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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911440/the-prey-s-scent-volatile-organic-compound-mediated-interactions-between-soil-bacteria-and-their-protist-predators
#1
Kristin Schulz-Bohm, Stefan Geisen, E R Jasper Wubs, Chunxu Song, Wietse de Boer, Paolina Garbeva
Protists are major predators of bacteria in soils. However, it remains unknown how protists sense their prey in this highly complex environment. Here, we investigated whether volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of six phylogenetic distinct soil bacteria affect the performance of three different soil protists and how that relates to direct feeding interactions. We observed that most bacteria affected protist activity by VOCs. However, the response of protists to the VOCs was strongly dependent on both the bacterial and protist interacting partner...
December 2, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911395/preparation-of-primary-mixed-glial-cultures-from-adult-mouse-spinal-cord-tissue
#2
Jennifer T Malon, Ling Cao
It has been well-accepted that spinal cord glial responses contribute significantly to the development of neuropathic pain. Tremendous information regarding glial activities at the cellular and molecular levels has been obtained through in vitro cell culture systems. The in vitro systems utilized, mainly include primary glia derived from neonatal brain cortical tissue and immortalized cell lines. However, these systems may not reflect the characteristics of spinal cord glial cells in vivo. In order to further investigate the roles of spinal cord glial cells in the development of peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain using a culture system that better reflects the in vivo condition, our laboratory has developed a method to establish primary spinal cord mixed glial cultures from adult mice...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911371/development-of-stem-cell-derived-antigen-specific-regulatory-t-cells-against-autoimmunity
#3
Mohammad Haque, Kristin Fino, Praneet Sandhu, Jianxun Song
Autoimmune diseases arise due to the loss of immunological self-tolerance. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important mediators of immunologic self-tolerance. Tregs represent about 5 - 10% of the mature CD4(+) T cell subpopulation in mice and humans, with about 1 - 2% of those Tregs circulating in the peripheral blood. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be differentiated into functional Tregs, which have a potential to be used for cell-based therapies of autoimmune diseases. Here, we present a method to develop antigen (Ag)-specific Tregs from iPSCs (i...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911366/a-multimodal-imaging-and-stimulation-based-method-of-evaluating-connectivity-related-brain-excitability-in-patients-with-epilepsy
#4
Mouhsin M Shafi, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Catherine J Chu, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Bernard S Chang
Resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) is a technique that identifies connectivity between different brain regions based on correlations over time in the blood-oxygenation level dependent signal. rs-fcMRI has been applied extensively to identify abnormalities in brain connectivity in different neurologic and psychiatric diseases. However, the relationship among rs-fcMRI connectivity abnormalities, brain electrophysiology and disease state is unknown, in part because the causal significance of alterations in functional connectivity in disease pathophysiology has not been established...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911344/patient-perspectives-on-deep-brain-stimulation-clinical-research-in-early-stage-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Lauren Heusinkveld, Mallory Hacker, Maxim Turchan, Madelyn Bollig, Christina Tamargo, William Fisher, Lauren McLaughlin, Adria Martig, David Charles
The FDA approved a multicenter, double-blind, Phase III, pivotal trial testing deep brain stimulation in 280 people with very early stage Parkinson's disease (PD; IDE#G050016). In partnership with The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research, we conducted a survey to investigate motivating factors, barriers, and gender differences for participation in a trial testing DBS in early PD. The majority of survey respondents (72%) indicated they would consider learning more about participating. Men and women with early PD are likely to consider enrolling in trials of invasive therapies that may slow symptom progression and help future patients...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911104/upregulation-of-t-cell-immunoglobulin-and-mucin-domain-containing-3-tim-3-in-monocytes-macrophages-associates-with-gastric-cancer-progression
#6
Zhenxin Wang, Ni Yin, Zixiang Zhang, Yi Zhang, Guangbo Zhang, Weichang Chen
T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing-3 (Tim-3) is an important immune regulatory molecule in cancer immune system. However, expression and function of Tim-3 in monocytes/macrophages in cancer progression mainly remain unclear. In this study, we analyzed Tim-3 levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 62 gastric cancer patients and 45 healthy controls using flow cytometry and then associated Tim-3 levels with clinical pathological data from patients. We found Tim-3 level was significantly upregulated in monocytes from gastric cancer patients compared with those from healthy controls, and that upregulated Tim-3 levels associated with depth of tumor invasion and tumor lymph node metastasis and advanced clinical stages of gastric cancer patients...
