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Manoj K Shah, Gladys Asa, Julie Sherwood, Kari Graber, Teresa M Bergholz
Low moisture foods such as nuts, spices, and seeds have been implicated in several outbreaks due to Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7 contamination. Such foods may be consumed raw, and can be used as ingredients in other food products. While numerous thermal inactivation studies have been conducted for Salmonella on nuts, studies on other seeds and grains are minimal. Product water activity can influence the thermal resistance of pathogens, where thermal resistance increases as water activity decreases, leading to a requirement for higher temperatures and longer exposure times to achieve significant reduction of pathogen numbers...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Talwinder S Kahlon, Roberto J Avena-Bustillos, Mei-Chen M Chiu
Sensory evaluation of quinoa gluten-free whole grain low fat and salt snacks was conducted. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. Cayenne pepper, ginger and turmeric are common spices that contain health promoting nutrients. Cayenne pepper has been associated with enhancing heat production. Ginger has been reported to improve blood flow and prevent joint pains. Turmeric has been observed to have wound healing potential. All the snacks contained 6% corn oil and 2% salt...
December 2016: Heliyon
Ramiro Ariel Carciochi, Krasimir Dimitrov, Leandro Galván D Alessandro
In this study, the effect of malting process on the antioxidant compounds and antioxidant capacity of quinoa seeds was studied. The optimal germination conditions were germination temperature of 23 °C, degree of steeping of 36% and germination time of 3 days. Under these conditions, green quinoa malt was obtained and subsequently roasted at different temperatures (100-190 °C). Results showed maximum increases in phenolic compounds, Maillard reaction products and antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power) in samples roasted at 145 °C for 30 min, whereas a more intensive thermal treatment (190 °C) diminished the levels of all evaluated variables...
November 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Shreef G N Gabrial, Marie-Christine R Shakib, Gamal N Gabrial
BACKGROUND: Many studies have indicated that the incidence of serious diabetic complications may be reduced through strict glycemic control. A low glycemic index diet is one tool to improve insulin resistance and improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). AIM: The objective was to study the effect of pseudocereals-based breakfasts (quinoa and buckwheat) on glucose variations at first meal (breakfast) and second meal (standardised lunch) in healthy and diabetic subjects...
December 15, 2016: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Guantian Li, Fan Zhu
Quinoa starch has very small granules with unique properties. However, the molecular structure of quinoa starch remains largely unknown. In this study, composition and amylopectin molecular structure of 9 quinoa starch samples were characterised by chromatographic techniques. In particular, the amylopectin internal molecular structure, represented by φ, β-limit dextrins (LDs), was explored. Great variations in the composition and molecular structures were recorded among samples. Compared with other amylopectins, quinoa amylopectin showed a high ratio of short chain to long chains (mean:14...
February 20, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Sarita Jaiswal, Ravindra N Chibbar
Starch granule size, shape and structure of amylopectin are species specific and influence starch properties and end-use of starch. Amylopectin glucan chain structure was used to predict the starch botanical sources. Mathematical probability for accumulation of small glucan chains DP 6-10 reveal exponential fit curve with maximum R(2) in smallest granule size starches (Chlamydomonas, quinoa, buckwheat). Cereal and cassava showed R(2) of 0.81-0.96 while in pulses and tubers it was less than 0.7. The amylopectin small glucan chains form a unique 'finger print region' that identified starch botanical source...
February 20, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Victor F Zevallos, Verena Raker, Stefan Tenzer, Carolina Jimenez-Calvente, Muhammad Ashfaq-Khan, Nina Rüssel, Geethanjali Pickert, Hansjörg Schild, Kerstin Steinbrink, Detlef Schuppan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Wheat amylase-trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) are nutritional activators of innate immunity, via activation of the toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) on myeloid cells. We aimed to characterize the biologic activity of ATIs in various foods and their effect on intestinal inflammation. METHODS: We selected 38 different gluten-containing and gluten-free products, either unprocessed (such as wheat, rye, barley, quinoa, amaranth, soya, lentils, and rice) or processed (such as pizza, pasta, bread, and biscuits)...
