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Amanda Elton, Christopher T Smith, Michael H Parrish, Charlotte A Boettiger
Excessively choosing immediate over larger future rewards, or delay discounting (DD), associates with multiple clinical conditions. Individual differences in DD likely depend on variations in the activation of and functional interactions between networks, representing possible endophenotypes for associated disorders, including alcohol use disorders. Numerous fMRI studies have probed the neural bases of DD, but investigations of large-scale networks remain scant. We addressed this gap by testing whether activation within large-scale networks during Now/Later decision-making predicts individual differences in DD...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Nadia Micali, Camilla Lindvall Dahlgren
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Jillian Iafrati, Arnaud Malvache, Cecilia Gonzalez Campo, M Juliana Orejarena, Olivier Lassalle, Lamine Bouamrane, Pascale Chavis
The postnatal maturation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) represents a period of increased vulnerability to risk factors and emergence of neuropsychiatric disorders. To disambiguate the pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to these disorders, we revisited the endophenotype approach from a developmental viewpoint. The extracellular matrix protein reelin which contributes to cellular and network plasticity, is a risk factor for several psychiatric diseases. We mapped the aggregate effect of the RELN risk allele on postnatal development of PFC functions by cross-sectional synaptic and behavioral analysis of reelin-haploinsufficient mice...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jan Scott, Pierre Alexis Geoffroy, Sarah Sportiche, Clara Brichant-Petit-Jean, Sebastien Gard, Jean-Pierre Kahn, Jean-Michel Azorin, Chantal Henry, Bruno Etain, Frank Bellivier
BACKGROUND: It is increasingly recognised that reliable and valid assessments of lithium response are needed in order to target more efficiently the use of this medication in bipolar disorders (BD) and to identify genotypes, endophenotypes and biomarkers of response. METHODS: In a large, multi-centre, clinically representative sample of 300 cases of BD, we assess external clinical validators of lithium response phenotypes as defined using three different recommended approaches to scoring the Alda lithium response scale...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Nicole David, Till R Schneider, Ina Peiker, Reem Al-Jawahiri, Andreas K Engel, Elizabeth Milne
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been associated with altered neural oscillations, especially fast oscillatory activity in the gamma frequency range, suggesting fundamentally disturbed temporal coordination of activity during information processing. A detailed review of available cortical oscillation studies in ASD does not convey a clear-cut picture with respect to dysfunctional oscillation patterns in the gamma or other frequency ranges. Recent evidence suggests that instead of a general failure to activate or synchronize the cortex, there is greater intra-participant variability across behavioral, fMRI and EEG responses in ASD...
October 13, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Chelsie E Benca, Jaime L Derringer, Robin P Corley, Susan E Young, Matthew C Keller, John K Hewitt, Naomi P Friedman
Executive functions (EFs) have been proposed as an endophenotype for psychopathology because EF deficits are associated with most psychiatric disorders. To examine this hypothesis, we derived polygenic risk scores for autism, attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, major depression (MDD), and schizophrenia, using genome-wide data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium as discovery samples. We then examined the relationships between these polygenic risk scores and three separable EF components measured with a latent variable model...
October 14, 2016: Behavior Genetics
Frank Qiu, Hagop S Akiskal, John R Kelsoe, Tiffany A Greenwood
BACKGROUND: Temperament and personality traits have been suggested as endophenotypes for bipolar disorder based on several lines of evidence, including heritability. Previous work suggested an anxious-reactive factor identified across temperament and personality inventories that produced significant group discrimination and could potentially be useful in genetic analyses. We have attempted to further characterize this factor structure in a sample of bipolar patients. METHODS: A sample of 1195 subjects with bipolar I disorder was evaluated, all with complete data available...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Guy Griebel, Philippe Pichat, Denis Boulay, Vanessa Naimoli, Lisa Potestio, Robert Featherstone, Sukhveen Sahni, Henry Defex, Christophe Desvignes, Franck Slowinski, Xavier Vigé, Olivier E Bergis, Rosy Sher, Raymond Kosley, Sathapana Kongsamut, Mark D Black, Geoffrey B Varty
Normalization of altered glutamate neurotransmission through activation of the mGluR2 has emerged as a new approach to treat schizophrenia. These studies describe a potent brain penetrant mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator (PAM), SAR218645. The compound behaves as a selective PAM of mGluR2 in recombinant and native receptor expression systems, increasing the affinity of glutamate at mGluR2 as inferred by competition and GTPγ(35)S binding assays. SAR218645 augmented the mGluR2-mediated response to glutamate in a rat recombinant mGluR2 forced-coupled Ca(2+) mobilization assay...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Paula Moran, Jennifer Stokes, Julia Marr, Gavin Bock, Lieve Desbonnet, John Waddington, Colm O'Tuathaigh
The study of gene × environment, as well as epistatic interactions in schizophrenia, has provided important insight into the complex etiopathologic basis of schizophrenia. It has also increased our understanding of the role of susceptibility genes in the disorder and is an important consideration as we seek to translate genetic advances into novel antipsychotic treatment targets. This review summarises data arising from research involving the modelling of gene × environment interactions in schizophrenia using preclinical genetic models...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Hideo Hagihara, Hirotaka Shoji, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
Flurin Cathomas, Hannes Sigrist, Luca Schmid, Erich Seifritz, Martin Gassmann, Bernhard Bettler, Christopher R Pryce
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain and is implicated in the pathophysiology of a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. The GABAB receptors are G-protein coupled receptors consisting of principle subunits and auxiliary potassium channel tetramerization domain (KCTD) subunits. The KCTD subunits 8, 12, 12b and 16 are cytosolic proteins that determine the kinetics of the GABAB receptor response. Previously, we demonstrated that Kctd12 null mutant mice (Kctd12(-/-)) exhibit increased auditory fear learning and that Kctd12(+/-) mice show altered circadian activity, as well as increased intrinsic excitability in hippocampal pyramidal neurons...
October 4, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Carla Sharp
The aim of the Special Section that this paper contributes to is to review current trends in borderline personality disorder (BPD) research. Three major trends were identified. First, there has been a marked increase in studies that attempt to locate BPD in the dimensional latent structure of psychopathology. Second, identifying the endophenotypic markers associated with BPD has become a focus of interest. Here, we focus on one endophenotype in the form of impaired self-other processing. Third, there has been an explosion of research into the developmental aspects of BPD specifically focused on uncovering complex Biology × Environment interactions in the development of BPD...
October 2016: Personality Disorders
Claudia L Hilton, Alison Babb-Keeble, Erin Eitzmann Westover, Yi Zhang, Claire Adams, Diane M Collins, Amol Karmarkar, Timothy A Reistetter, John N Constantino
This study examined sensory responsiveness in unaffected siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and associations between sensory responsiveness and social severity. Sensory Profile Caregiver Questionnaires and Social Responsiveness Scales were completed by parents of 185 children between age 4 and 10.95 years. Significant differences were found between participants with ASD and controls, and between participants with ASD and unaffected siblings for all sensory quadrants and domains, but not between controls and unaffected siblings...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Alexander M Kulminski, Yelena Kernogitski, Irina Culminskaya, Yury Loika, Konstantin G Arbeev, Olivia Bagley, Matt Duan, Liubov Arbeeva, Svetlana V Ukraintseva, Deqing Wu, Eric Stallard, Anatoliy I Yashin
Traditionally, genomewide association studies (GWAS) have emphasized the benefits of large samples in the analyses of age-related traits rather than their specific properties. We adopted a realistic concept of genetic susceptibility to inherently heterogeneous, age-related traits driven by the elusive role of evolution in their properties. We analyzed in detail the associations of rs693 and rs562338 polymorphisms representing the Apolipoprotein B locus with endophenotypes (total cholesterol [TC] and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and phenotypes (myocardial infarction [MI] and survival) in four large-scale studies, which include 20 748 individuals with 2357 MI events...
September 28, 2016: Aging Cell
Todd D Gould
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Saud Alhusaini, Christopher D Whelan, Sanjay M Sisodiya, Paul M Thompson
Over the last decade, the field of imaging genomics has combined high-throughput genotype data with quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (QMRI) measures to identify genes associated with brain structure, cognition, and several brain-related disorders. Despite its successful application in different psychiatric and neurological disorders, the field has yet to be advanced in epilepsy. In this article we examine the relevance of imaging genomics for future genetic studies in epilepsy from three perspectives...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Estêvão Scotti-Muzzi, Osvaldo Luis Saide
The presence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) in schizophrenia is frequent, and a new clinical entity has been proposed for those who show the dual diagnosis: the schizo-obsessive disorder. This review scrutinizes the literature across the main academic databases, and provides an update on different aspects of schizo-obsessive spectrum disorders, which include schizophrenia, schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) with OCD, OCD with poor insight, schizophrenia with OCS, and schizophrenia with OCD (schizo-obsessive disorder)...
September 27, 2016: CNS Spectrums
Simona Caldani, Maria Pia Bucci, Jean-Charles Lamy, Magali Seassau, Narjes Bendjemaa, Rémi Gadel, Raphael Gaillard, Marie-Odile Krebs, Isabelle Amado
Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disease with cognitive and motor impairments. Motor dysfunctions, such as eye movements or Neurological Soft Signs (NSS), are proposed as endophenotypic markers. Antisaccade (AS) and memory-guided saccades (MGS), two markers of inhibitory control mechanism, are altered in both patients with schizophrenia and their relatives, although these tools may have different sensitivities. Recently, emphasis has been put on identifying markers predictive of psychosis transition in subjects with ultra-high-risk psychosis in order to develop targeted prevention...
September 14, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Nadja P Maric, Milica J Jovicic, Marina Mihaljevic, Cedo Miljevic
Preclinical Research After the identification of the schizophrenia as an illness over a century ago, treatment of affected individuals included unspecific, mostly very robust methods including deep insulin coma and lobectomy/leucotomy. The first relatively specific treatment of schizophrenia started about 60 years ago with the antipsychotic chlorpromazine. All currently approved antipsychotic drugs block dopamine receptors, indicating that manipulation of dopaminergic function is fundamental to a therapeutic response in psychosis...
September 16, 2016: Drug Development Research
L Sørensen, T Eichele, H van Wageningen, K J Plessen, M C Stevens
It has been suggested that intra-individual variability (IIV) in performance on attention and other cognitive tasks might be a cognitive endophenotype in individuals with ADHD. Despite robust IIV findings in behavioral data, only sparse data exist on how what type of brain dysfunction underlies variable response times. In this study, we asked whether ADHD IIV in reaction time on a commonly-used test of attention might be related to variation in hemodynamic responses (HRs) observed trial-to-trial. Based on previous studies linking IIV to regions within the "default mode" network (DMN), we predicted that adolescents with ADHD would have higher HR variability in the DMN compared with controls, and this in turn would be related to behavioral IIV...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
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