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Satellite cells

Lauren E Cornelison, Jordan L Hawkins, Paul L Durham
Orofacial pain conditions including temporomandibular joint disorder and migraine are characterized by peripheral and central sensitization of trigeminal nociceptive neurons. Although calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is implicated in the development of central sensitization, the pathway by which elevated spinal cord CGRP levels promote peripheral sensitization of primary trigeminal nociceptive neurons is not well understood. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of CGRP in promoting bidirectional signaling within the trigeminal system to mediate sensitization of primary trigeminal ganglion nociceptive neurons...
October 13, 2016: Neuroscience
Paul Knopp, Yvonne D Krom, Christopher R S Banerji, Maryna Panamarova, Louise A Moyle, Bianca den Hamer, Silvère M van der Maarel, Peter S Zammit
Skeletal muscle wasting in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) results in substantial morbidity. On a disease-permissive chromosome 4qA haplotype, genomic and/or epigenetic changes at the D4Z4 macrosatellite repeat allows transcription of the DUX4 retrogene. Analysing transgenic mice carrying a human D4Z4 genomic locus from an FSHD-affected individual showed that DUX4 was transiently induced in myoblasts during skeletal muscle regeneration. Centromeric to the D4Z4 repeats is an inverted D4Z4 unit encoding DUX4c...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
Shinichiro Hayashi, Ichiro Manabe, Yumi Suzuki, Frédéric Relaix, Yumiko Oishi
Krüppel-like factor 5 (Klf5) is a zinc-finger transcription factor that controls various biological processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation. We show that Klf5 is also an essential mediator of skeletal muscle regeneration and myogenic differentiation. During muscle regeneration after injury (cardiotoxin injection), Klf5 was induced in the nuclei of differentiating myoblasts and newly formed myofibers expressing myogenin in vivo. Satellite cell-specific Klf5 deletion severely impaired muscle regeneration, and myotube formation was suppressed in Klf5-deleted cultured C2C12 myoblasts and satellite cells...
October 15, 2016: ELife
Kamil Kowalski, Aleksandra Kołodziejczyk, Maria Helena Sikorska, Jagoda Płaczkiewicz, Paulina Cichosz, Magdalena Kowalewska, Wladyslawa Streminska, Katarzyna Janczyk-Ilach, Marta Koblowska, Anna Fogtman, Roksana Iwanicka-Nowicka, Maria A Ciemerych, Edyta Brzoska
The skeletal muscle regeneration occurs due to the presence of tissue specific stem cells - satellite cells. These cells, localized between sarcolemma and basal lamina, are bound to muscle fibers and remain quiescent until their activation upon muscle injury. Due to pathological conditions, such as extensive injury or dystrophy, skeletal muscle regeneration is diminished. Among the therapies aiming to ameliorate skeletal muscle diseases are transplantations of the stem cells. In our previous studies we showed that Sdf-1 (stromal derived factor -1) increased migration of stem cells and their fusion with myoblasts in vitro...
October 13, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Riikka Kivelä, Ida Salmela, Yen Hoang Nguyen, Tatiana V Petrova, Heikki A Koistinen, Zoltan Wiener, Kari Alitalo
The remarkable adaptive and regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle is regulated by several transcription factors and pathways. Here we show that the transcription factor Prox1 is an important regulator of myoblast differentiation and of slow muscle fibre type. In both rodent and human skeletal muscles Prox1 is specifically expressed in slow muscle fibres and in muscle stem cells called satellite cells. Prox1 activates the NFAT signalling pathway and is necessary and sufficient for the maintenance of the gene program of slow muscle fibre type...
October 12, 2016: Nature Communications
Angela Zissler, Peter Steinbacher, Reinhold Zimmermann, Stefan Pittner, Walter Stoiber, Arne C Bathke, Alexandra M Sänger
BACKGROUND: Muscle injuries are among the most common sports-related lesions in athletes; however, optimal treatment remains obscure. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) may be a promising approach in this context, because it has gained increasing importance in tissue regeneration in various medical fields. HYPOTHESIS: ESWT stimulates and accelerates regenerative processes of acute muscle injuries. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study...
