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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778303/the-physiopathologic-interplay-between-stem-cells-and-tissue-niche-in-muscle-regeneration-and-the-role-of-il-6-on-muscle-homeostasis-and-diseases
#1
Laura Forcina, Carmen Miano, Antonio Musarò
Skeletal muscle is a complex, dynamic tissue characterized by an elevated plasticity. Although the adult muscle is mainly composed of multinucleated fibers with post mitotic nuclei, it retains a remarkable ability to regenerate in response to traumatic events. The regenerative potential of the adult skeletal muscle relies in the activity of satellite cells, mononucleated cells residing within the muscle in intimate association with myofibers. Satellite cells normally remain quiescent in their sublaminar position, sporadically entering the cell cycle to guarantee an efficient cellular turnover, by fusing with pre-existing myofibers, and to maintain the stem cell pool...
May 16, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775666/the-effect-of-syndecan-4-and-glypican-1-knockdown-on-the-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-turkey-satellite-cells-differing-in-age-and-growth-rates
#2
Sandra G Velleman, Daniel L Clark, Jeffrey R Tonniges
Posthatch skeletal muscle growth requires myogenic satellite cells and the dynamic expression of cell membrane-associated proteins. The membrane associated heparan sulfate proteoglycans, syndecan-4 and glypican-1, link the satellite cell niche to the intracellular environment. Sydnecan-4 and glypican-1 are differentially expressed with age in turkey satellite cells and their over-expression impacts both satellite cell proliferation and differentiation, but their effect on satellite cells from lines with different growth potentials is not known...
May 15, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774991/aggregate-mesenchymal-stem-cell-delivery-ameliorates-the-regenerative-niche-for-muscle-repair
#3
Marissa A Ruehle, Hazel Y Stevens, Aaron M Beedle, Robert E Guldberg, Jarrod A Call
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe muscle wasting disease due to the absence of the dystrophin protein from the muscle cell membrane which renders the muscle susceptible to continuous damage. In DMD patients, muscle weakness, together with cycles of degeneration/regeneration and replacement with non-contractile tissue, limit mobility and lifespan. Since the loss of dystrophin result in loss of polarity and a reduction in the number of self-renewing satellite cells, it is postulated that these patients could achieve an improved quality of life if delivered cells could restore satellite cell function...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771237/bundling-up-dna
#4
Susan A Gerbi
Structures known as chromocenters, comprising satellite DNA and proteins such as D1 or HMGA1, help to contain DNA inside the nucleus between cell divisions.
May 17, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770350/centromere-chromosome-orientation-fluorescent-in-situ-hybridization-cen-co-fish-detects-sister-chromatid-exchange-at-the-centromere-in-human-cells
#5
Simona Giunta
Human centromeres are composed of large tandem arrays of repetitive alpha satellite DNA, which are often sites of aberrant rearrangement in cancers (Mitelman et al ., 1997; Padilla-Nash et al ., 2001). To date, annotation of the human centromere repetitive sequences remains incomplete, greatly hindering in-depth functional studies of these regions essential for chromosome segregation. In order to monitor sister chromatid exchange happening at the centromere (C-SCE) due to recombination and mutagenic events, I have applied the Chromosome-Orientation Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (CO-FISH) technique to centromeres (Cen-CO-FISH) in human cells...
April 5, 2018: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770116/peripheral-glial-cells-in-the-development-of-diabetic-neuropathy
#6
REVIEW
Nádia Pereira Gonçalves, Christian Bjerggaard Vægter, Lone Tjener Pallesen
The global prevalence of diabetes is rapidly increasing, affecting more than half a billion individuals within the next few years. As diabetes negatively affects several physiological systems, this dramatic increase represents not only impaired quality of life on the individual level but also a huge socioeconomic challenge. One of the physiological consequences affecting up to half of diabetic patients is the progressive deterioration of the peripheral nervous system, resulting in spontaneous pain and eventually loss of sensory function, motor weakness, and organ dysfunctions...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761654/low-load-resistance-exercise-during-inactivity-is-associated-with-greater-fibre-area-and-satellite-cell-expression-in-older-skeletal-muscle
#7
Daniel R Moore, Ryan P Kelly, Michaela C Devries, Tyler A Churchward-Venne, Stuart M Phillips, Gianni Parise, Adam P Johnston
BACKGROUND: Age-related sarcopenia is accelerated by physical inactivity. Low-load resistance exercise (LLRE) counters inactivity-induced muscle atrophy in older adults, but changes in muscle fibre morphology are unstudied. We aimed to determine the impact of LLRE during short-term inactivity (step-reduction) on muscle fibre size and capillarity as well as satellite cell (SC) content in older skeletal muscle. METHODS: Fourteen older (~71 years) male adults underwent 14 days of step reduction (<1500 steps/day) while performing six sessions of LLRE (~30% maximal strength) with one leg (SR + EX) while the contralateral leg served as an untrained control (SR)...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758057/ankk1-is-found-in-myogenic-precursors-and-muscle-fibers-subtypes-with-glycolytic-metabolism
#8
Estrella Rubio-Solsona, Salvador Martí, Juan J Vílchez, Francesc Palau, Janet Hoenicka
Ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (ANKK1) gene has been widely related to neuropsychiatry disorders. The localization of ANKK1 in neural progenitors and its correlation with the cell cycle has suggested its participation in development. However, ANKK1 functions still need to be identified. Here, we have further characterized the ANKK1 localization in vivo and in vitro, by using immunolabeling, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot in the myogenic lineage. Histologic investigations in mice and humans revealed that ANKK1 is expressed in precursors of embryonic and adult muscles...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750574/exercise-training-during-chemotherapy-preserves-skeletal-muscle-fiber-area-capillarization-and-mitochondrial-content-in-patients-with-breast-cancer
#9
Sara Mijwel, Daniele A Cardinale, Jessica Norrbom, Mark Chapman, Niklas Ivarsson, Yvonne Wengström, Carl Johan Sundberg, Helene Rundqvist
Exercise has been suggested to ameliorate the detrimental effects of chemotherapy on skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different exercise regimens with usual care on skeletal muscle morphology and mitochondrial markers in patients being treated with chemotherapy for breast cancer. Specifically, we compared moderate-intensity aerobic combined with high-intensity interval training (AT-HIIT) and resistance combined with high-intensity interval training (RT-HIIT) with usual care (UC)...
