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Sandra Arias, Rafael Rodríguez, Emilio Quiñoá, Ricardo Riguera, Felix Freire
Both the role of the absolute configuration and the tendency of a chiral monomer to promote a certain helical scaffold in a polyphenylacetylene (PPA) have been evaluated to study the communication between two chiral monomers within a copolymer chain. 19 different PPA copolymer series -47 helical copolymers altogether- were prepared to explore the existence of a chiral to chiral communication mechanism. From the data obtained, we found that communication between two different chiral monomers emerge when both exhibit two special features: (a) a different conformational composition -one must exist in a single low energy conformation ("chiral Sergeant") and the other must present two conformers ("chiral Soldier")-, and (b) the induction of a similar scaffold in the PPA, either cis-cisoidal or cis-transoidal...
December 14, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Paula Henarejos-Escudero, Berenice Guadarrama-Flores, M Alejandra Guerrero-Rubio, Luz Rayda Gómez-Pando, Francisco García-Carmona, Fernando Gandía-Herrero
Betalains are water soluble plant pigments of hydrophilic nature with promising bioactive potential. Among the scarce edible sources of betalains is the grain crop quinoa (Chenopodim quinoa Willd), with violet, red, and yellow grains being colored by these pigments. In this work callus cultures have been developed from differently colored plant varieties. Stable callus lines exhibited color and pigment production when maintained on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with the plant growth regulators 6-benzylaminopurine (8...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ik-Hyun Kim, Jae-Yeong Han, In-Sook Cho, HyeKyoung Ju, Jae Sun Moon, Eun-Young Seo, Hong Gi Kim, John Hammond, Hyoun-Sub Lim
The full-length sequence of a new isolate of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) from Korea was divergent, but most closely related to the Japanese isolate A4, at 84% nucleotide identity. The full-length cDNA of the Korean isolate of ACLSV was cloned into a binary vector downstream of the bacteriophage T7 RNA promoter and the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Chenopodium quinoa was successfully infected using in vitro transcripts synthesized using the T7 promoter, detected at 20 days post inoculation (dpi), but did not produce obvious symptoms...
December 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Anna Gliszczyńska-Świgło, Inga Klimczak, Iga Rybicka
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies indicate mineral deficiencies in people on a gluten-free (GF) diet. These deficiencies may indicate that GF products are less valuable source of minerals than gluten-containing products. In the study, the nutritional quality of fifty GF products is discussed taking into account the nutritional requirements for minerals expressed as % Recommended Daily Allowance (%RDA) or % Adequate Intake (%AI) for a model celiac patient. Analysed elements were: calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc...
November 30, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
María Salud Abellán Ruiz, María Dolores Barnuevo Espinosa, Carlos García Santamaría, Carlos Javier Contreras Fernández, Miriam Aldeguer García, Fulgencio Soto Méndez, Isabel Guillén Guillén, Antonio Jesús Luque Rubia, Francisco Javier Quinde Ràzuri, Antonio Martínez Garrido, Francisco Javier López Román
INTRODUCTION: Quinoa is a pseudocereal containing low glycemic index carbohydrates, dietary fiber, high biological value protein, phytosterols, and n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, which has generated interest in prediabetes nutritional interventions. This randomized (2:1), placebo-controlled, double-blind study evaluated the effects of processed quinoa on body mass index (BMI), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and the satiation and fullness (complete) degree in prediabetic patients...
October 24, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Hsiao-Ling Chen, Xiang-Zhen Lan, Yan-Yi Wu, Yu-Wen Ou, Tsung Chi Chen, Wen-Tzu Wu
BACKGROUND: Most reports have indicated the antioxidant capacity of quinoa seeds. However, the leaves of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) are usually worthless and little known about their biological activities. In this study, the antioxidant and immunomodulatory potential of the quinoa leaf extracts were explored. METHODS: The crude leaf extracts of quinoa were extracted using water, 50% ethanol or 95% ethanol as solvent, denoted WQL, 50% EQL and 95% EQL, respectively...
