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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333545/dynamic-changes-in-copper-homeostasis-and-post-transcriptional-regulation-of-atp7a-during-myogenic-differentiation
#1
Katherine E Vest, Amanda L Paskavitz, Joseph B Lee, Teresita Padilla-Benavides
Copper (Cu) is an essential metal required for activity of a number of redox active enzymes that participate in critical cellular pathways such as metabolism and cell signaling. Because it is also a toxic metal, Cu must be tightly controlled by a series of transporters and chaperone proteins that regulate Cu homeostasis. The critical nature of Cu is highlighted by the fact that mutations in Cu homeostasis genes cause pathologic conditions such as Menkes and Wilson diseases. While Cu homeostasis in highly affected tissues like the liver and brain is well understood, no study has probed the role of Cu in development of skeletal muscle, another tissue that often shows pathology in these conditions...
January 15, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331939/volumetric-muscle-loss-injury-repair-using-in-situ-fibrin-gel-cast-seeded-with-muscle-derived-stem-cells-mdscs
#2
Nadine Matthias, Samuel D Hunt, Jianbo Wu, Jonathan Lo, Laura A Smith Callahan, Yong Li, Johnny Huard, Radbod Darabi
Volumetric muscle defect, caused by trauma or combat injuries, is a major health concern leading to severe morbidity. It is characterized by partial or full thickness loss of muscle and its bio-scaffold, resulting in extensive fibrosis and scar formation. Therefore, the ideal therapeutic option is to use stem cells combined with bio-scaffolds to restore muscle. For this purpose, muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) are a great candidate due to their unique multi-lineage differentiation potential. In this study, we evaluated the regeneration potential of MDSCs for muscle loss repair using a novel in situ fibrin gel casting...
January 9, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330928/specific-labelling-of-myonuclei-by-an-antibody-against-pericentriolar-material-1-pcm1-on-skeletal-muscle-tissue-sections
#3
I M Winje, M Bengtsen, E Eftestøl, I Juvkam, J C Bruusgaard, K Gundersen
AIM: Skeletal muscle is a heterogeneous tissue containing several different cell types and only about 40 - 50% of the cell nuclei within the tissue belong to myofibres. Existing technology, attempting to distinguish myonuclei from other nuclei at the light microscopy level, has led to controversies in our understanding of the basic cell biology of muscle plasticity. The present study aims at demonstrating that an antibody against the protein Pericentriolar material 1 (PCM1) can be used to reliably identify myonuclei on histological cross sections from humans, mice and rats...
January 13, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330295/epigenetic-reprogramming-of-pericentromeric-satellite-dna-in-premalignant-and-malignant-lesions
#4
Nadine H Brueckmann, Christina B Pedersen, Henrik J Ditzel, Morten F Gjerstorff
Repression of repetitive DNA is important for maintaining genomic stability, but is often perturbed in cancer. For instance, the megabase satellite domain at chromosome 1q12 is a common site of genetic rearrangements, such as translocations and deletions. Polycomb-group (PcG) proteins can be observed as large subnuclear domains called polycomb bodies, the composition and cellular function of which has remained elusive. This study, demonstrates that polycomb bodies are canonical subunits of the multiprotein polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) deposited on 1q12 pericentromeric satellite DNA, which are normally maintained as constitutive heterochromatin by other mechanisms...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329332/co-delivery-of-a-laminin-111-supplemented-hyaluronic-acid-based-hydrogel-with-minced-muscle-graft-in-the-treatment-of-volumetric-muscle-loss-injury
#5
Stephen M Goldman, Beth E P Henderson, Thomas J Walters, Benjamin T Corona