May 11, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749720/anti-calponin-3-autoantibodies-a-new-specificity-in-patients-with-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#10
Julius Birnbaum, Ahmet Hoke, Aliya Lalji, Peter Calabresi, Pavan Bhargava, Livia Casciola-Rosen
OBJECTIVE: Autoantibodies are clinically useful for phenotyping patients across the spectrum of autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Using serum from a patient with Sjögren's Syndrome (SS), we detected a new specificity by immunoblotting. The purpose of this study was to identify this autoantibody and to evaluate its disease specificity. METHODS: A prominent 40 kDa band was detected when immunoblots were performed using a SS patient serum and lysate from rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG)...
May 11, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748382/satellite-rna-increases-dna-damage-and-accelerates-tumor-formation-in-mouse-models-of-pancreatic-cancer
#11
Takahiro Kishikawa, Motoyuki Otsuka, Tatsunori Suzuki, Takahiro Seimiya, Kazuma Sekiba, Rei Ishibashi, Eri Tanaka, Motoko Ohno, Mari Yamagami, Kazuhiko Koike
Highly repetitive tandem arrays such as satellite sequences in the centromeric and pericentromeric regions of chromosomes, which were previously considered to be silent, are actively transcribed in various biological processes, including cancers. In the pancreas, this aberrant expression occurs even in Kras-mutated pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) tissues, which are precancerous lesions. To determine the biological role of satellite RNAs in carcinogenesis in vivo, we constructed mouse major satellite (MajSAT) RNA-expressing transgenic mice...
May 10, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748061/massive-ggaas-in-genomic-repetitive-sequences-serve-as-a-nuclear-reservoir-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#12
Jian Wu, Qiao Wang, Wei Dai, Wei Wang, Ming Yue, Jinke Wang
Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is a DNA-binding transcription factor. Characterizing its genomic binding sites is crucial for understanding its gene regulatory function and mechanism in cells. This study characterized the binding sites of NF-κB RelA/p65 in the tumor neurosis factor-α (TNFα) stimulated HeLa cells by a precise chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq). The results revealed that NF-κB binds nontraditional motifs (nt-motifs) containing conserved GGAA quadruplet. Moreover, nt-motifs mainly distribute in the peaks nearby centromeres that contain a larger number of repetitive elements such as satellite, simple repeats and short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs)...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746464/rif1-prolongs-the-embryonic-s-phase-at-the-drosophila-mid-blastula-transition
#13
Charles A Seller, Patrick H O'Farrell
In preparation for dramatic morphogenetic events of gastrulation, rapid embryonic cell cycles slow at the mid-blastula transition (MBT). In Drosophila melanogaster embryos, down-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) activity initiates this slowing by delaying replication of heterochromatic satellite sequences and extending S phase. We found that Cdk1 activity inhibited the chromatin association of Rap1 interacting factor 1 (Rif1), a candidate repressor of replication. Furthermore, Rif1 bound selectively to satellite sequences following Cdk1 down-regulation at the MBT...
May 10, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744875/expression-of-pannexin-1-and-pannexin-3-during-skeletal-muscle-development-regeneration-and-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#14
Tammy L Pham, Marie-Eve St-Pierre, Aymeric Ravel-Chapuis, Tara E C Parks, Stéphanie Langlois, Silvia Penuela, Bernard J Jasmin, Kyle N Cowan
Pannexin 1 (Panx1) and Pannexin 3 (Panx3) are single membrane channels recently implicated in myogenic commitment, as well as myoblast proliferation and differentiation in vitro. However, their expression patterns during skeletal muscle development and regeneration had yet to be investigated. Here, we show that Panx1 levels increase during skeletal muscle development becoming highly expressed together with Panx3 in adult skeletal muscle. In adult mice, Panx1 and Panx3 were differentially expressed in fast- and slow-twitch muscles...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744592/biology-and-pathology-of-perineuronal-satellite-cells-in-sensory-ganglia
#15
Ennio Pannese
A cell sheath enveloping the body of the neurons in sensory ganglia was mentioned for the first time in 1836 by Valentin, a pupil of Purkinje. In some illustrations of his paper, the nuclei of cells adjacent to the surface of the nerve cell body, both in the trigeminal ganglion and in the ganglia of the autonomic nervous system, were clearly shown (Fig. 1.1a) even though they were misinterpreted as pigment granules. Since Remak (1838) denied the existence of this perineuronal sheath, Valentin (1839) provided a more detailed description of it, illustrated with new drawings (Fig...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743374/common-and-distinct-capsid-and-surface-protein-requirements-for-secretion-of-complete-and-genome-free-hepatitis-b-virions
#16
Xiaojun Ning, Laurie Luckenbaugh, Kuancheng Liu, Volker Bruss, Camille Sureau, Jianming Hu
During the morphogenesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV), an enveloped virus, two types of virions are secreted: (1) a minor population of complete virions containing a mature nucleocapsid with the characteristic, partially double-stranded, relaxed circular DNA genome and (2) a major population containing an empty capsid with no DNA or RNA (empty virions). Secretion of both types of virions requires interactions between the HBV capsid or core protein (HBc) and the viral surface or envelope proteins. We have studied the requirements from both HBc and envelope proteins for empty virion secretion, in comparison with those for secretion of complete virions...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743081/residential-scene-classification-for-gridded-population-sampling-in-developing-countries-using-deep-convolutional-neural-networks-on-satellite-imagery
#17
Robert F Chew, Safaa Amer, Kasey Jones, Jennifer Unangst, James Cajka, Justine Allpress, Mark Bruhn
BACKGROUND: Conducting surveys in low- and middle-income countries is often challenging because many areas lack a complete sampling frame, have outdated census information, or have limited data available for designing and selecting a representative sample. Geosampling is a probability-based, gridded population sampling method that addresses some of these issues by using geographic information system (GIS) tools to create logistically manageable area units for sampling. GIS grid cells are overlaid to partition a country's existing administrative boundaries into area units that vary in size from 50 m × 50 m to 150 m × 150 m...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742392/direct-reprogramming-of-mouse-fibroblasts-into-functional-skeletal-muscle-progenitors
#18
Ori Bar-Nur, Mattia F M Gerli, Bruno Di Stefano, Albert E Almada, Amy Galvin, Amy Coffey, Aaron J Huebner, Peter Feige, Cassandra Verheul, Priscilla Cheung, Duygu Payzin-Dogru, Sylvain Paisant, Anthony Anselmo, Ruslan I Sadreyev, Harald C Ott, Shahragim Tajbakhsh, Michael A Rudnicki, Amy J Wagers, Konrad Hochedlinger
Skeletal muscle harbors quiescent stem cells termed satellite cells and proliferative progenitors termed myoblasts, which play pivotal roles during muscle regeneration. However, current technology does not allow permanent capture of these cell populations in vitro. Here, we show that ectopic expression of the myogenic transcription factor MyoD, combined with exposure to small molecules, reprograms mouse fibroblasts into expandable induced myogenic progenitor cells (iMPCs). iMPCs express key skeletal muscle stem and progenitor cell markers including Pax7 and Myf5 and give rise to dystrophin-expressing myofibers upon transplantation in vivo...
May 8, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741480/a-novel-cep120-dependent-mechanism-inhibits-centriole-maturation-in-quiescent-cells
#19
Ewelina Betleja, Rashmi Nanjundappa, Tao Cheng, Moe R Mahjoub
The two centrioles of the centrosome in quiescent cells are inherently asymmetric structures that differ in age, morphology and function. How these asymmetric properties are established and maintained during quiescence remains unknown. Here we show that a daughter centriole-associated ciliopathy protein, Cep120, plays a critical inhibitory role at daughter centrioles. Depletion of Cep120 in quiescent mouse and human cells causes accumulation of pericentriolar material (PCM) components including Pericentrin, Cdk5Rap2, Ninein and Cep170...
May 9, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736711/isolation-of-skeletal-muscle-stem-cells-for-phenotypic-screens-for-modulators-of-proliferation
#20
Aaron C Hinken, Andrew N Billin
Adult skeletal muscle contains a population of resident stem cells known as muscle stem cells (MuSC) or satellite cells. This population of cells is required for regeneration of functional myofibers after damage. Aging reduces the proliferative response of satellite cells post-injury. This deficient response is thought to contribute to slowed recovery of muscle function after damage in the elderly and may also contribute to age-related loss of muscle function (sarcopenia). Numerous techniques are now available for the isolation of highly purified satellite cells from mice and humans (Sherwood, et al...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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