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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231518/early-bronchoalveolar-lavage-for-intubated-trauma-patients-with-tbi-or-chest-trauma
#1
Tyler J Loftus, Stephen J Lemon, Linda L Nguyen, Stacy A Voils, Scott C Brakenridge, Janeen R Jordan, Chasen A Croft, R Stephen Smith, Frederick A Moore, Philip A Efron, Alicia M Mohr
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of an early bronchoalveolar lavage (E-BAL) protocol. BAL was performed within 48 h for intubated patients with traumatic brain injury or chest trauma. We hypothesized that E-BAL would decrease antibiotic use and improve outcomes compared to late BAL (L-BAL) triggered by clinical signs of pneumonia. METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis of 132 patients with quantitative BAL and ≥1 risk factor: head Abbreviated Injury Score ≥2, ≥3 rib fractures, or radiographic signs of aspiration or pulmonary contusion...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230712/updating-evidence-for-using-hypothermia-in-pediatric-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-conventional-and-bayesian-meta-analytic-perspectives
#2
Robert C Tasker, Frederick W Vonberg, Elizabeth D Ulano, Alireza Akhondi-Asl
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical trials of hypothermia management on outcome in pediatric patients with severe traumatic brain injury using conventional and Bayesian meta-analyses. DATA SOURCES: Screening of PubMed and other databases to identify randomized controlled trials of hypothermia for pediatric severe traumatic brain injury published before September 2016. STUDY SELECTION: Four investigators assessed and reviewed randomized controlled trial data...
February 20, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230635/valproic-acid-modulates-platelet-and-coagulation-function-ex-vivo
#3
Ted Bambakidis, Simone E Dekker, Ihab Halaweish, Baoling Liu, Vahagn C Nikolian, Patrick E Georgoff, Patryk Piascik, Yongqing Li, Martin Sillesen, Hasan B Alam
Trauma-induced coagulopathy is associated with adverse patient outcome. Animal models demonstrate that histone deacetylase inhibitors, such as valproic acid (VPA), improve survival following injury. While in-vivo data suggest that improved survival may in part be because of an attenuation of coagulopathy, it remains unknown whether this is a direct effect of the drug, or the establishment of an overall prosurvival phenotype. We thus conducted an ex-vivo experiment to determine if VPA has an effect on coagulation and platelet function...
February 21, 2017: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229021/the-preventive-effect-of-dexmedetomidine-on-paroxysmal-sympathetic-hyperactivity-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-patients-who-have-undergone-surgery-a-retrospective-study
#4
Qilin Tang, Xiang Wu, Weiji Weng, Hongpeng Li, Junfeng Feng, Qing Mao, Guoyi Gao, Jiyao Jiang
BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) results and aggravates in secondary brain injury, which seriously affects the prognosis of severe traumatic brain injury patients. Although several studies have focused on the treatment of PSH, few have concentrated on its prevention. METHODS: Ninety post-operation (post-op) severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) patients admitted from October 2014 to April 2016 were chosen to participate in this study. Fifty of the post-op sTBI patients were sedated with dexmedetomidine and were referred as the "dexmedetomidine group" (admitted from May 2015 to April 2016)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228720/motor-learning-abilities-are-similar-in-hemiplegic-cerebral-palsy-compared-to-controls-as-assessed-by-adaptation-to-unilateral-leg-weighting-during-gait-part-i
#5
Diane L Damiano, Christopher J Stanley, Thomas C Bulea, Hyung Soon Park
Introduction: Individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) demonstrate high response variability to motor training insufficiently accounted for by age or severity. We propose here that differences in the inherent ability to learn new motor tasks may explain some of this variability. Damage to motor pathways involving the cerebellum, which may be a direct or indirect effect of the brain injury for many with CP, has been shown to adversely affect the ability to learn new motor tasks and may be a potential explanation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228694/survey-of-primary-contact-medical-and-chiropractic-clinicians-on-self-reported-knowledge-and-recognition-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injuries-a-pilot-study
#6
David N Taylor, Frank J Ponce, Stephen J Dyess
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the self-reported knowledge of concussion recognition and treatment with first-contact family medical and chiropractic practitioners by means of a pilot study of the need, construct validity, and feasibility for further investigation of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) knowledge base. METHODS: Two hundred forty-eight practicing chiropractic and 120 medical physicians in the south and northeastern sections of the United States were contacted by e-mail, telephone, and postal mail to answer an 18-item survey on knowledge, diagnosis, and common practice with respect to traumatic brain injury patients...
March 2017: Journal of Chiropractic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228155/catecholamines-as-outcome-markers-in-isolated-traumatic-brain-injury-the-coma-tbi-study
#7
Sandro B Rizoli, Blessing N R Jaja, Alex P Di Battista, Shawn G Rhind, Antonio Capone Neto, Leodante da Costa, Kenji Inaba, Luis Teodoro da Luz, Bartolomeu Nascimento, Adic Perez, Andrew J Baker, Airton Leonardo de Oliveira Manoel
BACKGROUND: Elevated catecholamine levels might be associated with unfavorable outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We investigated the association between catecholamine levels in the first 24 h post-trauma and functional outcome in patients with isolated moderate-to-severe TBI. METHODS: A cohort of 174 patients who sustained isolated blunt TBI was prospectively enrolled from three Level-1 Trauma Centers. Epinephrine (Epi) and norepinephrine (NE) concentrations were measured at admission (baseline), 6, 12 and 24 h post-injury...
