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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103133/role-of-choline-in-the-modulation-of-degenerative-processes-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-studies
#1
Tania Merinas-Amo, Inmaculada Tasset-Cuevas, Antonio M Díaz-Carretero, Ángeles Alonso-Moraga, Fernando Calahorro
The purpose of the present study was to examine the nutraceutical potential of choline as an added value to its well-known brain nutrient role. Several toxicity, antitoxicity, genotoxicity, antigenotoxicity, and longevity endpoints were checked in the somatic mutation and recombination test in in vivo Drosophila animal model. Cytotoxicity in human leukemia-60 cell line (HL-60) promyelocytic and NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells, proapoptotic DNA fragmentation, comet assay, methylation status, and macroautophagy (MA) activity were tested in in vitro assays...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102507/-44-sc-psma-617-for-radiotheragnostics-in-tandem-with-177-lu-psma-617-preclinical-investigations-in-comparison-with-68-ga-psma-11-and-68-ga-psma-617
#2
Christoph A Umbricht, Martina Benešová, Raffaella M Schmid, Andreas Türler, Roger Schibli, Nicholas P van der Meulen, Cristina Müller
BACKGROUND: The targeting of the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is of particular interest for radiotheragnostic purposes of prostate cancer. Radiolabeled PSMA-617, a 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-functionalized PSMA ligand, revealed favorable kinetics with high tumor uptake, enabling its successful application for PET imaging ((68)Ga) and radionuclide therapy ((177)Lu) in the clinics. In this study, PSMA-617 was labeled with cyclotron-produced (44)Sc (T 1/2 = 4...
December 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101875/sustanon-induces-dose-independent-hypertrophy-and-satellite-cell-proliferation-in-slow-oxidative-fibers-of-avian-skeletal-muscle
#3
Mohammed Z Allouh, Ahmad A Jarrar, Hasan A Asfour, Raed S Said, Emad I Shaqoura
Sustanon is a well-known anabolic drug that is used to treat hypogonadism and restore muscle mass and bone density. As research to date has been limited to its effects in glycolytic fibers, this study aimed to investigate the dose-related effects of Sustanon on the oxidative fibers of avian skeletal muscle. Adult female chickens were randomly divided into 4 groups: control (C), received a dose of 100 μl normal saline per injection; and Sustanon-1, -2, and -3 (S1, S2, and S3), that received a dose of 12.5, 25, or 50 mg/kg Sustanon per injection, respectively...
January 19, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100636/centriole-splitting-caused-by-loss-of-the-centrosomal-linker-protein-c-nap1-reduces-centriolar-satellite-density-and-impedes-centrosome-amplification
#4
Anne-Marie Flanagan, Elena Stavenschi, Shivakumar Basavaraju, David Gaboriau, David A Hoey, Ciaran G Morrison
Duplication of the centrosomes is a tightly regulated process. Abnormal centrosome numbers can impair cell division and cause changes in how cells migrate. Duplicated centrosomes are held together by a proteinaceous linker made up of rootletin filaments anchored to the centrioles by C-NAP1. This linker is removed in a NEK2A kinase-dependent manner as mitosis begins. To explore C-NAP1 activities in regulating centrosome activities, we used genome editing to ablate it. C-NAP1 null cells were viable and had an increased frequency of premature centriole separation, accompanied by reduced density of the centriolar satellites, with re-expression of C-NAP1 rescuing both these phenotypes...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097017/study-of-myoblast-differentiation-using-multi-dimensional-scaffolds-consisting-of-nano-and-micropatterns
#5
Sung Ho Cha, Hyun Jong Lee, Won-Gun Koh
BACKGROUND: The topographical cue is major influence on skeletal muscle cell culture because the structure is highly organized and consists of long parallel bundles of multinucleated myotubes that are formed by differentiation and fusion of myoblast satellite cells. In this technical report, we fabricated a multiscale scaffold using electrospinning and poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel micropatterns to monitor the cell behaviors on nano- and micro-alignment combined scaffolds with different combinations of angles...
