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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448743/circular-rnas-with-hammerhead-ribozymes-encoded-in-eukaryotic-genomes-the-enemy-at-home
#1
Marcos de la Peña, Amelia Cervera
A new family of non-autonomous retrotransposons with self-cleaving hammerhead ribozymes, the so called retrozymes, has recently been found encoded in a number of plant genomes. These retroelements can be actively transcribed, and their RNAs accumulate in the cells as abundant non-coding circular RNAs (circRNAs) of small size (600-1000 nt). Related circRNAs with self-cleaving ribozymes had already been described in plants, and belong to a group of infectious RNA agents with an uncertain origin: the viroids and viroid-like satellites of plant RNA viruses...
April 27, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446595/dna-damage-signaling-mediates-the-functional-antagonism-between-replicative-senescence-and-terminal-muscle-differentiation
#2
Lucia Latella, Alessandra Dall'Agnese, Francesca Boscolo Sesillo, Chiara Nardoni, Marianna Cosentino, Armin Lahm, Alessandra Sacco, Pier Lorenzo Puri
The molecular determinants of muscle progenitor impairment to regenerate aged muscles are currently unclear. We show that, in a mouse model of replicative senescence, decline in muscle satellite cell-mediated regeneration coincides with activation of DNA damage response (DDR) and impaired ability to differentiate into myotubes. Inhibition of DDR restored satellite cell differentiation ability. Moreover, in replicative human senescent fibroblasts, DDR precluded MYOD-mediated activation of the myogenic program...
April 1, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444312/early-posthatch-thermal-stress-affects-breast-muscle-development-and-satellite-cell-growth-and-characteristics-in-broilers
#3
Yogev Piestun, Tomer Patael, Shlomo Yahav, Sandra G Velleman, Orna Halevy
Heat or cold stress, can disrupt well-being and physiological responses in birds. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of continuous heat exposure in the first 2 wk of age on muscle development in broilers, with an emphasis on the pectoralis muscle satellite cell population. Chicks were reared for 13 d under either commercial conditions or a temperature regime that was 5°C higher. Body and muscle weights, as well as absolute muscle growth were lower in heat-exposed chicks from d 6 onward. The number of satellite cells derived from the experimental chicks was higher in the heat-treated group on d 3 but lower on d 8 and 13 compared to controls...
April 24, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442666/role-of-pituitary-adenylyl-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-in-intracellular-calcium-dynamics-of-neurons-and-satellite-cells-in-rat-superior-cervical-ganglia
#4
Kanako Isobe, Takuya Yokoyama, Kasumi Moriguchi-Mori, Miho Kumagai, Yoh-Ichi Satoh, Akiyoshi Kuji, Tomoyuki Saino
Pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a bioactive peptide with diverse effects in the nervous system. The present study investigated whether stimulation of PACAP receptors (PACAPRs) induces responses in neurons and satellite cells of the superior cervical ganglia (SCG), with special reference to intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) changes. The expression of PACAPRs in SCG was detected by reverse transcription-PCR. PACAP type 1 receptor (PAC1R), vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor type (VPAC)1R, and VPAC2R transcripts were expressed in SCG, with PAC1R showing the highest levels...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441415/pax7-remodels-the-chromatin-landscape-in-skeletal-muscle-stem-cells
#5
Karin C Lilja, Nan Zhang, Alessandro Magli, Volkan Gunduz, Christopher J Bowman, Robert W Arpke, Radbod Darabi, Michael Kyba, Rita Perlingeiro, Brian D Dynlacht
Pluripotent stem cells (PSC) hold great promise for the treatment of human skeletal muscle diseases. However, it remains challenging to convert PSC to skeletal muscle cells, and the mechanisms by which the master regulatory transcription factor, Pax7, promotes muscle stem (satellite) cell identity are not yet understood. We have taken advantage of PSC-derived skeletal muscle precursor cells (iPax7), wherein the induced expression of Pax7 robustly initiates the muscle program and enables the in vitro generation of precursors that seed the satellite cell compartment upon transplantation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440546/stem-cell-dynamics-in-muscle-regeneration-insights-from-live-imaging-in-different-animal-models
#6
REVIEW
Dhanushika Ratnayake, Peter D Currie
In recent years, live imaging has been adopted to study stem cells in their native environment at cellular resolution. In the skeletal muscle field, this has led to visualising the initial events of muscle repair in mouse, and the entire regenerative response in zebrafish. Here, we review recent discoveries in this field obtained from live imaging studies. Tracking of tissue resident stem cells, the satellite cells, following injury has captured the morphogenetic dynamics of stem/progenitor cells as they facilitate repair...
