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Rubén Vilcacundo, Beatriz Miralles, Wilman Carrillo, Blanca Hernández-Ledesma
Because of the continuous and direct interaction between the digestive tract and foods, dietary compounds represent an interesting source of chemopreventive agents for gastrointestinal health. In this study, the influence of a standardized static in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model on the release of peptides with chemopreventive potential from quinoa protein was investigated. Gastroduodenal digests and fractions collected by ultrafiltration were evaluated for their in plate oxygen radical absorbance capacity and in vitro colon cancer cell viability inhibitory activity...
March 2018: Food Research International
Andrea Pitzschke
Aims: The pseudo-cereal quinoa has an outstanding nutritional value. Seed germination is unusually fast, and plant tolerance to salt stress exceptionally high. Seemingly all seeds harbor bacterial endophytes. This work examines mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activities during early development. It evaluates possible contribution of endophytes to rapid germination and plant robustness. Methods: MAPK activities were monitored in water- and NaCl-imbibed seeds over a 4-h-period using an immunoblot-based approach...
January 2018: Plant and Soil
Xiaogang Jiang, Hans Chr Bruun Hansen, Bjarne W Strobel, Nina Cedergreen
Saponin-rich extracts from Quillaja saponaria and Chenopodium quinoa have been registered by US EPA as active ingredients in biopesticides, and extract from tea seed powder, Camellia oleifera has been proposed for biocidal use. If saponin-rich biopesticides are efficient against pests, they are most likely also bioactive in the aquatic environment against non-target organisms. The aim of this study was to conduct an effect assessment of saponin-rich plant extracts by using species sensitivity distributions based on acute toxicity tests...
February 5, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Song-Yi Kuo, Yuan-Chuen Lin, Yi-Chin Lai, Jia-Teh Liao, Yau-Heiu Hsu, Hsiou-Chen Huang, Chung-Chi Hu
Serological methods are relatively convenient and simple for the detection of pathogens for front-line workers. On-site visualization of the test results plays a pivotal role in the process. However, an efficient, universal labeling agent for antibodies is needed for the development of efficient serological detection tools. In this study, a Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV)-based viral vector was employed to express recombinant proteins, collectively designated GfED, consisting of Staphylococcus aureus Protein A domain ED (SpaED) fused to either the N- or C-terminal of an improved green florescent protein (GFP) with or without the coat protein (CP) of BaMV, efficiently in Chenopodium quinoa...
2018: PloS One
Felix Freire, Berta Fernández, Antonio Rizzo, Ricardo Riguera, Rafael Rodríguez, Emilio Quiñoá
The calculated ECD spectrum (time-dependent density functional theory TD-DFT) for small oligomers of poly(phenylacetylene)s (PPAs) show a very good match with the experimental spectra of the PPA polymers, particularly with the first Cotton band associated to the helical sense of the internal polyenic backbone. This has been proven with a series of PPAs representative of cis-cisoidal, cis-transoidal, compressed and stretched polyene backbones, with identical or opposite internal/external rotational senses and allows the prediction of the helical sense of the internal helix of a PPA directly from its CD spectra...
February 6, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
José Moisés Laparra, Monika Haros
Bakery formulations limiting glucose availability for uptake without compromising product quality are required. Herein, bread formulations containing whole flour from Amaranthus hypochondriacus (AB), Chenopodium quinoa (QB), Salvia hispanica L (ChB) or wheat (WWB) were compared to white bread (WB) for glycaemic index (GI) in fasted animals. The hepatic expression (mRNA) of PPAR-γ receptor as key regulator in substrate fractionation towards energy expenditure was monitored. GIs were associated to fluxes of glucose release (FGluc) and metabolic response (MTT assay) of HepG2 cells...
February 1, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Domancar Orona-Tamayo, María Elena Valverde, Octavio Paredes López
This review reported an updated survey on the molecular functional properties of bioactive peptides derived from different Latin American ancient grains such as Maize, common Bean, Amaranth, Quinoa and Chia seeds. Seed storage proteins encrypted in their sequences diverse peptides associated with a wide range of benefit effects on the human health and the most studied are antihypertensive, anti-cholesterolemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties, additionally, in the last decades molecular properties have been also used for their characterization to understand their activities and it makes it highly attractive to be incorporated into food formulations and to complement or replace some conventional cereal grains...