2017: Biomaterials Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096434/precocious-glucocorticoid-exposure-reduces-skeletal-muscle-satellite-cells-in-the-fetal-rat
#6
Ganga Gokulakrishnan, Xiaoyan Chang, Ryan Fleischmann, Marta Fiorotto
Perinatal skeletal muscle growth rates are a function of protein and myonuclear accretion. Precocious exposure of the fetus to glucocorticoids (GLC) in utero impairs muscle growth. Reduced muscle protein synthesis rates contribute to this response, but the consequences for myonuclear hyperplasia are unknown. To test the hypothesis that blunting of Pax7+ muscle progenitor cell proliferative activity by GLC in vivo also contributes to reduced fetal muscle growth, pregnant rats were administered dexamethasone (DEX;1 mg/L drinking water) from embryonic day (ED) 13 to ED21...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094257/pten-is-necessary-for-the-quiescence-and-maintenance-of-adult-muscle-stem-cells
#7
Feng Yue, Pengpeng Bi, Chao Wang, Tizhong Shan, Yaohui Nie, Timothy L Ratliff, Timothy P Gavin, Shihuan Kuang
Satellite cells (SCs) are myogenic stem cells required for regeneration of adult skeletal muscles. A proper balance among quiescence, activation and differentiation is essential for long-term maintenance of SCs and their regenerative function. Here we show a function of Pten (phosphatase and tensin homologue) in quiescent SCs. Deletion of Pten in quiescent SCs leads to their spontaneous activation and premature differentiation without proliferation, resulting in depletion of SC pool and regenerative failure...
January 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091529/long-non-coding-rna-linc-ram-enhances-myogenic-differentiation-by-interacting-with-myod
#8
Xiaohua Yu, Yong Zhang, Tingting Li, Zhao Ma, Haixue Jia, Qian Chen, Yixia Zhao, Lili Zhai, Ran Zhong, Changyin Li, Xiaoting Zou, Jiao Meng, Antony K Chen, Pier Lorenzo Puri, Meihong Chen, Dahai Zhu
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important regulators of diverse biological processes. Here we report on functional identification and characterization of a novel long intergenic non-coding RNA with MyoD-regulated and skeletal muscle-restricted expression that promotes the activation of the myogenic program, and is therefore termed Linc-RAM (Linc-RNA Activator of Myogenesis). Linc-RAM is transcribed from an intergenic region of myogenic cells and its expression is upregulated during myogenesis. Notably, in vivo functional studies show that Linc-RAM knockout mice display impaired muscle regeneration due to the differentiation defect of satellite cells...
January 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078514/the-molecular-basis-of-the-organization-of-repetitive-dna-containing-constitutive-heterochromatin-in-mammals
#9
REVIEW
Gohei Nishibuchi, Jérôme Déjardin
Constitutive heterochromatin is composed mainly of repetitive elements and represents the typical inert chromatin structure in eukaryotic cells. Approximately half of the mammalian genome is made of repeat sequences, such as satellite DNA, telomeric DNA, and transposable elements. As essential genes are not present in these regions, most of these repeat sequences were considered as junk DNA in the past. However, it is now clear that these regions are essential for chromosome stability and the silencing of neighboring genes...
January 11, 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077318/alcohol-microbiome-life-style-influence-alcohol-and-non-alcoholic-organ-damage
#10
REVIEW
Manuela G Neuman, Samuel W French, Samir Zakhari, Stefen Malnick, Helmut K Seitz, Lawrence B Cohen, Mikko Salaspuro, Andreea Voinea Griffin, Andrei Barasch, Irina A Kirpich, Paul G Thomes, Laura W Schrum, Terrence M Donohue, Kusum Kharbanda, Marcus Cruz, Mihai Opris
This paper is based upon the "8th Charles Lieber's Satellite Symposium" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism Annual Meeting, onJune 25, 2016 at New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. The integrative symposium investigated different aspects of alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) as well as non-alcohol-induced liver disease (NAFLD) and possible repair. We revealedthe basic aspects of alcohol metabolism that may be responsible for the development of liver diseaseas well as the factors that determine the amount, frequency and which type of alcohol misuse leads to liver and gastrointestinal diseases...