April 25, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436144/unacylated-ghrelin-enhances-satellite-cell-function-and-relieves-the-dystrophic-phenotype-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-mdx-model
#7
Simone Reano, Elia Angelino, Michele Ferrara, Valeria Malacarne, Hana Sustova, Omar Sabry, Emanuela Agosti, Sara Clerici, Giulia Ruozi, Lorena Zentilin, Flavia Prodam, Stefano Geuna, Mauro Giacca, Andrea Graziani, Nicoletta Filigheddu
Muscle regeneration depends on satellite cells, quiescent precursors that, in consequence of injury or in pathological states such as muscular dystrophies, activate, proliferate, and differentiate to repair the damaged tissue. A subset of satellite cells undergoes self-renewal, thus preserving the satellite cell pool and its regenerative potential. Unacylated ghrelin (UnAG) is a circulating hormone that protects muscle from atrophy, promotes myoblast differentiation, and enhances ischemia-induced muscle regeneration...
April 24, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433608/toward-biotechnology-in-space-high-throughput-instruments-for-in-situ-biological-research-beyond-earth
#8
REVIEW
Fathi Karouia, Kianoosh Peyvan, Andrew Pohorille
Space biotechnology is a nascent field aimed at applying tools of modern biology to advance our goals in space exploration. These advances rely on our ability to exploit in situ high throughput techniques for amplification and sequencing DNA, and measuring levels of RNA transcripts, proteins and metabolites in a cell. These techniques, collectively known as "omics" techniques have already revolutionized terrestrial biology. A number of on-going efforts are aimed at developing instruments to carry out "omics" research in space, in particular on board the International Space Station and small satellites...
April 19, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429325/gravitaxis-in-euglena
#9
Donat-P Häder, Ruth Hemmersbach
Motile microorganisms utilize a number of responses to external stimuli including light, temperature, chemicals as well as magnetic and electric fields. Gravity is a major clue to select a niche in their environment. Positive gravitaxis leads an organism down into the water column and negative gravitaxis brings it to the surface. In Euglena the precision of gravitaxis is regulated by an internal rhythm entrained by the daily light/dark cycle. This and the cooperation with phototaxis bring the cells into an optimal position in the water column...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424630/hippo-pathway-and-skeletal-muscle-mass-regulation-in-mammals-a-controversial-relationship
#10
REVIEW
Olouyomi Gnimassou, Marc Francaux, Louise Deldicque
Skeletal muscle mass reflects a dynamic turnover between net protein synthesis and degradation. In addition, satellite cell inclusion may contribute to increase muscle mass while fiber loss results in a reduction of muscle mass. Since 2010, a few studies looked at the involvement of the newly discovered Hippo pathway in the regulation of muscle mass. In line with its roles in other organs, it has been hypothesized that the Hippo pathway could play a role in different regulatory mechanisms in skeletal muscle as well, namely proliferation and renewal of satellite cells, differentiation, death, and growth of myogenic cells...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417015/characterization-and-isolation-of-highly-purified-porcine-satellite-cells
#11
Shijie Ding, Fei Wang, Yan Liu, Sheng Li, Guanghong Zhou, Ping Hu
Pig is an important food source and an excellent system to model human diseases. Careful characterization of the swine skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) will shed lights on generation of swine skeletal muscle disease model and efficient production of porcine meat for the food industry. Paired box protein 7 (Pax7) is a highly conserved transcription factor shared by satellite cells from various species. However, the sequence of Pax7 has not been characterized in pig. The lack of method to isolate highly purified satellite cells hinders the thorough characterization of the swine satellite cells...
2017: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410238/physical-activity-and-telomere-length-impact-of-aging-and-potential-mechanisms-of-action
#12
REVIEW
Nicole C Arsenis, Tongjian You, Elisa F Ogawa, Grant M Tinsley, Li Zuo
Telomeres protect the integrity of information-carrying DNA by serving as caps on the terminal portions of chromosomes. Telomere length decreases with aging, and this contributes to cell senescence. Recent evidence supports that telomere length of leukocytes and skeletal muscle cells may be positively associated with healthy living and inversely correlated with the risk of several age-related diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, chronic pain, and stress. In observational studies, higher levels of physical activity or exercise are related to longer telomere lengths in various populations, and athletes tend to have longer telomere lengths than non-athletes...
March 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409313/extracellular-regulation-of-the-mitotic-spindle-and-fate-determinants-driving-asymmetric-cell-division
#13
Prestina Smith, Mark Azzam, Lindsay Hinck
Stem cells use mode of cell division, symmetric (SCD) versus asymmetric (ACD), to balance expansion with self-renewal and the generation of daughter cells with different cell fates. Studies in model organisms have identified intrinsic mechanisms that govern this process, which involves partitioning molecular components between daughter cells, frequently through the regulation of the mitotic spindle. Research performed in vertebrate tissues is revealing both conservation of these intrinsic mechanisms and crucial roles for extrinsic cues in regulating the frequency of these divisions...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401807/biophysical-stimulation-for-engineering-functional-skeletal-muscle
#14
Sarah Somers, Alexander Spector, Douglas DiGirolamo, Warren L Grayson
Tissue engineering is a promising therapeutic strategy to regenerate skeletal muscle. However, ex vivo cultivation methods typically result in a low differentiation efficiency of stem cells as well as grafts that resemble the native tissues morphologically, but lack contractile function. The application of biomimetic tensile strain provides a potent stimulus for enhancing myogenic differentiation and engineering functional skeletal muscle grafts. We reviewed integrin-dependent mechanisms that potentially link mechanotransduction pathways to the upregulation of myogenic genes...