December 2, 2016: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911044/utilization-of-stimulants-and-atomoxetine-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-among-5-4-million-children-using-population-based-longitudinal-data
#7
Kari Furu, Øystein Karlstad, Helga Zoega, Jaana E Martikainen, Shahram Bahmanyar, Helle Kieler, Anton Pottegård
Use of stimulants to treat Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased over the past two decades and varies substantially between countries. The objective of this multinational population-based study was to examine utilization of ADHD drugs (stimulants and atomoxetine) including co-medication with other psychothropic drugs in the entire child population in the five Nordic countries. We included longitudinal data on dispensed ADHD drugs from five Nordic prescription registers during 2008-2012; which in 2012 comprised 48,296 individuals among 5...
December 2, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911008/comparison-of-neuropathology-in-parkinson-s-disease-subjects-with-and-without-deep-brain-stimulation
#8
Gian D Pal, Bichun Ouyang, Geidy Serrano, Holly A Shill, Christopher Goetz, Glenn Stebbins, Leo Verhagen Metman, Erika Driver-Dunckley, Shyamal H Mehta, John N Caviness, Marwan N Sabbagh, Charles H Adler, Thomas G Beach
BACKGROUND: The aim of this postmortem study was to compare, in Parkinson's disease subjects with and without bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS), the loss of pigmented neurons within the substantia nigra and pathological alpha-synuclein density within the SN and other brain regions. METHODS: PD subjects were identified from the Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders database (STN-DBS = 11, non-DBS = 156). Pigmented neuron loss scores within the substantia nigra as well as alpha-synuclein density scores within the substantia nigra and 9 other brain regions were compared, the latter individually and in summary as the Lewy body brain load score...
December 2, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910893/interference-with-protease-activated-receptor-1-alleviates-neuronal-cell-death-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide-stimulated-microglial-cells-through-the-pi3k-akt-pathway
#9
Yuxin Li, Wuyang Yang, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa, Baocheng Wang, Shujun Xu, Weijie Zhu, Feng Yu, Shaoji Yuan, Peigang Lu
Excessive microglial cells activation in response to inflammatory stimuli leads to synaptic loss, dysfunction, and neuronal cell death. Activated microglia are involved in the pathogenesis of neurological conditions and frequently contribute to several complications. Accumulating evidence suggests that signaling through PAR-1 is involved in inflammation, however, its function has yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we have demonstrated that the suppression of PAR-1 leads to down-regulation of inflammatory factors including IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, NO, as well as the prevention of activation of NF-κB in BV2 cells...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910852/kaleidoscopic-imaging-patterns-of-complex-structures-fabricated-by-laser-induced-deformation
#10
Haoran Zhang, Fengyou Yang, Jianjie Dong, Lena Du, Chuang Wang, Jianming Zhang, Chuan Fei Guo, Qian Liu
Complex surface structures have stimulated a great deal of interests due to many potential applications in surface devices. However, in the fabrication of complex surface micro-/nanostructures, there are always great challenges in precise design, or good controllability, or low cost, or high throughput. Here, we present a route for the accurate design and highly controllable fabrication of surface quasi-three-dimensional (quasi-3D) structures based on a thermal deformation of simple two-dimensional laser-induced patterns...