February 23, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228060/resuscitation-with-lyophilized-plasma-is-safe-and-improves-neurologic-recovery-in-a-long-term-survival-model-of-swine-subjected-to-traumatic-brain-injury-hemorrhagic-shock-and-polytrauma
#8
Patrick E Georgoff, Vahagn C Nikolian, Ihab Halaweish, Kiril Chtraklin, Peter J Bruhn, Hassan Eidy, Monica Rasmussen, Yongqing Li, Ashok Srinivasan, Hasan B Alam
We have previously shown that fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and lyophilized plasma decrease brain lesion size and improve neurologic recovery in a swine model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS). In this study, we examine whether these findings can be validated in a clinically relevant model of severe TBI, HS, and polytrauma. Female Yorkshire swine were subjected to TBI (controlled cortical impact), hemorrhage (40% volume), grade III liver and splenic injuries, rib fracture, and rectus abdominis crush...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228044/withaferin-a-protects-against-spinal-cord-injury-by-inhibiting-apoptosis-and-inflammation-in-mice
#9
Xianlei Yan, Guangxiang Huang, Quan Liu, Jiemin Zheng, Hongmou Chen, Qidan Huang, Jiakang Chen, Heqing Huang
CONTEXT: Withaferin A (WFA) exhibits diverse pharmaceutical applications on human diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, cancers and microbial infection. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the neuroprotective role of WFA using a mouse model of spinal cord injury (SCI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: BALB/c mice were administrated 10 mg/kg of WFA. Gene expression was measured by real-time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. Cell morphology and apoptosis were determined by H&E staining and TUNEL assay...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227900/automated-assessment-of-postural-stability-system
#10
Alessandro Napoli, Christian R Ward, Stephen M Glassd, Carole Tucker, Iyad Obeid, Alessandro Napoli, Christian R Ward, Stephen M Glass, Carole Tucker, Iyad Obeid, Christian R Ward, Carole Tucker, Alessandro Napoli, Iyad Obeid, Stephen M Glass
The Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) is one of the most commonly used clinical tests to evaluate static postural stability deficits resulting from traumatic brain events and musculoskeletal injury. This test requires a trained operator to visually assess balance and give the subject a performance score based on the number of balance "errors" they committed. Despite being regularly used in several real-world situations, the BESS test is scored by clinician observation and is therefore (a) potentially susceptible to biased and inaccurate test scores and (b) cannot be administered in the absence of a trained provider...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227758/mining-cross-frequency-coupling-microstates-from-resting-state-meg-an-application-to-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Marios Antonakakis, Stavros I Dimitriadis, Michalis Zervakis, Andrew C Papanicolaou, George Zouridakis, Marios Antonakakis, Stavros I Dimitriadis, Michalis Zervakis, Andrew C Papanicolaou, George Zouridakis, Michalis Zervakis, Marios Antonakakis, George Zouridakis, Andrew C Papanicolaou, Stavros I Dimitriadis
Recent studies have investigated the possible role of dynamic functional connectivity and the role of cross-frequency coupling (CFC) to provide the substrate for reliable biomarkers of brain disorders. In this study, we analyzed time-varying CFC profiles from resting state Magnetoencephal-ographic recordings of 30 mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) patients and 50 normal controls. Interactions among sensors at specific pairs of frequency bands were computed via estimation of phase-to-amplitude couplings. We then computed time-varying functional connectivity graphs that were described in terms of segregation (local efficiency, LE) and integration (global efficiency, GE) and mapped those graphs to time series of GE/LE estimates...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227478/portable-video-oculography-device-for-implementation-in-sideline-concussion-assessments-a-prototype
#12
Joshua D Fischer, Dawie J van den Heever, Joshua D Fischer, Dawie J van den Heever, Dawie J Van den Heever, Joshua D Fischer
Concussion is currently a serious health problem and can lead to severe brain dysfunction. There is a definite need for sensitive and reliable tests to detect and evaluate the subtle changes in brain function caused by concussion. This study details the development of a low cost portable eye tracking device that can aid in the detection of concussions. The device evaluates ocular motor function and can be used on the sidelines of sporting events to give a quick indication of the severity of head trauma. It can further be used to evaluate and monitor mild Traumatic Brain Injuries and aid in the return to play decision making process...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227407/recursive-feature-elimination-for-biomarker-discovery-in-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#13
Hariharan Ravishankar, Radhika Madhavan, Rakesh Mullick, Teena Shetty, Luca Marinelli, Suresh E Joel, Hariharan Ravishankar, Radhika Madhavan, Rakesh Mullick, Teena Shetty, Luca Marinelli, Suresh E Joel, Suresh E Joel, Teena Shetty, Luca Marinelli, Rakesh Mullick, Hariharan Ravishankar, Radhika Madhavan