April 12, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400445/microrna-23a-and-microrna-27a-mimic-exercise-by-ameliorating-ckd-induced-muscle-atrophy
#15
Bin Wang, Cong Zhang, Aiqing Zhang, Hui Cai, S Russ Price, Xiaonan H Wang
Muscle atrophy is a frequent complication of CKD, and exercise can attenuate the process. This study investigated the role of microRNA-23a (miR-23a) and miR-27a in the regulation of muscle mass in mice with CKD. These miRs are located in a gene cluster that is regulated by the transcription factor NFAT. CKD mice expressed less miR-23a in muscle than controls, and resistance exercise (muscle overload) increased the levels of miR-23a and miR-27a in CKD mice. Injection of an adeno-associated virus encoding the miR-23a/27a/24-2 precursor RNA into the tibialis anterior muscles of normal and CKD mice led to increases in mature miR-23a and miR-27a but not miR-24-2 in the muscles of both cohorts...
April 11, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381556/poly-c-binding-protein-1-pcbp1-regulates-skeletal-muscle-differentiation-by-modulating-microrna-processing-in-myoblasts
#16
Ramon A Espinoza-Lewis, Qiumei Yang, Jianming Liu, Zhan-Peng Huang, Xiaoyun Hu, Daiwen Chen, Da-Zhi Wang
Control of muscle cell proliferation and differentiation is essential to proper muscle development, function, and regeneration, and numerous transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulators are key to these processes. For example, recent studies have linked microRNAs (miRNAs) to muscle gene expression, development, and disease. The poly(C)-binding protein1 (Pcbp1, hnRNP-E1, or αCP-1) has been reported to bind the 3'UTRs of target genes to regulate mRNA stability and protein translation. However, Pcbp1's biological function in skeletal muscle and general mechanism of action remain largely undetermined...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381463/chronic-kidney-disease-induces-autophagy-leading-to-dysfunction-of-mitochondria-in-skeletal-muscle
#17
Zhen Su, Janet D Klein, Jie DU, Harold A Franch, Liping Zhang, Faten Hassounah, Matthew B Hudson, Xiaonan H Wang
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) causes loss of lean body mass by multiple mechanisms. This study examines whether autophagy-mediated proteolysis contributes to CKD-induced muscle wasting. We tested autophagy in the muscle of CKD mice with plantaris muscle overloading to mimic resistance exercise or with acupuncture plus low frequency electrical stimulation (Acu/LFES) treatment. In CKD muscle, Bnip3, Beclin-1, LC3II mRNAs and proteins were increased compared with control muscle, indicating autophagosome-lysosome formation induction...
April 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377156/protein-supplementation-augments-muscle-fiber-hypertrophy-but-does-not-modulate-satellite-cell-content-during-prolonged-resistance-type-exercise-training-in-frail-elderly
#18
Marlou L Dirks, Michael Tieland, Lex B Verdijk, Mario Losen, Rachel Nilwik, Marco Mensink, Lisette C P G M de Groot, Luc J C van Loon
OBJECTIVE: Protein supplementation increases gains in lean body mass following prolonged resistance-type exercise training in frail older adults. We assessed whether the greater increase in lean body mass can be attributed to muscle fiber type specific hypertrophy with concomitant changes in satellite cell (SC) content. DESIGN: A total of 34 frail elderly individuals (77 ± 1 years, n = 12 male adults) participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 2 arms in parallel...
April 1, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376051/role-of-muscle-stem-cells-in-sarcopenia
#19
Tim Snijders, Gianni Parise
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review is an update on recent research investigating the role of skeletal muscle stem cells (also known as satellite cells) during muscle fiber regeneration and growth in animal and human skeletal muscle, with an emphasis on their role in age-related sarcopenia. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies indicate clear impairments in satellite cell function with aging, resulting in an impaired muscle fiber regenerative response. The autophagy-mediated switch to an irreversible presenescent state of geriatric satellite cells appears to play a key role in age-related impaired satellite cell function...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369879/human-skeletal-muscle-fibroblasts-stimulate-in-vitro-myogenesis-and-in-vivo-muscle-regeneration
#20
Abigail L Mackey, Mélanie Magnan, Bénédicte Chazaud, Michael Kjaer
Accumulation of skeletal muscle extracellular matrix is an unfavourable characteristic of many muscle diseases, muscle injury and sarcopenia. In addition to the indispensable role satellite cells play in muscle regeneration, there is emerging evidence in rodents for a regulatory influence on fibroblast activity. However the influence of fibroblasts on satellite cells and muscle regeneration in humans is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate this in vitro and during in vivo regeneration in humans...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Physiology
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