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Mental depression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352540/insight-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-relationship-with-behavior-mood-and-perceived-quality-of-life-underlying-causes-and-emerging-treatments
#1
Paul H Lysaker, Michelle L Pattison, Bethany L Leonhardt, Scott Phelps, Jenifer L Vohs
Poor insight in schizophrenia is prevalent across cultures and phases of illness. In this review, we examine the recent research on the relationship of insight with behavior, mood and perceived quality of life, on its complex roots, and on the effects of existing and emerging treatments. This research indicates that poor insight predicts poorer treatment adherence and therapeutic alliance, higher symptom severity and more impaired community function, while good insight predicts a higher frequency of depression and demoralization, especially when coupled with stigma and social disadvantage...
February 2018: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352539/income-inequality-and-depression-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-association-and-a-scoping-review-of-mechanisms
#2
Vikram Patel, Jonathan K Burns, Monisha Dhingra, Leslie Tarver, Brandon A Kohrt, Crick Lund
Most countries have witnessed a dramatic increase of income inequality in the past three decades. This paper addresses the question of whether income inequality is associated with the population prevalence of depression and, if so, the potential mechanisms and pathways which may explain this association. Our systematic review included 26 studies, mostly from high-income countries. Nearly two-thirds of all studies and five out of six longitudinal studies reported a statistically significant positive relationship between income inequality and risk of depression; only one study reported a statistically significant negative relationship...
February 2018: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352532/the-impact-of-severe-mental-disorders-and-psychotropic-medications-on-sexual-health-and-its-implications-for-clinical-management
#3
Angel L Montejo, Laura Montejo, David S Baldwin
Sexual dysfunction often accompanies severe psychiatric illness and can be due to both the mental disorder itself and the use of psychotropic treatments. Many sexual symptoms resolve as the mental state improves, but treatment-related sexual adverse events tend to persist over time, and are unfortunately under-recognized by clinicians and scarcely investigated in clinical trials. Treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction adversely affects quality of life and may contribute to reduce treatment adherence. There are important differences between the various compounds in the incidence of adverse sexual effects, associated with differences in mechanisms of action...
February 2018: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352034/translational-new-approaches-for-investigating-mood-disorders-in-rodents-and-what-they-may-reveal-about-the-underlying-neurobiology-of-major-depressive-disorder
#4
REVIEW
Emma S J Robinson
Mood disorders represent one of society's most costly and challenging health burdens. The drug treatments used today were initially discovered serendipitously in the 1950s. Animal models were then developed based on the ability of these drugs to alter specific behaviours. These models have played a major role in the development of the second generation of antidepressants. However, their use has been heavily criticized, particularly in relation to whether they recapitulate similar underlying biology to the psychiatric disorder they are proposed to represent...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352029/dissociable-temporal-effects-of-bupropion-on-behavioural-measures-of-emotional-and-reward-processing-in-depression
#5
Annabel E L Walsh, Michael Browning, Wayne C Drevets, Maura Furey, Catherine J Harmer
Antidepressants remediate negative biases in emotional processing early in treatment, prior to mood improvement. However, the effects on reward processing potentially relevant to the treatment of anhedonia are less clear. Here we investigate the early and sustained effects of the dopamine and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor bupropion on behavioural measures of emotional and reward processing in currently depressed individuals. Forty-six currently depressed patients and 42 healthy controls participated in a repeated measures study, during which open-label bupropion was administered to only the patient group over a six week period without a placebo group...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352012/public-transport-policy-social-engagement-and-mental-health-in-older-age-a-quasi-experimental-evaluation-of-free-bus-passes-in-england
#6
Erica Reinhard, Emilie Courtin, Frank J van Lenthe, Mauricio Avendano
BACKGROUND: Social engagement and social isolation are key determinants of mental health in older age, yet there is limited evidence on how public policies may contribute to reducing isolation, promoting social engagement and improving mental health among older people. This study examines the impact of the introduction of an age-friendly transportation policy, free bus passes, on the mental health of older people in England. METHODS: We use an instrumental variable (IV) approach that exploits eligibility criteria for free bus passes to estimate the impact of increased public transportation use on depressive symptoms, loneliness, social isolation and social engagement...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351900/employees-perspectives-on-the-facilitators-and-barriers-to-engaging-with-digital-mental-health-interventions-in-the-workplace-qualitative-study
#7
Stephany Carolan, Richard O de Visser
BACKGROUND: Prevalence rates of work-related stress, depression, and anxiety are high, resulting in reduced productivity and increased absenteeism. There is evidence that these conditions can be successfully treated in the workplace, but take-up of psychological treatments among workers is low. Digital mental health interventions delivered in the workplace may be one way to address this imbalance, but although there is evidence that digital mental health is effective at treating stress, depression, and anxiety in the workplace, uptake of and engagement with these interventions remains a concern...