February 1, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Jianxia Liu, Runmei Wang, Wenying Liu, Hongli Zhang, Yaodong Guo, Riyu Wen
Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) are ubiquitous proteins with important roles in response to biotic and abiotic stress. The 70-kDa heat-shock genes (Hsp70s) encode a group of conserved chaperone proteins that play central roles in cellular networks of molecular chaperones and folding catalysts across all the studied organisms including bacteria, plants and animals. Several Hsp70s involved in drought tolerance have been well characterized in various plants, whereas no research on Chenopodium quinoa HSPs has been completed...
January 23, 2018: Genes
Thais Huarancca Reyes, Andrea Scartazza, Antonella Castagna, Eric G Cosio, Annamaria Ranieri, Lorenzo Guglielminetti
Increased ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation due to global change can affect plant growth and metabolism. Here, we evaluated the capacity of quinoa to resist under short acute UVB irradiation. Quinoa was daily exposed for 30 or 60 min to 1.69 W m-2 UVB. The results showed that 30 min exposure in 9 d-course did not cause severe alterations on photosynthetic pigments and flavonoids, but a significant increase of antioxidant capacity was observed. Otherwise, 60 min UVB in 5 d-course reduced almost all these parameters except for an increase in the de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle pigments and led to the death of the plants...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tomohiro Imamura, Hiroki Takagi, Akio Miyazato, Shinya Ohki, Hiroharu Mizukoshi, Masashi Mori
In quinoa seedlings, the pigment betalain accumulates in the hypocotyl. To isolate the genes involved in betalain biosynthesis in the hypocotyl, we performed ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis on the CQ127 variety of quinoa seedlings. While putative amaranthin and celosianin II primarily accumulate in the hypocotyls, this process produced a green hypocotyl mutant (ghy). This MutMap + method using the quinoa draft genome revealed that the causative gene of the mutant is CqCYP76AD1-1. Our results indicated that the expression of CqCYP76AD1-1 was light-dependent...
January 6, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Emanuele Zannini, Stephanie Jeske, Kiran Lynch, Elke K Arendt
The aim of this study was to develop a novel beverage fermented with Weissella cibaria MG1 based on aqueous extracts of wholemeal quinoa flour. The protein digestibility of quinoa based-milk was improved by applying complex proteolytic enzymes able to increase protein solubility by 54.58%. The growth and fermentation characteristics of Weissella cibaria MG1, including EPS production at the end of fermentation, were investigated. Fermented wholemeal quinoa milk using MG1 showed high viable cell counts (>109cfu/ml), a pH of 5...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Pablo Cruz, Thierry Winkel, Marie-Pierre Ledru, Cyril Bernard, Nancy Egan, Didier Swingedouw, Richard Joffre
Archaeological research suggests significant human occupation in the arid Andean highlands during the 13th to 15th centuries, whereas paleoclimatic studies reveal prolonged drier and colder conditions during that period. Which subsistence strategy supported local societies in this harsh environment? Our field and aerial surveys of archaeological dwelling sites, granaries, and croplands provide the first evidence of extended pre-Hispanic agriculture supporting dense human populations in the arid Andes of Bolivia...
December 2017: Science Advances
Aniqa Aziz, Nudrat Aisha Akram, Muhammad Ashraf
Phytoextracts are being widely used these days as a source of bioactive compounds for mitigating the harmful effects of abiotic stresses including drought stress. In this study, it was assessed how far foliar applied pure synthetic ascorbic acid (AsA) or natural sweet orange juice (OJ) enriched with AsA could mitigate the drought stress induced adverse effects on growth and some key metabolic processes in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.; cultivar V9) plants. Two weeks old quinoa seedlings were subjected to varying irrigation regimes as control [100% field capacity (FC)] and drought stress (60% FC, 40% FC and 20% FC)...
