimia
Sandra Maria Barbalho, Marcelo Dib Bechara, Ricardo de Alvares Goulart, Karina Quesada, Rodrigo Galhardi Gasparini, Antonely de Cássio Alves de Carvalho, Adriana Maria Ragassi Fiorini
Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are two major forms of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Vitamin A (VA) and vitamin D (VD) may be associated with reduction in inflammation in these disorders. The aim of this review was to show the current evidence that may associate VA and VD with IBDs. Data linking VA, VD, and IBDs were studied. Both VA and VD may be related to the immune system in different manners. The active form of VA, retinoic acid, may be related to the growth factor-β and release of interleukin-10 (IL-10), thus involved with the resolution of the inflammation...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
Soji Shimizu
Subporphyrinato boron (subporphyrin) was elusive until the syntheses of tribenzosubporphine in 2006 and meso-aryl-substituted subporphyrin in 2007. These novel contracted analogues possess a 14π-electron conjugated system embedded in a bowl-shaped structure. They exhibit absorption and fluorescence in the UV/vis region and nonlinear optical properties due to their octupolar structures. The unique coordination geometry around the central boron atom in the structure of subporphyrin enabled investigation of rare boron species, such as borenium cations, boron hydrides, and boron peroxides...
October 25, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Teresa T Vo, Sheeba Varghese Gupta
For treatment-naïve patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection, efavirenz (EFV) together with tenofovir and emtricitabine were once widely prescribed given its efficacy and ease of administration in a combination pill. However, the high rate of central nervous system toxicities from EFV prompted the United States Department of Health and Human Services to move the EFV-based regimen from the recommended to the alternative category. For patients who do meet the criteria for newer recommended antiretroviral treatments, EFV is a viable option and is often the mainstay of treatment outside the United States, as newer antiretroviral treatments are more expensive...
October 25, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
Rodolfo Savica, Brandon R Grossardt, James H Bower, J Eric Ahlskog, Michelle M Mielke, Walter A Rocca
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies of drug-induced parkinsonism remain limited. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence and time trends of drug-induced parkinsonism over 30 years in a geographically defined American population. METHODS: We used the medical records-linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify all persons in Olmsted County, Minnesota, who received a screening diagnostic code for parkinsonism from 1976 through 2005...
October 25, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
L Hepburn, D J Hijnen, B R Sellman, T Mustelin, M A Sleeman, R D May, I Strickland
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex, chronic inflammatory skin disorder affecting more than 10% of UK children and is a major cause of occupation-related disability. A subset of patients, particularly those with severe AD, are persistently colonised with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and exacerbation of disease is commonly associated with this bacterium by virtue of increased inflammation and allergic sensitisation, aggravated by skin barrier defects. Understanding the complex biology of S. aureus is an important factor when developing new drugs to combat infection...
October 25, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
Vivien Béziat, Hugo Hilton, Paul J Norman, James A Traherne
Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are components of two fundamental biological systems essential for human health and survival. Firstly, they contribute to host immune response, both innate and adaptive, through their expression by natural killer (NK) cells and T cells. Secondly, KIR play a key role in regulating placentation, and hence reproductive success. Analogous to the diversity of their HLA class I ligands, KIR are extremely polymorphic. In this review, we describe recent developments, fuelled by methodological advances, which are helping to decipher the KIR system in terms of haplotypes, polymorphisms, expression patterns and their ligand interactions...
October 25, 2016: Immunology
Yupeng Hong, Francia Fang, Qi Zhang
The major cause of cancer-associated mortality is tumor metastasis, a disease that is far from understood. Many studies have observed circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in patients' circulation systems, and a few latest investigations showed that CTC clusters have a potentially high capacity of metastasis. The capture and analysis of CTC clusters offer new insights into tumor metastasis and can facilitate the development of cancer treatments. We reviewed the research history of the CTC clusters, as well as the technologies used for detecting and isolating CTC clusters...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
Luka Dobovišek, Marko Hojnik, Polonca Ferk
The physiological and pathophysiological roles of sex hormones have been well documented and the modulation of their effects is applicable in many current treatments. On the other hand, the physiological role of endocannabinoids is not yet clearly understood and the endocannabinoid system is considered a relatively new therapeutic target. The physiological association between sex hormones and cannabinoids has been investigated in several studies; however, its involvement in the pathophysiology of common human diseases has been studied separately...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Fady Y Hijji, Dustin H Massel, Benjamin C Mayo, Ankur S Narain, William W Long, Krishna D Modi, Rory M Burke, Jeff Canar, Kern Singh
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. OBJECTIVE: To compare perioperative costs and outcomes of patients undergoing single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusions (ACDF) at both a service (orthopedic versus neurosurgical) and individual surgeon level. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Hospital systems are experiencing significant pressure to increase value of care by reducing costs while maintaining or improving patient-centered outcomes...
October 24, 2016: Spine
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