January 19, 2018: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351895/a-tailored-web-based-intervention-to-improve-parenting-risk-and-protective-factors-for-adolescent-depression-and-anxiety-problems-postintervention-findings-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Marie Bee Hui Yap, Shireen Mahtani, Ronald M Rapee, Claire Nicolas, Katherine A Lawrence, Andrew Mackinnon, Anthony F Jorm
BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety disorders in young people are a global health concern. Parents have an important role in reducing the risk of these disorders, but cost-effective, evidence-based interventions for parents that can be widely disseminated are lacking. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the postintervention effects of the Partners in Parenting (PiP) program on parenting risk and protective factors for adolescent depression and anxiety, and on adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351862/social-capital-socioeconomic-status-and-depression-in-community-living-elderly
#9
Kyu-Man Han, Changsu Han, Cheolmin Shin, Hee-Jung Jee, Hyonggin An, Ho-Kyoung Yoon, Young-Hoon Ko, Seung-Hyun Kim
A growing body of evidence has suggested that social capital is an upstream social determinant of mental health. We investigated the association of cognitive social capital, including interpersonal trust and reciprocity, with depressive symptoms in the elderly. We also explored the mediating role of cognitive social capital in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and depressive symptoms and the moderating effect of SES on the relationship between social capital and depressive symptoms. Data from the 2012 Korea Welfare Panel Study (KOWEPS) was analyzed for 5969 participants aged 60 years or older...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351154/predictors-of-health-related-quality-of-life-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-patients-compared-with-healthy-individuals
#10
Raymond Addante, Bruce Naliboff, Wendy Shih, Angela P Presson, Kirsten Tillisch, Emeran A Mayer, Lin Chang
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) reduces health-related quality of life (HRQOL). It is unclear how having IBS modifies the impact of gastrointestinal (GI), psychosocial, and somatic symptom variables on HRQOL compared with healthy controls (HCs). AIMS: (1) Determine psychosocial, somatic, and physical status variables most predictive of HRQOL in IBS and HCs and (2) determine if IBS status modifies relationships between predictive factors and HRQOL. METHODS: IBS patients and HCs completed validated questionnaires measuring GI symptoms, psychosocial/somatic variables, and physical [physical component score (PCS)] and mental [mental component score (MCS)] HRQOL via the Short-Form-36...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351116/treatment-of-postpartum-depression-recommendations-for-the-clinician
#11
Michael W O'Hara, Jane Engeldinger
Postpartum depression is a significant public health problem affecting almost 600,000 US women every year. It may arise de novo in the postpartum period or continue from pregnancy. A number of evidence-based psychotherapies and medical treatments exist for major depression and postpartum depression. The obstetrical team has many opportunities to identify high risk and depressed women and refer them to mental health professionals or begin treatment with antidepressant medication. Careful assessment of risk factors for postpartum depression during pregnancy and monitoring depressive symptoms during pregnancy and the postpartum period will lead to better outcomes for women and their families...
January 18, 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350997/realizing-the-mass-public-benefit-of-evidence-based-psychological-therapies-the-iapt-program
#12
David M Clark
Empirically supported psychological therapies have been developed for many mental health conditions. However, in most countries only a small proportion of the public benefit from these advances. The English Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) program aims to bridge the gap between research and practice by training over 10,500 new psychological therapists in empirically supported treatments and deploying them in new services for the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. Currently IAPT treats over 560,000 patients per year, obtains clinical outcome data on 98...