October 11, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Sheryl Southard, Ju-Ryoung Kim, SiewHui Low, Richard W Tsika, Christoph Lepper
When unperturbed, somatic stem cells are poised to affect immediate tissue restoration upon trauma. Yet, little is known regarding the mechanistic basis controlling initial and homeostatic 'scaling' of stem cell pool sizes relative to their target tissues for effective regeneration. Here, we show that TEAD1-expressing skeletal muscle of transgenic mice features a dramatic hyperplasia of muscle stem cells (i.e. satellite cells, SCs) but surprisingly without affecting muscle tissue size. Super-numeral SCs attain a 'normal' quiescent state, accelerate regeneration, and maintain regenerative capacity over several injury-induced regeneration bouts...
October 11, 2016: ELife
Junling Guo, Blaise L Tardy, Andrew J Christofferson, Yunlu Dai, Joseph J Richardson, Wei Zhu, Ming Hu, Yi Ju, Jiwei Cui, Raymond R Dagastine, Irene Yarovsky, Frank Caruso
The organized assembly of particles into superstructures is typically governed by specific molecular interactions or external directing factors associated with the particle building blocks, both of which are particle-dependent. These superstructures are of interest to a variety of fields because of their distinct mechanical, electronic, magnetic and optical properties. Here, we establish a facile route to a diverse range of superstructures based on the polyphenol surface-functionalization of micro- and nanoparticles, nanowires, nanosheets, nanocubes and even cells...
October 10, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
Hiroshi Nagahisa, Kazutaka Mukai, Hajime Ohmura, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Hirofumi Miyata
Hypoxic training is believed to increase endurance capacity in association with hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), a modulator of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), and to influence activation of satellite cells (SCs). However, the effect of hypoxic training on SC activation and its relation to angiogenesis has not been thoroughly investigated. Eight Thoroughbred horses were subjected to normoxic (FIO2 = 21%) or hypoxic (FIO2 = 15%) training for 3 days/week (100%  [Formula: see text]) for 4 weeks...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Kyle S Martin, Christopher D Kegelman, Kelley M Virgilio, Julianna A Passipieri, George J Christ, Silvia S Blemker, Shayn M Peirce
Numerous studies have pharmacologically modulated the muscle milieu in the hopes of promoting muscle regeneration; however, the timing and duration of these interventions are difficult to determine. This study utilized a combination of in silico and in vivo experiments to investigate how inflammation manipulation improves muscle recovery following injury. First, we measured macrophage populations following laceration injury in the rat tibialis anterior (TA). Then we calibrated an agent-based model (ABM) of muscle injury to mimic the observed inflammation profiles...
October 7, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Bernhard Grubmüller, Richard P Baum, Enza Capasso, Aviral Singh, Yasaman Ahmadi, Peter Knoll, Andreas Floth, Sergio Righi, Shahin Zandieh, Carlo Meleddu, Shahrokh F Shariat, Hans Christoph Klingler, Siroos Mirzaei
AIM: The prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a cell surface protein, which is overexpressed in nearly all cases of prostate cancer (PCa). PET imaging with (68)Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC has recently found widespread application in the diagnosis of recurrent PCa. In this study, the diagnostic potential of (64)Cu-labeled PSMA ligand (PSMA-617) PET in patients with PCa has been investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted simultaneously at two nuclear medicine centers, Austria (Vienna, Center 1) and Germany (Bad Berka, Center 2)...
October 7, 2016: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
Mohamed A A Mahdy, Katsuhiko Warita, Yoshinao Z Hosaka
In this study, we investigated the early changes of skeletal muscle damage in response to injuries induced by cardiotoxin (CTX) and glycerol by using both light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Normal, non-dystrophic, adult male mice were used in this study. Tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were injected either with CTX or glycerol. Samples were collected at intervals starting from 1h up to 4days after injury. Injured muscles were subjected to both histological and ultrastructural analyses. CTX-induced injury caused mitochondrial accumulation and swelling followed by lysis, while glycerol-induced injury caused accumulation of vesicles with focal disruption of the basal lamina, indicating that the injuries have different mechanisms of damage to myofibers...
September 28, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Rie T Fredrickson, Daniel C Fredrickson
Despite being one of the most common minerals in the earth's crust the crystal structure of intermediate e-plagioclase remains only partially understood, due in a large part to its complex diffraction patterns including satellite reflections. In this article we present a detailed analysis of the structure of e-plagioclase (An44) using single-crystal X-ray diffraction measured at ambient and low temperature (T = 100 K), in which the full modulated structure is successfully refined. As in earlier studies, the diffraction pattern exhibits strong main a-reflections and weak e-satellite reflections...