December 2017: BioMedicine
Stephen Joseph, Claudia I Kammann, Jessica G Shepherd, Pellegrino Conte, Hans-Peter Schmidt, Nikolas Hagemann, Anne M Rich, Christopher E Marjo, Jessica Allen, Paul Munroe, David R G Mitchell, Scott Donne, Kurt Spokas, Ellen R Graber
Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of the nutrient status of biochar and soils prior to its inclusion in particular agricultural systems. Pre-treatment of nutrient-reactive biochar, where nutrients are loaded into pores and onto surfaces, gives improved yield outcomes compared to untreated biochar. In this study we have used a wide selection of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques to investigate the mechanisms of nutrient retention in a high temperature wood biochar, which had negative effects on Chenopodium quinoa above ground biomass yield when applied to the system without prior nutrient loading, but positive effects when applied after composting...
November 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Su-Young Hong, Kyeong-Sik Cheon, Ki-Oug Yoo, Hyun-Oh Lee, Kwang-Soo Cho, Jong-Taek Suh, Su-Jeong Kim, Jeong-Hwan Nam, Hwang-Bae Sohn, Yul-Ho Kim
The Chenopodium genus comprises ~150 species, including Chenopodium quinoa and Chenopodium album, two important crops with high nutritional value. To elucidate the phylogenetic relationship between the two species, the complete chloroplast (cp) genomes of these species were obtained by next generation sequencing. We performed comparative analysis of the sequences and, using InDel markers, inferred phylogeny and genetic diversity of the Chenopodium genus. The cp genome is 152,099 bp (C. quinoa) and 152,167 bp (C...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jürgen Franzaring, Walter Damsohn, Andreas Fangmeier, Sonja Schlosser, Hannes Kurz, Philipp Büttner
Extraction and processing of cassiterite (SnO2) left large tailings with high concentrations of tin, tungsten, molybdenum and lithium. Information on the phytotoxicity of mine waste is important with regard to ecological hazards. Exposure studies help to identify plants useful for the stabilization of waste tips and the phytomining of metals. A greenhouse study was performed using a dilution series of mine waste and four crops, a halophytic and a metallophytic species to derive dose response curves. Based on effective doses for growth reductions, sensitivity increased in the following order: maize > common buckwheat > quinoa > garden bean...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Jin Hwa Park, Yun Jin Lee, Yeon Ho Kim, Ki Sun Yoon
The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of quinoa cultivated in Korea and to compare it with imported quinoa from the USA and Peru. The highest amount of total flavonoid contents (TFC) with 20.91 mg quercetin equivalents/100 g was measured in quinoa seed extract cultivated in Korea, while the total phenolic contents (TPC) were significantly higher in quinoa from the USA (16.28 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g). In addition, quinoa extracts cultivated in Korea displayed a superior antioxidant ability in both, ferric reducing antioxidant power and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl values...
September 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Dilek Killi, Matthew Haworth
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) has been proposed as a hardy alternative to traditional grain crops in areas with warm-to-hot climates that are likely to experience increased drought and salt stress in the future. We characterised the diffusive and metabolic limitations to photosynthesis in quinoa exposed to drought and salt stress in isolation and combination. Drought-induced pronounced stomatal and mesophyll limitations to CO₂ transport, but quinoa retained photosynthetic capacity and photosystem II (PSII) performance...
October 17, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Changsong Zou, Aojun Chen, Lihong Xiao, Heike M Muller, Peter Ache, Georg Haberer, Meiling Zhang, Wei Jia, Ping Deng, Ru Huang, Daniel Lang, Feng Li, Dongliang Zhan, Xiangyun Wu, Hui Zhang, Jennifer Bohm, Renyi Liu, Sergey Shabala, Rainer Hedrich, Jian-Kang Zhu, Heng Zhang
Chenopodium quinoa is a halophytic pseudocereal crop that is being cultivated in an ever-growing number of countries. Because quinoa is highly resistant to multiple abiotic stresses and its seed has a better nutritional value than any other major cereals, it is regarded as a future crop to ensure global food security. We generated a high-quality genome draft using an inbred line of the quinoa cultivar Real. The quinoa genome experienced one recent genome duplication about 4.3 million years ago, likely reflecting the genome fusion of two Chenopodium parents, in addition to the γ paleohexaploidization reported for most eudicots...
November 2017: Cell Research
Guantian Li, Fan Zhu
Quinoa starch has small granules with relatively low gelatinization temperatures and amylose content. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is a non-thermal technique for food processing. In this study, effects of HHP up to 600MPa on physical properties of quinoa starch were studied and compared with those of a normal maize starch. Both starches gelatinized at 500 and 600MPa. The pressure of 600MPa completely gelatinized quinoa starch as revealed by thermal analysis. Dynamic rheological analysis showed that HHP improved the gel stability of both starches during cooling...
