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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647288/gap-junctions-pannexins-and-pain
#1
REVIEW
David C Spray, Menachem Hanani
Enhanced expression and function of gap junctions and pannexin (Panx) channels has been associated with both peripheral and central mechanisms of pain sensitization. At the level of the sensory ganglia, evidence includes augmented gap junction and pannexin1 expression in glial cells and neurons in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models and increased synchrony and enhanced cross-excitation among sensory neurons by gap junction-mediated coupling. In spinal cord and in suprapinal areas, evidence is largely limited to increased expression of relevant proteins, although in several rodent pain models, hypersensitivity is reduced by treatment with gap junction/Panx1 channel blocking compounds...
June 21, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643467/a-core-shell-satellite-structured-fe3-o4-g-c3-n4-ucnps-peg-for-t1-t2-weighted-dual-modal-mri-guided-photodynamic-therapy
#2
Lili Feng, Dan Yang, Fei He, Shili Gai, Chunxia Li, Yunlu Dai, Piaoping Yang
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in the specific tumor site plays the key role in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Herein, a multifunctional nanoplatform is designed by absorbing ultrasmall upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) on mesoporous graphitic-phase carbon nitride (g-C3 N4 ) coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanospheres, then further modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG)molecules (abbreviated as Fe3 O4 @g-C3 N4 -UCNPs-PEG). The inert g-C3 N4 layer between Fe3 O4 core and outer UCNPs can substantially depress the quenching effect of Fe3 O4 on the upconversion emission...
June 23, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642089/involvement-of-mapk-akt-gsk-3%C3%AE-and-ampk-mtor-signaling-pathways-in-protection-of-remote-glial-cells-from-axotomy-induced-necrosis-and-apoptosis-in-the-isolated-crayfish-stretch-receptor
#3
E V Berezhnaya, M Y Bibov, M A Komandirov, M A Neginskaya, M V Rudkovskii, A B Uzdensky
Severe mechanical nerve injury such as axotomy can lead to neuron degeneration and death of surrounding glial cells. We showed that axotomy not only mechanically injures glial cells at the cutting location, but also induces necrosis or apoptosis of satellite glial cells remote from the transection site. Therefore, axon integrity is necessary for survival of surrounding glial cells. We used the crayfish stretch receptor that consists of a single mechanoreceptor neuron enveloped by satellite glial cells as a simple, but informative model object in the study of the role of various signaling proteins in axotomy-induced death of remote glial cells...
June 19, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638346/micrornas-in-muscle-characterizing-the-powerlifter-phenotype
#4
Randall F D'Souza, Thomas Bjørnsen, Nina Zeng, Kirsten M M Aasen, Truls Raastad, David Cameron-Smith, Cameron J Mitchell
Powerlifters are the epitome of muscular adaptation and are able to generate extreme forces. The molecular mechanisms underpinning the significant capacity for force generation and hypertrophy are not fully elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRs) are short non-coding RNA sequences that control gene expression via promotion of transcript breakdown and/or translational inhibition. Differences in basal miR expression may partially account for phenotypic differences in muscle mass and function between powerlifters and untrained age-matched controls...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637974/neuron-glia-interaction-is-a-key-mechanism-underlying-persistent-orofacial-pain
#5
Koichi Iwata, Ayano Katagiri, Masamichi Shinoda
Excitability of neurons in the trigeminal ganglion (TG), trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis (Vc), and upper cervical spinal cord (C1-C2) is greatly enhanced after orofacial inflammation and trigeminal nerve injury, and TG, Vc, and C1-C2 neurons remain sensitized long after such episodes. Sensitized neurons generate various molecules, which are released from nociceptive neurons in these areas and are involved in modulating the excitability of TG, Vc, and C1-C2 nociceptive neurons. Hyperexcitable nociceptive neurons also activate satellite glial cells in the TG and microglial cells and astrocytes in the Vc and C1-C2...