October 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica Section B, Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials
Hisato Kobayashi, Tasuku Koike, Akihiko Sakashita, Keisuke Tanaka, Soichiro Kumamoto, Tomohiro Kono
Whole-genome shotgun bisulfite sequencing (WG-SBS) is currently the most powerful tool available for understanding genomewide cytosine methylation with single-base resolution; however, the high sequencing cost limits its widespread application, particularly for mammalian genomes. We mapped high- to low-coverage SBS short reads of mouse and human female developing germ cells to consensus sequences of repetitive elements that were multiplied in the respective host genome. This mapping strategy effectively identified active and evolutionarily young retrotransposon subfamilies and centromeric satellite repeats that were resistant to DNA demethylation during the investigated progressive stages of germ cell development...
October 3, 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
P R Chen, K Lee
With the increasing demand for affordable, high-quality meat, livestock and poultry producers must continually find ways to maximize muscle growth in their animals without compromising palatability of the meat products. Muscle mass relies on myoblast proliferation during prenatal or prehatch stages and fiber hypertrophy through protein synthesis and nuclei donation by satellite cells after birth or hatch. Therefore, understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of myogenesis and muscle development is of great interest...
August 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Katarzyna A Szcześniak, Anna Ciecierska, Piotr Ostaszewski, Tomasz Sadkowski
β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a popular ergogenic aid used by human athletes and as a supplement to sport horses, because of its ability to aid muscle recovery, improve performance and body composition. Recent findings suggest that HMB may stimulate satellite cells and affect expressions of genes regulating skeletal muscle cell growth. Despite the scientific data showing benefits of HMB supplementation in horses, no previous study has explained the mechanism of action of HMB in this species. The aim of this study was to reveal the molecular background of HMB action on equine skeletal muscle by investigating the transcriptomic profile changes induced by HMB in equine satellite cells in vitro...
October 3, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Vincent Grassot, Amel Bouchatal, Anne Da Silva, Sandrine Chantepie, Dulce Papy-Garcia, Abderrahman Maftah, Paul-François Gallet, Jean-Michel Petit
In vitro, extracted muscle satellite cells, called myogenic progenitor cells, can differentiate either in myotubes or preadipocytes, depending on environmental factors and the medium. Transcriptomic analyses on glycosylation genes during satellite cells differentiation into myotubes showed that 31 genes present a significant variation of expression at the early stages of murine myogenic progenitor cells (MPC) differentiation. In the present study, we analyzed the expression of 383 glycosylation related genes during murine MPC differentiation into preadipocytes and compared the data to those previously obtained during their differentiation into myotubes...
September 27, 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Michael I Polkey, Mark J Griffiths, Paul R Kemp
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Weiwei Song, Hengyu Zhao, Zhongqi Cui, Xiaoyu Ma, Wenwen Zhang, Di Wang, Anqi Liu, Lijie Yuan
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive tumor of the central nervous system characterized by high rates of recurrence, morbidity, and mortality. This study investigated the antitumor effects of an apoptin-derived peptide (ADP) on glioma cells and explored the underlying mechanisms. The U251, U87, and C6 glioma cell lines were used in the present study, and the expression of p-Akt, Akt, and MMP-9 was determined through Western blotting, quantitative real-time PCR, and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining...
September 29, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Thomas Bräuniger, Burkhard Groh, Igor L Moudrakovski, Sylvio Indris
From single-crystal (27)Al NMR experiments, the full tensors for both the electrical field gradient (EFG) and the chemical shift (CS) for the aluminum atoms in γ-LiAlO2 have been determined. A simultaneous fit of the quadrupolar splittings observed for the four (27)Al in the unit cell gave the EFG tensor in the crystal frame, from which a quadrupolar coupling constant of χ = CQ = 3.330 ± 0.005 MHz and an asymmetry parameter of ηQ = 0.656 ± 0.002 were derived. The experimentally determined quadrupolar splittings were sufficiently sensitive to quantify small deviations of both rotation axis direction and starting direction by the data fitting routine...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
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