January 19, 2018: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349285/a-smart-phone-intervention-to-address-mental-health-stigma-in-the-construction-industry-a-two-arm-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
A Milner, P C F Law, C Mann, T Cooper, K Witt, A D LaMontagne
Background: High levels of self-stigma are associated with a range of adverse mental health, treatment, and functional outcomes. This prospective study examined the effects of an electronic mental health stigma reduction intervention on self-stigma (self-blame, shame, and help-seeking inhibition) among male construction workers in Australia. Method: Male construction workers (N = 682) were randomly assigned to receive either the intervention condition or the wait list control over a six-week period...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349268/socioeconomic-status-indicators-and-common-mental-disorders-evidence-from-a-study-of-prenatal-depression-in-pakistan
#14
Joanna Maselko, Lisa Bates, Sonia Bhalotra, John A Gallis, Karen O'Donnell, Siham Sikander, Elizabeth L Turner
There is growing interest in the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES), poverty, and mental health in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). However, it is not clear whether a gradient approach focused on a wider SES distribution or a binary poverty approach is more salient for mental health in LMIC. Yet this distinction has implications for interventions aimed at improving population health. We contribute to the literature by examining how multiple indicators of socioeconomic status, including gradient SES and binary poverty indicators, contribute to prenatal depression symptoms in a LMIC context...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349252/wealth-justice-and-freedom-objective-and-subjective-measures-predicting-poor-mental-health-in-a-study-across-eight-countries
#15
Saskia Scholten, Julia Velten, Torsten Neher, Jürgen Margraf
Background: Macro-level factors (MF) such as wealth, justice and freedom measured with objective country-level indicators (objective MF), for instance the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), have been investigated in relation to health and well-being, but rarely in connection with depression, anxiety and stress subsumed as poor mental health. Also, a combination of different objective MF and of how individuals perceive those MF (subjective MF) has not been taken into consideration. In the present study, we combined subjective and objective measures of wealth, justice and freedom and examined their relationship with poor mental health...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349245/mental-health-of-sub-saharan-african-migrants-the-gendered-role-of-migration-paths-and-transnational-ties
#16
Julie Pannetier, France Lert, Marie Jauffret Roustide, Annabel Desgrées du Loû
In Europe, migrants are at higher risk of common mental disorders or psychological distress than are natives. Little is known regarding the social determinants of migrant mental health, particularly the roles played by migration conditions and transnational practices, which may manifest themselves in different ways for men and for women. The goal of this paper was to understand the gendered roles of migration paths and transnational ties in mental health among sub-Saharan African migrants residing in the Paris, France, metropolitan area...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349226/seeking-relief-bankruptcy-and-health-outcomes-of-adult-women
#17
Fenaba R Addo
This study examined the impact of declaring consumer bankruptcy on the physical and mental health of adult women and if outcomes differed depending on whether the filer received automatic debt discharge under Chapter 7 compared to a debt repayment plan with Chapter 13. Sample data consisted of women from the NLSY79 cohort who completed the age 40 and 50 health modules as of the most recent wave. Results indicated a negative effect of bankruptcy on self-assessed health, whereas prior health history explained its negative relationship with depressive symptoms...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349207/gender-career-divide-and-women-s-disadvantage-in-depressive-symptoms-and-physical-limitations-in-france
#18
Emmanuelle Cambois, Clémentine Garrouste, Ariane Pailhé
This study investigated the relationship between women's disadvantage in mental health and physical functioning and gender differences in career backgrounds. Sexual division of labor persists and key career characteristics are overrepresented in women: low-skilled first job, downward occupational trajectory, interruptions. These interrelated characteristics are usually linked to poor health. Their overrepresentation in women may be related to the female-male health gap; however, it may not if overrepresentation transposed into substantially weaker associations with poor health outcomes...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349201/factors-affecting-the-physical-and-mental-health-of-older-adults-in-china-the-importance-of-marital-status-child-proximity-and-gender
#19
Lindy Williams, Renling Zhang, Kevin C Packard
Evidence is accumulating about the association between strong family ties and the emotional and physical welfare of older adults, and researchers have identified negative consequences of being unmarried, being childless, and/or living alone. These associations have been recognized in multiple contexts, including in Asia where living with a spouse and/or grown children has been shown in some studies to improve elderly well-being. Social support, especially family support, is expected to continue to be important where populations are aging and social safety nets are weak...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348073/rate-of-switch-from-bipolar-depression-into-mania-after-morning-light-therapy-a-historical-review
#20
REVIEW
Francesco Benedetti
Light therapy (LT) is efficacious for bipolar depression with effect sizes equivalent to those in antidepressant pharmacotherapy trials. Patients with bipolar disorder (BD) show a 15-40% rate of manic switches during antidepressant drug treatment. The rate of manic switches during LT has never been estimated. We searched all the literature studies reporting effects of antidepressant LT in BD. 41 studies described 799 patients with BD treated with antidepressant LT, from among which 7 (0.9%) switched into mania and 11 (1...
January 9, 2018: Psychiatry Research
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