December 2, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910811/ll-37-hnp-1-and-hbd2-3-modulate-the-secretion-of-cytokines-tnf-%C3%AE-il-6-ifn-%C3%AE-il-10-and-mmp1-in-human-primary-cell-cultures
#11
Carlos Erik Medina Santos, Carmen Nathaly López Hurtado, Bruno Rivas Santiago, Roberto Gonzalez-Amaro, Yolanda Guadalupe Cataño Cañizales, Margarita de la Luz Martínez Fierro, José Antonio Enciso-Moreno, Mariana Haydee García Hernández
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the LL-37, HNP-1 and HBD2/3 peptides on cytokine and MMP production in human polymorphonuclear cells, mononuclear cells and chondrocytes. The levels of cytokines in supernatants from mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cell cultures were measured with a cytometric bead array by flow cytometry. Likewise, the levels of metalloproteinase/MMP-1, 3, and 13 were measured in supernatants from chondrocyte cultures using an ELISA. The expression of RANKL on lymphocytes was analyzed by flow cytometry...
September 1, 2016: European Cytokine Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910810/production-of-tnf-alpha-ex-vivo-is-predictive-of-an-immune-response-to-flu-vaccination-in-a-frail-elderly-population
#12
Frédéric Bloch, Bénédicte Charmeteau, Michael Tovey, Jean-François Meritet, Corinne Desaint, Odile Launay, Pierre Lebon
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the response to influenza vaccination and the ability to produce proinflamatory cytokines in elderly subjects. METHODS: Whole blood samples from 25 elderly subjects collected before influenza vaccination were stimulated with the influenza vaccine in order to evaluate the secretion of five specific cytokines: TNFα, IFNα, IFNγ, IL2 and IL10. The results were correlated with the increased HAI antibody titres two weeks after vaccination...
September 1, 2016: European Cytokine Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910772/structural-characterization-and-immunological-activities-of-a-novel-water-soluble-polysaccharide-from-the-fruiting-bodies-of-culinary-medicinal-winter-mushroom-flammulina-velutipes-agaricomycetes
#13
Ting Feng, Wei Jia, Wen-Han Wang, Chi-Chung Lin, Hua Fan, Jing-Song Zhang, Hai-Ying Bao
A water-soluble polysaccharide, designated FVPA2, was isolated from the fruiting bodies of Flammulina velutipes using DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow and gel-permeation chromatography. Its structure was elucidated by monosaccharide composition and methylation analysis, ultraviolet, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results showed that FVPA2 was a homogeneous heteropolysaccharide containing galactose, fucose, and mannose in a molar ratio of 5:1:1. High-performance liquid chromatography indicated its molecular weight as 3...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910770/addition-of-zeolites-to-improve-the-functional-characteristics-of-the-hen-of-the-wood-or-maitake-medicinal-mushroom-grifola-frondosa-agaricomycetes
#14
Jovana Vunduk, Anita Klaus, Maja Kozarski, Radovan Dordevic, Zoran Miladinovic, Ljubinko Jovanovic, Miomir Niksic, Leonardus Johannes Lambertus Donatus Van Griensven
Kaolinite and the modified natural zeolite minazel plus (M+) were used as supplements in substrate used for the production of the medicinal mushroom Grifola frondosa. Growth stimulation, expressed as yield and biological efficiency, was observed when M+ (1%) was added. The production cycle was shortened by half as a result of the zeolites' ion-exchange ability, stimulation of enzyme activity, and water retain capacity. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry of fruiting bodies showed the absence of heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, and lead), whereas the concentration of calcium increased greatly and the concentrations of iron, magnesium, and zinc increased moderately under the influence of M+...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910710/management-of-a-pregnant-woman-with-thyrotropinoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
Carolina M Perdomo, Jorge A Árabe, Miguel Á Idoate, Juan C Galofré
INTRODUCTION: Pituitary disorders during pregnancy are uncommon. The approach should include a close follow-up in order to reduce maternal and fetal risks associated with physiological changes during pregnancy or treatment side effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We report a 21-year-old woman with a thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary macroadenoma and positive antithyroid antibodies. She was initially treated using transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. The patient relapsed 17-month post-surgery...