December 16, 2016: Gastroenterology
Guantian Li, Fan Zhu
There has been growing interest in whole grain quinoa flour for new product development due to the unique nutritional benefits. The quality of quinoa flour is much determined by the properties of its major component starch as well as non-starch components. In this study, composition and physicochemical properties of whole grain flour from 7 quinoa samples have been analyzed. Flour properties have been correlated to the flour composition and the properties of isolated quinoa starches through chemometrics. Great variations in chemical composition, swelling power, water soluble index, enzyme susceptibility, pasting, gel texture, and thermal properties of the flour have been observed...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Hernán Pablo Burrieza, Agustín Sanguinetti, Catalina Teresa Michieli, Héctor Daniel Bertero, Sara Maldonado
In the 1970s, during excavations at Los Morrillos, San Juan, Argentina, quinoa seeds were found within ancient pumpkin crocks protected from the light and high temperatures, and preserved in the very dry conditions of the region. The radiocarbon dates confirmed the age of these seeds at around 2300 years. Sectioning of some of these seeds showed reddish-brown embryos, different from the white embryos of recently harvested quinoa seeds. The ancient seeds did not germinate. The structure of the embryo cells was examined using light and transmission electron microscopy; proteins were analyzed by electrophoresis followed by Coomassie blue and periodic acid Schiff staining and fatty acids by gas chromatography...
December 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Alastair B Ross, Cecilia Svelander, Göran Karlsson, Otto I Savolainen
Quinoa is a pseudocereal grown in the Andean region of South America that is of increasing interest worldwide as an alternative staple food. We have detected a complex mixture of both odd- and even-alkyl chain alkylresorcinols (AR), branched-chain alkylresorcinols (bcAR) and methylalkylresorcinols (mAR) in ethyl acetate extracts of quinoa. We quantified the content of AR in 17 commercial samples of quinoa, and found that the mean±SD content of AR was 58±16μg/g, bcAR was 182±52μg/g, and mAR was 136±40μg/g...
April 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
F Freire, E Quiñoá, R Riguera
Dynamic poly(phenylacetylene)s (PPAs) adopt helical structures with different elongation or helical senses depending on the types of pendants. Hence, a good knowledge of the parameters that define their structures becomes a key factor in the understanding of their properties and functions. Herein, the techniques used for the study of the secondary structure of PPAs using atomic-force microscopy (AFM) are presented, with special attention directed towards the methods used for the preparation of monolayers, and their consequences in the quality of the AFM images...
January 3, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Carlo Giuseppe Rizzello, Anna Lorusso, Vito Russo, Daniela Pinto, Barbara Marzani, Marco Gobbetti
Lactic acid bacteria strains, previously isolated from the same matrix, were used to ferment quinoa flour aiming at exploiting the antioxidant potential. As in vitro determined on DPPH and ABTS radicals, the scavenging activity of water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from fermented doughs was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of non-inoculated doughs. The highest inhibition of linoleic acid autoxidation was found for the quinoa dough fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum T0A10. The corresponding WSE was subjected to Reverse Phase Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography, and 32 fractions were collected and subjected to in vitro assays...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Syed Benazir Alam, D'Ann Rochon
: Uncoating of a virus particle to expose its nucleic acid is a critical aspect of the viral multiplication cycle, as it is essential for the establishment of infection. In the present study, we investigated the role of plant HSP70 homologs in the uncoating process of Cucumber necrosis virus (CNV), a nonenveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA [(+)ssRNA] virus having a T=3 icosahedral capsid. We have found through Western blot analysis and mass spectrometry that the HSP70 homolog Hsc70-2 copurifies with CNV particles...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
Nicole A Aluwi, Bon-Jae Gu, Gaurav S Dhumal, Ilce G Medina-Meza, Kevin M Murphy, Girish M Ganjyal
Extrusion of 2 quinoa varieties, Cherry Vanilla and Black (scarified and unscarified) and a mixed quinoa variety, Bolivian Royal (scarified and degermed) were studied for their extrusion characteristics. A corotating twin-screw extruder with a 3 mm round die was used. Feed moisture contents of 15%, 20%, and 25% (wet basis) were studied. The extruder barrel temperature was kept constant at 140 °C and screw speeds were varied from 100, 150, and 200 revolutions per minutes. Process responses (specific mechanical energy, back pressure, and torque) and product responses (expansion ratio, unit density, and water absorption index/water solubility index) were evaluated...