January 7, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075349/transthyretin-a-transporter-protein-essential-for-proliferation-of-myoblast-in-the-myogenic-program
#11
Eun Ju Lee, Smritee Pokharel, Arif Tasleem Jan, Soyeon Huh, Richelle Galope, Jeong Ho Lim, Dong-Mok Lee, Sung Wook Choi, Sang-Soep Nahm, Yong-Woon Kim, So-Young Park, Inho Choi
Irregularities in the cellular uptake of thyroid hormones significantly affect muscle development and regeneration. Herein, we report indispensable role of transthyretin (TTR) in maintaining cellular thyroxine level. TTR was found to enhance recruitment of muscle satellite cells to the site of injury, thereby regulating muscle regeneration. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and immunofluorescence analysis of TTRwt (TTR wild type) and TTRkd (TTR knock-down) cells revealed that TTR controlled cell cycle progression by affecting the expression of Cyclin A2...
January 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067271/praja1-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-promotes-skeletal-myogenesis-through-degradation-of-ezh2-upon-p38%C3%AE-activation
#12
Silvia Consalvi, Arianna Brancaccio, Alessandra Dall'Agnese, Pier Lorenzo Puri, Daniela Palacios
Polycomb proteins are critical chromatin modifiers that regulate stem cell differentiation via transcriptional repression. In skeletal muscle progenitors Enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2), the catalytic subunit of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2), contributes to maintain the chromatin of muscle genes in a repressive conformation, whereas its down-regulation allows the progression through the myogenic programme. Here, we show that p38α kinase promotes EZH2 degradation in differentiating muscle cells through phosphorylation of threonine 372...
January 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057309/drosophila-melanogaster-as-a-model-of-muscle-degeneration-disorders
#13
R E Kreipke, Y V Kwon, H R Shcherbata, H Ruohola-Baker
Drosophila melanogaster provides a powerful platform with which researchers can dissect complex genetic questions and biochemical pathways relevant to a vast array of human diseases and disorders. Of particular interest, much work has been done with flies to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying muscle degeneration diseases. The fly is particularly useful for modeling muscle degeneration disorders because there are no identified satellite muscle cells to repair adult muscle following injury. This allows for the identification of endogenous processes of muscle degeneration as discrete events, distinguishable from phenotypes due to the lack of stem cell-based regeneration...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042532/satellite-cells-contribution-to-exercise-mediated-muscle-hypertrophy-and-repair
#14
REVIEW
Behzad Bazgir, Rouhollah Fathi, Mojtaba Rezazadeh Valojerdi, Paul Mozdziak, Alireza Asgari
Satellite cells (SCs) are the most abundant skeletal muscle stem cells. They are widely recognized for their contributions to maintenance of muscle mass, regeneration and hypertrophy during the human life span. These cells are good candidates for cell therapy due to their self-renewal capabilities and presence in an undifferentiated form. Presently, a significant gap exists between our knowledge of SCs behavior and their application as a means for human skeletal muscle tissue repair and regeneration. Both physiological and pathological stimuli potentially affect SCs activation, proliferation, and terminal differentiation the former category being the focus of this article...
2017: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040084/do-skeletal-muscle-mscs-in-humans-contribute-to-bone-repair-a-systematic-review
#15
Heather Owston, Peter V Giannoudis, Elena Jones
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from bone marrow and periosteum are known to be heavily involved in fracture repair and bone regeneration is thought to be impaired when the surrounding skeletal muscle is damaged. Recent literature from mouse in vivo models suggest that cells originating from skeletal muscle can occupy a fracture callus during open fracture repair when periosteum is compromised. This systematic review set out to ascertain whether there are MSCs residing in human skeletal muscle and whether cells from human skeletal muscle are capable of forming bone in vitro and in vivo...