December 5, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Débora N López, Micaela Galante, María Robson, Valeria Boeris, Darío Spelzini
An increasing use of vegetable protein is required to support the production of protein-rich foods which can replace animal proteins in the human diet. Amaranth, chia and quinoa seeds contain proteins which have biological and functional properties that provide nutritional benefits due to their reasonably well-balanced aminoacid content. This review analyses these vegetable proteins and focuses on recent research on protein classification and isolation as well as structural characterization by means of fluorescence spectroscopy, surface hydrophobicity and differential scanning calorimetry...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Lauren Wyatt, Ernesto J Ortiz, Beth Feingold, Axel Berky, Sarah Diringer, Ana Maria Morales, Elvis Rojas Jurado, Heileen Hsu-Kim, William Pan
Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is a primary contributor to global mercury and its rapid expansion raises concern for human exposure. Non-occupational exposure risks are presumed to be strongly tied to environmental contamination; however, the relationship between environmental and human mercury exposure, how exposure has changed over time, and risk factors beyond fish consumption are not well understood in ASGM settings. In Peruvian riverine communities (n = 12), where ASGM has increased 4-6 fold over the past decade, we provide a large-scale assessment of the connection between environmental and human mercury exposure by comparing total mercury contents in human hair (2-cm segment, n = 231) to locally caught fish tissue, analyzing temporal exposure in women of child bearing age (WCBA, 15-49 years, n = 46) over one year, and evaluating general mercury exposure risks including fish and non-fish dietary items through household surveys and linear mixed models...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Sandra Arias, Rafael Rodríguez, Emilio Quiñoá, Ricardo Riguera, Felix Freire
Both the role of the absolute configuration and the tendency of a chiral monomer to promote a certain helical scaffold in a polyphenylacetylene (PPA) have been evaluated to study the communication between two chiral monomers within a copolymer chain. 19 different PPA copolymer series -47 helical copolymers altogether- were prepared to explore the existence of a chiral to chiral communication mechanism. From the data obtained, we found that communication between two different chiral monomers emerge when both exhibit two special features: (a) a different conformational composition -one must exist in a single low energy conformation ("chiral Sergeant") and the other must present two conformers ("chiral Soldier")-, and (b) the induction of a similar scaffold in the PPA, either cis-cisoidal or cis-transoidal...
December 14, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Paula Henarejos-Escudero, Berenice Guadarrama-Flores, M Alejandra Guerrero-Rubio, Luz Rayda Gómez-Pando, Francisco García-Carmona, Fernando Gandía-Herrero
Betalains are water soluble plant pigments of hydrophilic nature with promising bioactive potential. Among the scarce edible sources of betalains is the grain crop quinoa (Chenopodim quinoa Willd), with violet, red, and yellow grains being colored by these pigments. In this work callus cultures have been developed from differently colored plant varieties. Stable callus lines exhibited color and pigment production when maintained on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with the plant growth regulators 6-benzylaminopurine (8...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ik-Hyun Kim, Jae-Yeong Han, In-Sook Cho, HyeKyoung Ju, Jae Sun Moon, Eun-Young Seo, Hong Gi Kim, John Hammond, Hyoun-Sub Lim
The full-length sequence of a new isolate of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) from Korea was divergent, but most closely related to the Japanese isolate A4, at 84% nucleotide identity. The full-length cDNA of the Korean isolate of ACLSV was cloned into a binary vector downstream of the bacteriophage T7 RNA promoter and the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Chenopodium quinoa was successfully infected using in vitro transcripts synthesized using the T7 promoter, detected at 20 days post inoculation (dpi), but did not produce obvious symptoms...
December 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Anna Gliszczyńska-Świgło, Inga Klimczak, Iga Rybicka
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies indicate mineral deficiencies in people on a gluten-free (GF) diet. These deficiencies may indicate that GF products are less valuable source of minerals than gluten-containing products. In the study, the nutritional quality of fifty GF products is discussed taking into account the nutritional requirements for minerals expressed as % Recommended Daily Allowance (%RDA) or % Adequate Intake (%AI) for a model celiac patient. Analysed elements were: calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc...
November 30, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
María Salud Abellán Ruiz, María Dolores Barnuevo Espinosa, Carlos García Santamaría, Carlos Javier Contreras Fernández, Miriam Aldeguer García, Fulgencio Soto Méndez, Isabel Guillén Guillén, Antonio Jesús Luque Rubia, Francisco Javier Quinde Ràzuri, Antonio Martínez Garrido, Francisco Javier López Román
INTRODUCTION: Quinoa is a pseudocereal containing low glycemic index carbohydrates, dietary fiber, high biological value protein, phytosterols, and n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, which has generated interest in prediabetes nutritional interventions. This randomized (2:1), placebo-controlled, double-blind study evaluated the effects of processed quinoa on body mass index (BMI), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and the satiation and fullness (complete) degree in prediabetic patients...
October 24, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
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