December 2016: Journal of Food Science
Sandra Arias, Manuel Núñez-Martínez, Emilio Quiñoá, Ricardo Riguera, Félix Freire
Nanospheres and nanotubes with full control of their size and helical sense are obtained in chloroform from the axially racemic chiral poly(phenylacetylene) poly-(R)-1 using either Ag(+) as both chiral inducer and cross-linking agent or Na(+) as chiral inducer and Ag(+) as cross-linking agent. The size is tuned by the polymer/ion ratio while the helical sense is modulated by the polymer/cosolvent (i.e., MeCN) ratio. In this way, the helicity and the size of the nanoparticles can be easily interconverted by very simple experimental changes...
October 19, 2016: Small
Beatriz Gullón, Patricia Gullón, Freni K Tavaria, Remedios Yáñez
Quinoa and amaranth belong to the group of the so called "superfoods" and have a nutritional composition that confers multiple benefits. In this work, we explored the possibility of these foods exhibiting a prebiotic effect. These pseudocereals were subjected to an in vitro digestion and used as carbon sources in batch cultures with faecal human inocula. The effects on the microbiota composition and their metabolic products were determined by assessment of variations in pH, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and changes in the dynamic bacterial populations by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)...
September 14, 2016: Food & Function
Rose R Murray, Mark S M Emblow, Alistair M Hetherington, Gary D Foster
Stomata are important regulators of carbon dioxide uptake and transpirational water loss. They also represent points of vulnerability as bacterial and fungal pathogens utilise this natural opening as an entry portal, and thus have an increasingly complex relationship. Unlike the situation with bacterial and fungal pathogens, we know very little about the role of stomata in viral infection. Here we report findings showing that viral infection influences stomatal development in two susceptible host systems (Nicotiana tabacum with TMV (Tobacco mosaic virus), and Arabidopsis thaliana with TVCV (Turnip vein-clearing virus)), but not in resistant host systems (Nicotiana glutinosa and Chenopodium quinoa with TMV)...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ouafae Benlhabib, Noura Boujartani, Peter J Maughan, Sven E Jacobsen, Eric N Jellen
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is a seed crop of the Andean highlands and Araucanian coastal regions of South America that has recently expanded in use and production beyond its native range. This is largely due to its superb nutritional value, consisting of protein that is rich in essential amino acids along with vitamins and minerals. Quinoa also presents a remarkable degree of tolerance to saline conditions, drought, and frost. The present study involved 72 F2:6 recombinant-inbred lines and parents developed through hybridization between highland (0654) and coastal (NL-6) germplasm groups...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ilce G Medina-Meza, Nicole A Aluwi, Steven R Saunders, Girish M Ganjyal
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) contains 2 to 5% saponins in the form of oleanane-type triterpenoid glycosides or sapogenins found in the external layers of the seeds. These saponins confer an undesirable bitter flavor. This study maps the content and profile of glycoside-free sapogenins from 22 quinoa varieties and 6 original breeding lines grown in North America under similar agronomical conditions. Saponins were recovered using a novel extraction protocol and quantified by GC-MS. Oleanolic acid (OA), hederagenin (HD), serjanic acid (SA), and phytolaccagenic acid (PA) were identified by their mass spectra...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
María Matos, Ali Marefati, Gemma Gutiérrez, Marie Wahlgren, Marilyn Rayner
The emulsifying ability of OSA-modified and native starch in the granular form, in the dissolved state and a combination of both was compared. This study aims to understand mixed systems of particles and dissolved starch with respect to what species dominates at droplet interfaces and how stability is affected by addition of one of the species to already formed emulsions. It was possible to create emulsions with OSA-modified starch isolated from Quinoa as sole emulsifier. Similar droplet sizes were obtained with emulsions prepared at 7% (w/w) oil content using OSA-modified starch in the granular form or molecularly dissolved but large differences were observed regarding stability...
2016: PloS One
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