February 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Alyssa Hidalgo, Anita Ferraretto, Ivano De Noni, Michela Bottani, Stefano Cattaneo, Simone Galli, Andrea Brandolini
Carotenoids, tocols, phenolic acids and antioxidant capacity were studied during in vitro digestion of water biscuits (WB) from bread wheat, einkorn and einkorn-pseudocereals. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of digestates were also measured using a 70% Caco2/30% HT-29 human intestinal co-culture layer. Antioxidant profiles differed among WB formulations. Only hydrophilic molecules were solubilised by gastric digestion. After intestinal digestion, 77% carotenoids and 67% tocols were released. Soluble-conjugated phenolic acids increased (30%) and insoluble-bound forms decreased (17%), suggesting partial conversion from bound to conjugated form...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Natalia Montellano Duran, Darío Spelzini, Natael Wayllace, Valeria Boeris, Fernando L Barroso da Silva
The interaction between quinoa proteins isolate (QP isolate) and the negatively charged polysaccharide ι-Carragennan (Carr) as a function of pH was studied. Experimental measurements as turbidity, hydrophobic surface, ζ-potential, and hydrodynamic size were carried out. Associative interaction between QP and Carr was found in the pH range between 1 and 2.9. When both molecules are negatively charged (pH>5,5), a pure Coulombic repulsion regime is observed and the self-association of QP due to the Carr exclusion is proposed...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
A Marefati, B Wiege, N U Haase, M Matos, M Rayner
Small granular starches from rice, quinoa and amaranth were hydrophobized by esterification with octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) in an aqueous alkaline slurry to obtain series of modified starches at defined intervals (i.e. 0.6, 1.2, 1.8, 2.4, 3.0%). The physical and the physico-chemical properties of the starch particles were characterized by proximate analysis including protein level, amylose level and dry matter. The shape and size of the starch granules were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and light scattering...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Gabriele Rocchetti, Luigi Lucini, Giulia Chiodelli, Gianluca Giuberti, Domenico Montesano, Francesco Masoero, Marco Trevisan
Cooking by boiling dry pasta could have varying degrees of influence on nutritional and functional components. In the present study, its effect on total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, as well as on the comprehensive profile of free and bound phenolics, was investigated in six commercial gluten-free (GF) pasta products. Overall, the heat treatment caused a significant reduction (P<0.01) of the total phenolic content as well as FRAP reducing power and ORAC radical scavenging, with significant differences among the pasta samples considered...
October 2017: Food Research International
Ganga Karunamuni, Megan M Sheehan, Yong Qiu Doughman, Shi Gu, Jiayang Sun, Youjun Li, James P Strainic, Andrew M Rollins, Michael W Jenkins, Michiko Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Despite decades of public education about dire consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), drinking alcohol during pregnancy remains prevalent. As high as 40% of live-born infants exposed to alcohol during gestation and diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome have congenital heart defects that can be life-threatening. In animal models, the methyl donor betaine, found in foods such as wheat bran, quinoa, beets, and spinach, ameliorated neurobehavioral deficits associated with PAE, but effects on heart development are unknown...
November 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Tifu Zhang, Minfeng Gu, Yuhe Liu, Yuanda Lv, Ling Zhou, Haiyan Lu, Shuaiqiang Liang, Huabin Bao, Han Zhao
BACKGROUND: Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a balanced nutritional crop, but its breeding improvement has been limited by the lack of information on its genetics and genomics. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain knowledge on genomic variation, population structure, and genetic diversity and to develop novel Insertion/Deletion (InDel) markers for quinoa by whole-genome re-sequencing. RESULTS: We re-sequenced 11 quinoa accessions and obtained a coverage depth between approximately 7× to 23× the quinoa genome...
September 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
Geyang Wu, Craig F Morris, Kevin M Murphy
Starch characteristics significantly influence the functionality and end-use quality of cereals and pseudo-cereals. This study examined the composition and properties of starch from 11 pure varieties and 2 commercial samples of quinoa in relationship to the texture of cooked quinoa. Nearly all starch properties and characteristics differed among these samples. Results showed that total starch content of seeds ranged from 53.2 to 75.1 g/100 g apparent amylose content ranged from 2.7% to 16.9%; total amylose ranged from 4...
October 2017: Journal of Food Science
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