2017: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637957/gm7325-is-myod-dependently-expressed-in-activated-muscle-satellite-cells
#6
Daisuke Takei, Nishi Miyuki, Fukada So-Ichiro, Doi Masao, Hitoshi Okamura, Akiyoshi Uezumi, Lidan Zhang, Morikatsu Yoshida, Mikiya Miyazato, Atsuhiko Ichimura, Hiroshi Takeshima
The Gm7325 gene, bioinformatically identified in the mouse genome, encodes a small protein but has not been characterized until recently. Our gene expression analysis revealed that Gm7325 transcription is remarkably upregulated in injured skeletal muscle tissues. Activated satellite cells and immature myotubes were densely decorated with positive signals for Gm7325 mRNA in in situ hybridization analysis, while no obvious signals were observed in quiescent satellite cells and mature myofibers. In the 5'-flanking regions of mouse Gm7325 and its human homologue, conserved E-box motifs for helix-loop-helix transcription factors are repeatedly arranged around the putative promoter regions...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637712/shrinking-daughters-rlm1-dependent-g1-s-checkpoint-maintains-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-daughter-cell-size-and-viability
#7
Sarah Piccirillo, Deepshikha Neog, David Spade, J David Van Horn, LeAnn M Tiede-Lewis, Sarah L Dallas, Tamas Kapros, Saul M Honigberg
The Rlm1 transcription factor is a target of the cell-wall integrity pathway. We report that an rlm1Δ; mutant grown on a non-fermentable carbon source at low osmolarity forms cell groups in which a mother cell is surrounded by smaller "satellite daughter" cells. Mother cells in these groups progressed through repeated rounds of cell division with normal rates of bud growth and genetic stability; however, these cells underwent precocious START relative to wild-type mothers. Thus, once activated, Rlm1 delays the transition from G1 to S, a mechanism we term the CW/START checkpoint...
June 21, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637492/expression-patterns-of-fshd-causing-dux4-and-myogenic-transcription-factors-pax3-and-pax7-are-spatially-distinct-in-differentiating-human-stem-cell-cultures
#8
Premi Haynes, Kelly Kernan, Suk-Lin Zhou, Daniel G Miller
BACKGROUND: Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is most commonly inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern and caused by the abnormal expression of DUX4 in skeletal muscle. The DUX4 transcription factor has DNA binding domains similar to several paired class homeotic transcription factors, but only myogenic factors PAX3 and PAX7 rescue cell viability when co-expressed with DUX4 in mouse myoblasts. This observation suggests competition for DNA binding sites in satellite cells might limit muscle repair and may be one aspect of DUX4-associated myotoxicity...
June 21, 2017: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630021/thyroid-hormone-signaling-and-deiodinase-actions-in-muscle-stem-progenitor-cells
#9
REVIEW
Raffaele Ambrosio, Maria Angela De Stefano, Daniela Di Girolamo, Domenico Salvatore
Thyroid hormone (TH) regulates such crucial biological functions as normal growth, development and metabolism of nearly all vertebrate tissues. In skeletal muscle, TH plays a critical role in regulating the function of satellite cells, the bona fide skeletal muscle stem cells. Deiodinases (D2 and D3) have been found to modulate the expression of various TH target genes in satellite cells. Regulation of the expression and activity of the deiodinases constitutes a cell-autonomous, pre-receptor mechanism that controls crucial steps during the various phases of myogenesis...
June 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625776/beta-carotene-preferentially-regulates-chicken-myoblast-proliferation-withdrawal-and-differentiation-commitment-via-bco1-activity-and-retinoic-acid-production
#10
C Praud, S Al Ahmadieh, E Voldoire, Y Le Vern, E Godet, N Couroussé, B Graulet, E Le Bihan Duval, C Berri, M J Duclos
The enzyme β-carotene oxygenase 1 (BCO1) catalyzes the breakdown of provitamin A, including beta-carotene (BC), into retinal, prior to its oxidation into retinoic acid (RA). Allelic variation at the BCO1 locus results in differential expression of its mRNA and affects carotenoid metabolism specifically in chicken Pectoralis major muscle. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential myogenic effect of BC and the underlying mechanisms in chicken myoblasts. BCO1 mRNA was detected in myoblasts derived from chicken satellite cells...
June 15, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623422/effects-of-omega-3-on-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-myoblast-transplantation-and-satellite-cell-activation-in-dystrophin-deficient-muscle-fibers
#11
Samara Camaçari de Carvalho, Sajedah M Hindi, Ashok Kumar, Maria Julia Marques
In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), lack of dystrophin leads to progressive muscle degeneration, with DMD patients suffering from cardiorespiratory failure. Cell therapy is an alternative to life-long corticoid therapy. Satellite cells, the stem cells of skeletal muscles, do not completely compensate for the muscle damage in dystrophic muscles. Elevated levels of proinflammatory and profibrotic factors, such as metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), impair muscle regeneration, leading to extensive fibrosis and poor results with myoblast transplantation therapies...
June 17, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619631/histopathologic-analysis-of-tumor-bed-and-peritumoral-pseudocapsule-after-in-vitro-tumor-enucleation-on-radical-nephrectomy-specimen-for-clinical-t1b-renal-cell-carcinoma
#12
Qun Lu, Changwei Ji, Xiaozhi Zhao, Yao Fu, Suhan Guo, Guangxiang Liu, Shiwei Zhang, Xiaogong Li, Weidong Gan, Hongqian Guo
PURPOSE: This study was designed to assess the feasibility and histopathologic safety of tumor enucleation for renal cell carcinoma, through histopathologic analysis of the tumor bed and peritumoral pseudocapsule (PC) after in vitro tumor enucleation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 176 radical nephrectomy specimens for clinical T1b renal cell carcinoma in our institution, from January 2013-February 2016. Immediately after the kidney was excised, the tumor of radical specimen was enucleated in vitro...
June 12, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619392/platelet-satellitism-in-autoimmune-hemolytic-anemia
#13
REVIEW
I Ghariani, N Braham, S Hamzaoui, L Bekir
Platelet satellitism is a rare phenomenon observed in blood smears obtained from blood anticoagulated with EDTA with an estimated frequency at 0.008%. It is characterized by platelet rosetting around neutrophils and in rare cases around other blood cells, which may causes pseudothrombocytopenia. Our case involves a 26-year-old female patient with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). Blood smear with EDTA as an anticoagulant had platelet satellitism whereas the phenomenon was not observed in tubes with different anticoagulants (citrate, heparin) and capillary blood...
June 12, 2017: Current Research in Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618254/platelet-derived-growth-factor-bb-influences-muscle-regeneration-in-duchenne-muscle-dystrophy
#14
Patricia Piñol-Jurado, Eduard Gallardo, Noemi de Luna, Xavier Suárez-Calvet, Carles Sánchez-Riera, Esther Fernández-Simón, Clara Gomis, Isabel Illa, Jordi Díaz-Manera
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by a progressive loss of muscle fibers, and their substitution by fibrotic and adipose tissue. Many factors contribute to this process, but the molecular pathways related to regeneration and degeneration of muscle are not completely known. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB belongs to a family of growth factors that regulate proliferation, migration, and differentiation of mesenchymal cells. The role of PDGF-BB in muscle regeneration in humans has not been studied...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616376/genome-editing-and-muscle-stem-cells-as-a-therapeutic-tool-for-muscular-dystrophies
#15
REVIEW
Veronica Pini, Jennifer E Morgan, Francesco Muntoni, Helen C O'Neill
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Muscular dystrophies are a group of severe degenerative disorders characterized by muscle fiber degeneration and death. Therapies designed to restore muscle homeostasis and to replace dying fibers are being experimented, but none of those in clinical trials are suitable to permanently address individual gene mutation. The purpose of this review is to discuss genome editing tools such as CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated), which enable direct sequence alteration and could potentially be adopted to correct the genetic defect leading to muscle impairment...
2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615691/human-myogenic-reserve-cells-are-quiescent-stem-cells-that-contribute-to-muscle-regeneration-after-intramuscular-transplantation-in-immunodeficient-mice
#16
Thomas Laumonier, Flavien Bermont, Pierre Hoffmeyer, Vincent Kindler, Jacques Menetrey
Satellite cells, localized within muscles in vivo, are Pax7(+) muscle stem cells supporting skeletal muscle growth and regeneration. Unfortunately, their amplification in vitro, required for their therapeutic use, is associated with reduced regenerative potential. In the present study, we investigated if human myogenic reserve cells (MRC) obtained in vitro, represented a reliable cell source for muscle repair. For this purpose, primary human myoblasts were freshly isolated and expanded. After 2 days of differentiation, 62 ± 2...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615282/maternal-haploid-a-metalloprotease-enriched-at-the-largest-satellite-repeat-and-essential-for-genome-integrity-in-drosophila-embryos
#17
Xiaona Tang, Jingguo Cao, Liang Zhang, Yingzi Huang, Qianyi Zhang, Yikang S Rong
The incorporation of the paternal genome into the zygote during fertilization requires chromatin remodeling. The maternal haploid (mh) mutation in Drosophila affects this process and leads to the formation of haploid embryos without the paternal genome. mh encodes the Drosophila homolog of SPRTN, a conserved protease essential for resolving DNA-protein cross-linked products. Here we characterize the role of MH in genome maintenance. It is not understood how MH protects the paternal genome during fertilization particularly in lights of our finding that MH is present in both parental pro-nuclei during zygote formation...
June 14, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607396/cxcl12-and-osteopontin-from-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-improve-muscle-regeneration
#18
Yasushi Maeda, Yasuhiro Yonemochi, Yuki Nakajyo, Hideaki Hidaka, Tokunori Ikeda, Yukio Ando
Muscle satellite cells are essential for muscle regeneration. However, efficient regeneration does not occur without muscle-resident mesenchymal progenitor cells. We show here that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (Bm-MSCs) also facilitate muscle regeneration in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) model mice. Bm-MSCs transplanted into peritoneal cavities of DMD model mice with severe muscle degeneration strongly suppressed dystrophic pathology and improved death-related symptoms, which resulted in dramatic lifespan extension...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607151/the-transcriptional-co-repressor-tle3-regulates-myogenic-differentiation-by-repressing-the-activity-of-the-myod-transcription-factor
#19
Shoichiro Kokabu, Chihiro Nakatomi, Takuma Matsubara, Yusuke Ono, William N Addison, Jonathan W Lowery, Mariko Urata, Aaron M Hudnall, Suzuro Hitomi, Mitsushiro Nakatomi, Tsuyoshi Sato, Kenji Osawa, Tetsuya Yoda, Vicki Rosen, Eijiro Jimi
Satellite cells are skeletal muscle stem cells that provide myonuclei for postnatal muscle growth, maintenance, and repair/regeneration in adults. Normally, satellite cells are mitotically quiescent, but they are activated in response to muscle injury, in which case they proliferate extensively and exhibit upregulated expression of the transcription factor MyoD, a master regulator of myogenesis. MyoD forms a heterodimer with E proteins through their basic helix-loophelix (bHLH) domain, binds to E boxes in the genome, and thereby activates transcription at muscle-specific promoters...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602292/high-sensitive-bioorthogonal-sers-tag-for-live-cancer-cell-imaging-by-self-assembling-core-satellites-structure-gold-silver-nanocomposite
#20
Meng Chen, Ling Zhang, Mingxia Gao, Xiangmin Zhang
A novel, high-sensitivity, biocompatible SERS tag with core-shell structure based on gold nanoparticles containing alkynyl molecule core -silver nanoparticle satellites shell was fabricated for the first time to be used for live cancer cells Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) imaging. (E)-2-((4-(phenylethynyl)benzylidene) amino) ethanethiol (PBAT) synthesized facilely in our lab is the Raman-silence region reporter which is advantage for bioorthogonal SERS cell imaging. In order to enhance the intensity of the Raman tags for live cancer cell imaging, a series of news measures have been adopted...
September 1, 2017: Talanta
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