December 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035727/the-role-of-tgf-%C3%AE-1-during-skeletal-muscle-regeneration
#16
REVIEW
Kamila Delaney, Paulina Kasprzycka, Maria A Ciemerych, Malgorzata Zimowska
The injury of adult skeletal muscle initiates series of well-coordinated events that lead to the efficient repair of the damaged tissue. Any disturbances during muscle myolysis or reconstruction may result in the unsuccessful regeneration, characterized by strong inflammatory response and formation of connective tissue, i.e. fibrosis. The switch between proper regeneration of skeletal muscle and development of fibrosis is controlled by various factors. Among them are those belonging to the transforming growth factor β family...
December 29, 2016: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032598/stat3-overexpression-promotes-metastasis-in-intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma-and-correlates-negatively-with-surgical-outcome
#17
Yang Xin-Wei, Li Liang, Hou Guo-Jun, Yan Xin-Zhou, Xu Qin-Guo, Chen Lei, Zhang Bao-Hua, Shen Feng
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) promotes tumor progression in many types of cancer. In this study, we analyzed the prognostic value of this marker in human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Using real-time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry assays, we found that STAT3 is overexpressed in ICC patients. STAT3 expression correlated with several clinicopathological features, including tumor size, pathological satellite, vascular invasion, undifferentiated-type histology, lymph node metastasis and TNM stage in two independent cohorts of ICC patients...
December 9, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028810/three-dimensional-evaluation-of-subclinical-extension-of-extramammary-paget-s-disease-visualization-of-histological-border-and-its-comparison-to-clinical-border
#18
T Murata, T Honda, G Egawa, A Kitoh, T Dainichi, A Otsuka, S Nakajima, S Kore-Eda, Y Kaku, S Nakamizo, Y Endo, A Fujisawa, Y Miyachi, K Kabashima
BACKGROUND: In extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD), Paget cells are sometimes detected outside the clinical border (subclinical extension). The spreading pattern of Paget cells in subclinical extension, however, remains unclear. In addition, the macroscopic appearances of lesions accompanied by subclinical extension are totally unknown. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the spreading pattern of Paget cells as well as the macroscopic appearance of lesions of EMPD with subclinical extension...
December 27, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027922/the-protective-effect-of-resveratrol-in-the-transmission-of-neuropathic-pain-mediated-by-the-p2x7-receptor-in-the-dorsal-root-ganglia
#19
Jinyan Xie, Shuangmei Liu, Bing Wu, Guilin Li, Shenqiang Rao, Lifang Zou, Zhihua Yi, Chunping Zhang, Tianyu Jia, Shanhong Zhao, Günther Schmalzing, Ralf Hausmann, Hong Nie, Guodong Li, Shangdong Liang
The P2X7 receptor mediates afferent nerve activation and is related to chronic neuropathic pain. Resveratrol (RES) has also been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of RES on the transmission of neuropathic pain mediated by the P2X7 receptor. The P2X7 mRNA and protein expression levels in L4-L5 dorsal root ganglia (DRG)s of the chronic constriction injury (CCI) group were significantly higher than those observed in the Ctrl + NS, Sham + RES and Sham groups...
December 24, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027662/redox-control-of-skeletal-muscle-regeneration
#20
Emmeran Le Moal, Vincent Pialoux, Gaëtan Juban, Carole Groussard, Hassan Zouhal, Bénédicte Chazaud, Rémi Mounier
Skeletal muscle shows high plasticity in response to external demand. Moreover, adult skeletal muscle is capable of complete regeneration after injury, due to the properties of Muscle Stem Cells (MuSCs), the satellite cells, which follow a tightly regulated myogenic program to generate both new myofibers and new MuSCs for further needs. Whereas reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) have long been associated with skeletal muscle physiology, their implication in the cell and molecular processes at work during muscle regeneration is more recent...
December 27, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
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