Minced muscle autografting mediates de novo myofiber regeneration and promotes partial recovery of neuromuscular strength after volumetric muscle loss injury (VML). A major limitation of this approach is the availability of sufficient donor tissue for the treatment of relatively large VMLs without inducing donor site morbidity. This study evaluated a laminin-111 supplemented hyaluronic acid based hydrogel (HA+LMN) as a putative myoconductive scaffolding to be co-delivered with minced muscle grafts. In a rat tibialis anterior muscle VML model, delivery of a reduced dose of minced muscle graft (50% of VML defect) within HA+LMN resulted in a 42% improvement of peak tetanic torque production over unrepaired VML affected limbs...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328490/galectin-1-expression-in-activated-pancreatic-satellite-cells-promotes-fibrosis-in-chronic-pancreatitis-pancreatic-cancer-via-the-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad-pathway
#6
Dong Tang, Qi Wu, Jingqiu Zhang, Hongpeng Zhang, Zhongxu Yuan, Jiaming Xu, Yang Chong, Yuqin Huang, Qingquan Xiong, Sen Wang, Ying Tian, Yongdie Lu, Xiao Ge, Wenjing Shen, Daorong Wang
Chronic pancreatitis/pancreatic cancer (CP/PC) is characterized by fibrous connective tissue proliferation induced by activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). Galectin-1 is upregulated in activated PSCs and is important for the continuing activation of PSCs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of galectin-1 derived from activated PSCs on the progression of fibrosis in CP/PC. To this end, the expression of desmin, α-SMA, galectin-1, fibronectin and collagen type I in normal pancreatic, CP and PC tissues, as well as quiescent/activated PSCs, was investigated...
January 9, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324825/early-and-later-phases-satellite-cell-responses-and-myonuclear-content-with-resistance-training-in-young-men
#7
Felipe Damas, Cleiton A Libardi, Carlos Ugrinowitsch, Felipe C Vechin, Manoel E Lixandrão, Tim Snijders, Joshua P Nederveen, Aline V Bacurau, Patricia Brum, Valmor Tricoli, Hamilton Roschel, Gianni Parise, Stuart M Phillips
Satellite cells (SC) are associated with skeletal muscle remodelling after muscle damage and/or extensive hypertrophy resulting from resistance training (RT). We recently reported that early increases in muscle protein synthesis (MPS) during RT appear to be directed toward muscle damage repair, but MPS contributes to hypertrophy with progressive muscle damage attenuation. However, modulations in acute-chronic SC content with RT during the initial (1st-wk: high damage), early (3rd-wk: attenuated damage), and later (10th-wk: no damage) stages is not well characterized...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319179/muscle-derived-satellite-cells-for-treating-type-1-diabetes-in-rats-rattus-norvegicus
#8
Yu Ren, Hefei Wang, Si Ha, Xingsheng Zhao, Xiao Wang, Yu Lan, Xiaoling Liu
Diabetes mellitus(DM) is a complicated metabolic disease, with the fundamental treatment nowadays being diet control, insulin injections, slet or pancreas transplantation, which is limited because exogenous insulin injections fail to simulate normal insulin secretion in islet beta cells successfully and islet transplantation lacks organ donors. So far, stem cells with highly self-renewal and multi-directional differentiation potential have become a new hope for the treatment of diabetes. In this research, rat Muscle-derived satellite cells *MDSCs*were separated and cultivated in vitro and inducted into insulin-producing cells with observation and identification using dithizone staining and so on...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318853/-effects-of-electroacupuncture-on-adaptive-hypertrophy-of-gastrocnemius-and-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-muscle-satellite-cells-in-rats
#9
Dan-Dan Zhao, Cheng-Lin Tang, Si-Qin Huang, Ao Luo, An-Ning Zhang, Quan-Hu Guo, Jing Cao, Rui-Qi Gao
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects and mechanism of different duration electroacupuncture (EA) on adaptive hypertrophy of gastrocnemius and the expressions of proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), paired box transcription factor 7 (Pax 7), myogenic differentiation antigen (MyoD 1), myogenin (MyoG), myosin heavy chain-Ⅰ(Myh 7), transforming growth factor-β 1 (TGF-β 1), Smad 3 in rats. METHODS: Twenty-four SD adult male rats were randomly divided into normal, two-week EA (A 2), four-week EA (A 4) and eight-week EA (A 8) groups, 6 rats in each group...
December 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318389/myogenic-potential-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-isolated-from-porcine-adipose-tissue
#10
Derek J Milner, Massimo Bionaz, Elisa Monaco, Jo Ann Cameron, Matthew B Wheeler
Advances in stem cell biology and materials science have provided a basis for developing tissue engineering methods to repair muscle injury. Among stem cell populations with potential to aid muscle repair, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) hold great promise. To evaluate the possibility of using porcine ASC for muscle regeneration studies, we co-cultured porcine ASC with murine C2C12 myoblasts. These experiments demonstrated that porcine ASC display significant myogenic potential. Co-culture of ASC expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) with C2C12 cells resulted in GFP+ myotube formation, indicating fusion of ASC with myoblasts to form myotubes...
January 9, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317646/engineering-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-into-a-functional-skeletal-muscle-tissue
#11
Lingjun Rao, Ying Qian, Alastair Khodabukus, Thomas Ribar, Nenad Bursac
The generation of functional skeletal muscle tissues from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) has not been reported. Here, we derive induced myogenic progenitor cells (iMPCs) via transient overexpression of Pax7 in paraxial mesoderm cells differentiated from hPSCs. In 2D culture, iMPCs readily differentiate into spontaneously contracting multinucleated myotubes and a pool of satellite-like cells endogenously expressing Pax7. Under optimized 3D culture conditions, iMPCs derived from multiple hPSC lines reproducibly form functional skeletal muscle tissues (iSKM bundles) containing aligned multi-nucleated myotubes that exhibit positive force-frequency relationship and robust calcium transients in response to electrical or acetylcholine stimulation...
January 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315567/the-influence-of-capillarization-on-satellite-cell-pool-expansion-and-activation-following-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-in-healthy-young-men
#12
Joshua P Nederveen, Sophie Joanisse, Tim Snijders, Aaron Cq Thomas, Dinesh Kumbhare, Gianni Parise
Factors that determine the skeletal muscle satellite cell (SC) response remain incompletely understood. It is known, however, that SC activation status is closely related to the anatomical relationship between SC and muscle capillaries. We investigated the impact of muscle fibre capillarization on the expansion and activation status of SC following a muscle damaging exercise protocol in healthy young men. Twenty-nine young men (21 ± 0.5 yrs) performed 300 unilateral eccentric contractions (180 deg·s-1 ) of the knee extensors...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311489/retained-myogenic-potency-of-human-satellite-cells-from-torn-rotator-cuff-muscles-despite-fatty-infiltration
#13
Masashi Koide, Yoshihiro Hagiwara, Masahiro Tsuchiya, Makoto Kanzaki, Hiroyasu Hatakeyama, Yukinori Tanaka, Takashi Minowa, Taro Takemura, Akira Ando, Takuya Sekiguchi, Yutaka Yabe, Eiji Itoi
Rotator cuff tears (RCTs) are a common shoulder problem in the elderly that can lead to both muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration due to less physical load. Satellite cells, quiescent cells under the basal lamina of skeletal muscle fibers, play a major role in muscle regeneration. However, the myogenic potency of human satellite cells in muscles with fatty infiltration is unclear due to the difficulty in isolating from small samples, and the mechanism of the progression of fatty infiltration has not been elucidated...
2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305387/simple-and-complex-centromeric-satellites-in-drosophila-sibling-species
#14
Paul Talbert, Sivakanthan Kasinathan, Steven Henikoff
Centromeres are the chromosomal sites of assembly for kinetochores, the protein complexes that attach to spindle fibers and mediate separation of chromosomes to daughter cells in mitosis and meiosis. In most multicellular organisms, centromeres comprise a single specific family of tandem repeats, often 100-400 bp in length, found on every chromosome, typically in one location within heterochromatin. Drosophila melanogaster is unusual in that the heterochromatin contains many families of mostly short (5-12 bp) tandem repeats, none of which appear to be present at all centromeres, and none of which are found only at centromeres...
January 5, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305237/isolation-of-satellite-glial-cells-for-high-quality-rna-purification
#15
Sara Buskbjerg Jager, Lone Tjener Pallesen, Christian Bjerggaard Vaegter
BACKGROUND: Satellite glial cells (SGCs) envelope the neuronal somas in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and are believed to provide important neuronal support. Animal models of peripheral nerve injury, diabetes or chemotherapy all demonstrate activation of SGCs, suggesting important physiological roles for SGCs in various states of peripheral neuropathy. However, the biology of these glial cells is only poorly characterized under normal as well as pathological conditions due to suboptimal isolation methods...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305004/translational-control-of-the-myogenic-program-in-developing-regenerating-and-diseased-skeletal-muscle
#16
Ryo Fujita, Colin Crist
Translational control of genes that code for protein allows a cell to rapidly respond to changes in its environment, in part because translational control of gene expression does not depend on upstream events required to produce an mRNA molecule. The importance of translational control has been highlighted by studies concerning muscle development, regeneration, and disease. Translational control of specific mRNAs is achieved by microRNAs and RNA-binding proteins, which are particularly relevant to developmental myogenesis, where they ensure the stepwise differentiation of multipotent progenitors to committed myogenic progenitors that ultimately fuse into slow- or fast-type myofibers that make up skeletal muscle...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305003/muscle-stem-cells-and-aging
#17
Ara B Hwang, Andrew S Brack
Satellite cells (SCs) are a population of muscle-resident stem cells that are essential for efficient tissue repair. SCs reside in a relatively quiescent state during normal tissue turnover, but are activated in response to injury through the microenvironment and cell-intrinsic signals. During aging, SC dysfunction is a major contributor to the decline in regenerative potential of muscle tissue. Recent studies have demonstrated that both cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic factors are deregulated during aging...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305001/epigenetic-regulation-of-adult-myogenesis
#18
Daniel C L Robinson, Francis J Dilworth
Skeletal muscle regeneration is an efficient stem cell-based repair system that ensures healthy musculature. For this repair system to function continuously throughout life, muscle stem cells must contribute to the process of myofiber repair as well as repopulation of the stem cell niche. The decision made by the muscle stem cells to commit to the muscle repair or to remain a stem cell depends upon patterns of gene expression, a process regulated at the epigenetic level. Indeed, it is well accepted that dynamic changes in epigenetic landscapes to control DNA accessibility and expression is a critical component during myogenesis for the effective repair of damaged muscle...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304999/-known-unknowns-current-questions-in-muscle-satellite-cell-biology
#19
Ddw Cornelison
Our understanding of satellite cells, now known to be the obligate stem cells of skeletal muscle, has increased dramatically in recent years due to the introduction of new molecular, genetic, and technical resources. In addition to their role in acute repair of damaged muscle, satellite cells are of interest in the fields of aging, exercise, neuromuscular disease, and stem cell therapy, and all of these applications have driven a dramatic increase in our understanding of the activity and potential of satellite cells...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304998/satellite-cell-self-renewal
#20
Lorenzo Giordani, Alice Parisi, Fabien Le Grand
Adult skeletal muscle is endowed with regenerative potential through partially recapitulating the embryonic developmental program. Upon acute injury or in pathological conditions, quiescent muscle-resident stem cells, called satellite cells, become activated and give rise to myogenic progenitors that massively proliferate, differentiate, and fuse to form new myofibers and restore tissue functionality. In addition, a proportion of activated cells returns back to quiescence and replenish the pool of satellite cells in order to maintain the ability of skeletal muscle tissue to repair...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
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