December 2, 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910495/cross-calibration-of-fuji-tr-image-plate-and-rar-2492-x-ray-film-to-determine-the-response-of-a-ditabis-super-micron-image-plate-scanner
#16
G Dunham, E C Harding, G P Loisel, P W Lake, L B Nielsen-Weber
Fuji TR image plate is frequently used as a replacement detector medium for x-ray imaging and spectroscopy diagnostics at NIF, Omega, and Z facilities. However, the familiar Fuji BAS line of image plate scanners is no longer supported by the industry, and so a replacement scanning system is needed. While the General Electric Typhoon line of scanners could replace the Fuji systems, the shift away from photo stimulated luminescence units to 16-bit grayscale Tag Image File Format (TIFF) leaves a discontinuity when comparing data collected from both systems...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910257/neurostimulation-for-postsurgical-analgesia-a-novel-system-enabling-ultrasound-guided-percutaneous-peripheral-nerve-stimulation
#17
Brian M Ilfeld, Stuart A Grant, Christopher A Gilmore, John Chae, Richard D Wilson, Amorn Wongsarnpigoon, Joseph W Boggs
While neurostimulation-stimulation of the nervous system using electrical current-has been used to treat chronic pain, its use treating postsurgical pain has been limited. Here we report on the clinical application of a novel investigational lead to provide analgesia following total knee arthroplasty. In 5 subjects, leads were inserted percutaneously using ultrasound guidance within 0.5 to 3.0 cm of the femoral and/or sciatic nerve(s). With the delivery of current, pain decreased an average of 63% at rest, with 4 of 5 subjects having relief of >50%...
December 2, 2016: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910226/successful-treatment-of-post-dural-puncture-headache-using-epidural-fibrin-glue-patch-after-persistent-failure-of-epidural-blood-patches
#18
Kevin Wong, Brian R Monroe
OBJECTIVES: Epidural blood patch is the gold standard for the treatment of post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) when conservative treatments have failed to provide any relief. However, alternative therapies are lacking when epidural blood patch persistently fails to improve symptoms. Failure to treat PDPH may lead to significant functional impairment of daily living. Alternative therapies should be sought to accelerate recovery from PDPH. CASE REPORT: This case describes a woman who developed PDPH secondary to accidental dural puncture during a spinal cord stimulator trial...
December 2, 2016: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910210/microbiological-evaluation-of-the-extension-wire-and-percutaneous-epidural-lead-anchor-site-following-a-2-stage-cut-down-spinal-cord-stimulator-procedure
#19
Abdul Ghaaliq Lalkhen, Mahindra Chincholkar, Jiten Patel
OBJECTIVES: There are concerns regarding bacterial colonization of the temporary extension leads and subsequent infection risk using the 2-stage cut-down approach in spinal cord stimulation (SCS). We sought to quantify the extent of bacterial colonization of the temporary extension wire and percutaneous epidural lead anchor site. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional observational study recruiting a pragmatic sample of 25 consecutive patients listed for a cut-down trial of SCS...
December 2, 2016: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910163/serum-amyloid-a-an-acute-phase-protein-stimulates-proliferative-and-proinflammatory-responses-of-keratinocytes
#20
Ning Yu, Shujie Zhang, Jiajing Lu, Ying Li, Xuemei Yi, Li Tang, Lina Su, Yangfeng Ding
OBJECTIVES: Serum amyloid A (SAA), an acute phase protein, is highly expressed in psoriatic lesions but its function is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to explore its role in activation of keratinocytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Real-time PCR and immunofluorescence were performed to examine SAA expression in imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like mice. In vivo function of SAA was examined by treating psoriasis-like mice with SAA neutralising antibody...
December 2, 2016: Cell Proliferation
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