Biomarker discovery involves finding correlations between features and clinical symptoms to aid clinical decision. This task is especially difficult in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data due to low SNR, high-dimensionality of images, inter-subject and intra-subject variability and small numbers of subjects compared to the number of derived features. Traditional univariate analysis suffers from the problem of multiple comparisons. Here, we adopt an alternative data-driven method for identifying population differences in functional connectivity...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227392/structural-and-functional-changes-during-epileptogenesis-in-the-mouse-model-of-medial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#14
Yvan Dietrich, Pierre-Antoine Eliat, Gabriel Dieuset, Herve Saint-Jalmes, Charles Pineau, Fabrice Wendling, Benoit Martin, Yvan Dietrich, Pierre-Antoine Eliat, Gabriel Dieuset, Herve Saint-Jalmes, Charles Pineau, Fabrice Wendling, Benoit Martin, Pierre-Antoine Eliat, Charles Pineau, Benoit Martin, Gabriel Dieuset, Yvan Dietrich, Herve Saint-Jalmes, Fabrice Wendling
An important issue in epilepsy research is to understand the structural and functional modifications leading to chronic epilepsy, characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures, after initial brain insult. To address this issue, we recorded and analyzed electroencephalography (EEG) and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data during epileptogenesis in the in vivo mouse model of Medial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (MTLE, kainate). Besides, this model of epilepsy is a particular form of drug-resistant epilepsy...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226969/a-machine-learning-based-approach-for-identifying-traumatic-brain-injury-patients-for-whom-a-head-ct-scan-can-be-avoided
#15
Somayeh Molaei, Frederick K Korley, S M Reza Soroushmehr, Hayley Falk, Haris Sair, Kevin Ward, Kayvan Najarian, Somayeh Molaei, Frederick K Korley, S M Reza Soroushmehr, Hayley Falk, Haris Sair, Kevin Ward, Kayvan Najarian, Frederick K Korley, Hayley Falk, Kevin Ward, S M Reza Soroushmehr, Haris Sair, Kayvan Najarian, Somayeh Molaei
Head CT scan is more often used to evaluate patients with suspected traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the use of head CT scans in evaluating TBI is costly with low value endeavor. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm and a set of features to help clinicians determine which patients evaluated for TBI need a head CT scan using cost sensitive random forest (CSRF) classifier. We show that random forest (RF) and CSRF are useful methods for identifying patients likely to have a positive head CT scan. The proposed algorithm has superior diagnostic accuracy in comparison to the Canadian head CT algorithm, which is currently the most accurate and widely used algorithm for determining which TBI patients need a head CT scan...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226876/brain-activation-profiles-in-mtbi-evidence-from-erp-activity-of-working-memory-response
#16
Lianyang Li, Xianghong Arakaki, Thao Tran, Michael Harrington, Nikhil Padhye, George Zouridakis, Lianyang Li, Xianghong Arakaki, Thao Tran, Michael Harrington, Nikhil Padhye, George Zouridakis, Nikhil Padhye, Xianghong Arakaki, Thao Tran, Michael Harrington, George Zouridakis, Lianyang Li
In this study we analyzed event related potentials (ERPs) obtained in an N-back working memory test that varied in difficulty from 0- to 2-back. We collected 21 channels of activity from 11 mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients and 7 normal controls, on three different visits, and used the amplitude and latency of the P300 component to characterize the subjects. A preprocessing procedure based on independent component analysis was used first to identify and eliminate electrophysiological noise on a single trial basis...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226874/impact-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-on-auditory-brain-stem-dysfunction-in-mouse-model
#17
Reza M Amanipour, Robert D Frisina, Samantha A Cresoe, Teresa J Parsons, Xiaoxia Zhu, Cesario V Borlongan, Joseph P Walton, Reza M Amanipour, Robert D Frisina, Samantha A Cresoe, Teresa J Parsons, Xiaoxia Zhu, Cesario V Borlongan, Joseph P Walton, Robert D Frisina, Cesario V Borlongan, Reza M Amanipour, Xiaoxia Zhu, Samantha A Cresoe, Joseph P Walton, Teresa J Parsons
The auditory brainstem response (ABR) is an electrophysiological test that examines the functionality of the auditory nerve and brainstem. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be detected if prolonged peak latency is observed in ABR measurements, since latency measures the neural conduction time in the brainstem, and an increase in latency can be a sign of pathological lesion at the auditory brainstem level. The ABR is elicited by brief sounds that can be used to measure hearing sensitivity as well as temporal processing...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226429/postural-responses-after-utilization-of-a-computerized-biofeedback-based-intervention-aimed-at-improving-static-and-dynamic-balance-in-traumatic-brain-injury-a-case-study
#18
Rakesh Pilkar, Nibal Arzouni, Arvind Ramanujam, