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Sandra Arias, Manuel Núñez-Martínez, Emilio Quiñoá, Ricardo Riguera, Félix Freire
Nanospheres and nanotubes with full control of their size and helical sense are obtained in chloroform from the axially racemic chiral poly(phenylacetylene) poly-(R)-1 using either Ag(+) as both chiral inducer and cross-linking agent or Na(+) as chiral inducer and Ag(+) as cross-linking agent. The size is tuned by the polymer/ion ratio while the helical sense is modulated by the polymer/cosolvent (i.e., MeCN) ratio. In this way, the helicity and the size of the nanoparticles can be easily interconverted by very simple experimental changes...
October 19, 2016: Small
Beatriz Gullón, Patricia Gullón, Freni K Tavaria, Remedios Yáñez
Quinoa and amaranth belong to the group of the so called "superfoods" and have a nutritional composition that confers multiple benefits. In this work, we explored the possibility of these foods exhibiting a prebiotic effect. These pseudocereals were subjected to an in vitro digestion and used as carbon sources in batch cultures with faecal human inocula. The effects on the microbiota composition and their metabolic products were determined by assessment of variations in pH, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and changes in the dynamic bacterial populations by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)...
September 14, 2016: Food & Function
Rose R Murray, Mark S M Emblow, Alistair M Hetherington, Gary D Foster
Stomata are important regulators of carbon dioxide uptake and transpirational water loss. They also represent points of vulnerability as bacterial and fungal pathogens utilise this natural opening as an entry portal, and thus have an increasingly complex relationship. Unlike the situation with bacterial and fungal pathogens, we know very little about the role of stomata in viral infection. Here we report findings showing that viral infection influences stomatal development in two susceptible host systems (Nicotiana tabacum with TMV (Tobacco mosaic virus), and Arabidopsis thaliana with TVCV (Turnip vein-clearing virus)), but not in resistant host systems (Nicotiana glutinosa and Chenopodium quinoa with TMV)...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ouafae Benlhabib, Noura Boujartani, Peter J Maughan, Sven E Jacobsen, Eric N Jellen
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is a seed crop of the Andean highlands and Araucanian coastal regions of South America that has recently expanded in use and production beyond its native range. This is largely due to its superb nutritional value, consisting of protein that is rich in essential amino acids along with vitamins and minerals. Quinoa also presents a remarkable degree of tolerance to saline conditions, drought, and frost. The present study involved 72 F2:6 recombinant-inbred lines and parents developed through hybridization between highland (0654) and coastal (NL-6) germplasm groups...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ilce G Medina-Meza, Nicole A Aluwi, Steven R Saunders, Girish M Ganjyal
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) contains 2 to 5% saponins in the form of oleanane-type triterpenoids glycosides or sapogenins found in the external layers of the seeds. These saponins confer an undesirable bitter flavor. This study maps the content and profile of glycoside-free sapogenins from 22 quinoa varieties and 6 original breeding lines grown in North America under similar agronomical conditions. Saponins were recovered using a novel extraction protocol and quantified by GC-MS. Oleanolic acid (OA), hederagenin (HD), serjanic acid (SA) and phytolaccagenic acid (PA) were identified by their mass spectra...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
María Matos, Ali Marefati, Gemma Gutiérrez, Marie Wahlgren, Marilyn Rayner
The emulsifying ability of OSA-modified and native starch in the granular form, in the dissolved state and a combination of both was compared. This study aims to understand mixed systems of particles and dissolved starch with respect to what species dominates at droplet interfaces and how stability is affected by addition of one of the species to already formed emulsions. It was possible to create emulsions with OSA-modified starch isolated from Quinoa as sole emulsifier. Similar droplet sizes were obtained with emulsions prepared at 7% (w/w) oil content using OSA-modified starch in the granular form or molecularly dissolved but large differences were observed regarding stability...
2016: PloS One
Yasuo Yasui, Hideki Hirakawa, Tetsuo Oikawa, Masami Toyoshima, Chiaki Matsuzaki, Mariko Ueno, Nobuyuki Mizuno, Yukari Nagatoshi, Tomohiro Imamura, Manami Miyago, Kojiro Tanaka, Kazuyuki Mise, Tsutomu Tanaka, Hiroharu Mizukoshi, Masashi Mori, Yasunari Fujita
Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (quinoa) originated from the Andean region of South America, and is a pseudocereal crop of the Amaranthaceae family. Quinoa is emerging as an important crop with the potential to contribute to food security worldwide and is considered to be an optimal food source for astronauts, due to its outstanding nutritional profile and ability to tolerate stressful environments. Furthermore, plant pathologists use quinoa as a representative diagnostic host to identify virus species. However, molecular analysis of quinoa is limited by its genetic heterogeneity due to outcrossing and its genome complexity derived from allotetraploidy...
July 25, 2016: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
Jennifer Fiallos-Jurado, Jacob Pollier, Tessa Moses, Philipp Arendt, Noelia Barriga-Medina, Eduardo Morillo, Venancio Arahana, Maria de Lourdes Torres, Alain Goossens, Antonio Leon-Reyes
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a highly nutritious pseudocereal with an outstanding protein, vitamin, mineral and nutraceutical content. The leaves, flowers and seed coat of quinoa contain triterpenoid saponins, which impart bitterness to the grain and make them unpalatable without postharvest removal of the saponins. In this study, we quantified saponin content in quinoa leaves from Ecuadorian sweet and bitter genotypes and assessed the expression of saponin biosynthetic genes in leaf samples elicited with methyl jasmonate...
September 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Didier Bazile, Cataldo Pulvento, Alexis Verniau, Mohammad S Al-Nusairi, Djibi Ba, Joelle Breidy, Layth Hassan, Maarouf I Mohammed, Omurbek Mambetov, Munira Otambekova, Niaz Ali Sepahvand, Amr Shams, Djamel Souici, Khaled Miri, Stefano Padulosi
Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a high quality grain crop, is resistant to abiotic stresses (drought, cold, and salt) and offers an optimal source of protein. Quinoa represents a symbol of crop genetic diversity across the Andean region. In recent years, this crop has undergone a major expansion outside its countries of origin. The activities carried out within the framework of the International Year of Quinoa provided a great contribution to raise awareness on the multiple benefits of quinoa as well as to its wider cultivation at the global level...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ana Fernández-Diez, Irma Caro, Amaya Castro, Bettit K Salvá, Daphne D Ramos, Javier Mateo
Different approaches have been previously studied in order to reduce the fat content of dry-cured sausages. Among them, the use of polysaccharides, such as fiber, gums, or starch, have been proposed for fat replacing. Although scarcely studied, it is likely that starchy grains and vegetables might also be used as potential fat replacers in those sausages. Quinua is a starchy seed with high nutritive value, which contains substances of technological interest in dry-cured manufacturing. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of replacing fat by quinoa on the quality characteristics of a small diameter dry-cured sausage...
August 2016: Journal of Food Science
Rafael Rodríguez, Emilio Quiñoá, Ricardo Riguera, Félix Freire
The remarkable consequences in elongation, dynamic character, response to external stimuli (e.g., solvent effects, metal cations), and aggregation observed in helical poly(phenylacetylene)s (PPAs) when either the type of linkage with the pendant groups (i.e., anilide, benzamide) or the aromatic substitution pattern (i.e., ortho, meta, para) of the parent phenylacetylene monomer undergo modification are analyzed in depth. Two series of PPAs substituted at the phenyl ring in ortho, meta, and para with either (S)-α-methoxy-α-phenylacetic acid (MPA) or (S)-phenylglycine methyl ester (PGME) linked through anilide or benzamide bonds were prepared (i...
August 3, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Valeria Scoccianti, Anahi E Bucchini, Marta Iacobucci, Karina B Ruiz, Stefania Biondi
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), an ancient Andean seed crop, exhibits exceptional nutritional properties and resistance to abiotic stress. The species' tolerance to heavy metals has, however, not yet been investigated nor its ability to take up and translocate chromium (Cr). This study aimed to investigate the metabolic adjustments occurring upon exposure of quinoa to several concentrations (0.01-5mM) of CrCl3. Young hydroponically grown plants were used to evaluate Cr uptake, growth, oxidative stress, and other biochemical parameters three and/or seven days after treatment...
November 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Geyang Wu, Adam J Peterson, Craig F Morris, Kevin M Murphy
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is an Andean crop with an edible seed that both contains high protein content and provides high quality protein with a balanced amino acid profile in embryonic tissues. Quinoa is a halophyte adapted to harsh environments with highly saline soil. In this study, four quinoa varieties were grown under six salinity treatments and two levels of fertilization, and then evaluated for quinoa seed quality characteristics, including protein content, seed hardness, and seed density. Concentrations of 8, 16, and 32 dS m(-1) of NaCl and Na2SO4, were applied to the soil medium across low (1 g N, 0...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ramiro Ariel Carciochi, Leandro Galván-D'Alessandro, Pierre Vandendriessche, Sylvie Chollet
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seed has gained a great interest in the last years, mainly due to its nutritional properties and its content of antioxidant substances with health-promoting properties in humans. In this work, the effect of germination time and fermentation on the levels of antioxidant compounds (ascorbic acid, tocopherol isomers and phenolic compounds) and antioxidant activity of quinoa seeds was evaluated. Fermentation was carried out naturally by the microorganisms present in the seeds or by inoculation with two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (used for baking and brewing)...
July 1, 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Rasoul Rasoulpour, Alireza Afsharifar, Keramat Izadpanah
Melon seedlings showing systemic chlorotic spots and mosaic symptoms were collected in central part of Iran, and a virus was isolated from diseased plants by mechanical inoculation. The virus systemically infected the most inoculated test plants by inducing mosaic symptoms, while, in the members of Fabaceae family and Chenopodium quinoa induced local lesions. Agar gel diffusion test using a polyclonal antiserum against a squash Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolate showed the presence of CMV in the mechanically inoculated plants (designated CMV-Me)...
June 2016: Virusdisease
Iris Aloisi, Luigi Parrotta, Karina B Ruiz, Claudia Landi, Luca Bini, Giampiero Cai, Stefania Biondi, Stefano Del Duca
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is an ancient Andean seed-producing crop well known for its exceptional nutritional properties and resistance to adverse environmental conditions, such as salinity and drought. Seed storage proteins, amino acid composition, and bioactive compounds play a crucial role in determining the nutritional value of quinoa. Seeds harvested from three Chilean landraces of quinoa, one belonging to the salares ecotype (R49) and two to the coastal-lowlands ecotype, VI-1 and Villarrica (VR), exposed to two levels of salinity (100 and 300 mM NaCl) were used to conduct a sequential extraction of storage proteins in order to obtain fractions enriched in albumins/globulins, 11S globulin and in prolamin-like proteins...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Didier Bazile, Sven-Erik Jacobsen, Alexis Verniau
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) was first domesticated in Andean countries over 7000 years ago. Following the Spanish conquest, quinoa was rejected as "Indian food." After centuries of neglect, the potential of quinoa was rediscovered during the second half of the 20th century. Since then, the number of countries importing quinoa increased, with new producers appearing on the map and quinoa now being cultivated in areas outside the Andean countries. The geographical increase in distribution of quinoa has highlighted the difficulty of access to quality seed, which is a key factor for testing the crop outside the Andes...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Kevin M Murphy, Didier Bazile, Julianne Kellogg, Maryam Rahmanian
Chenopodium quinoa is gaining global importance due to its excellent protein quality and tolerance of abiotic stresses. The last 60 years have seen major strides in the expansion of quinoa crop production and experimentation. Quinoa's wide genetic diversity has led to its agronomic versatility and adaptation to different soil types, particularly saline soils, and environments with extremely variable conditions in terms of humidity, altitude, and temperature. The potential of quinoa to contribute to global food security was recognized in 2013 in the declaration of the International Year of Quinoa (IYQ)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Claudia Axel, Brid Brosnan, Emanuele Zannini, Ambrose Furey, Aidan Coffey, Elke K Arendt
The use of sourdough fermented with specific strains of antifungal lactic acid bacteria can reduce chemical preservatives in bakery products. The main objective of this study was to investigate the production of antifungal carboxylic acids after sourdough fermentation of quinoa and rice flour using the antifungal strains Lactobacillus reuteri R29 and Lactobacillus brevis R2Δ as bioprotective cultures and the non-antifungal L. brevis L1105 as a negative control strain. The impact of the fermentation substrate was evaluated in terms of metabolic activity, acidification pattern and quantity of antifungal carboxylic acids...
May 7, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Geraldine Avila Ruiz, Mauricio Opazo-Navarrete, Marlon Meurs, Marcel Minor, Guido Sala, Martinus van Boekel, Markus Stieger, Anja E M Janssen
The aim of this study was to determine the influence of heat processing on denaturation and digestibility properties of protein isolates obtained from sweet quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) at various extraction pH values (8, 9, 10 and 11). Pretreatment of suspensions of protein isolates at 60, 90 and 120 °C for 30 min led to protein denaturation and aggregation, which was enhanced at higher treatment temperatures. The in vitro gastric digestibility measured during 6 h was lower for protein extracts pre-treated at 90 and 120 °C compared to 60 °C...
2016: Food Biophysics
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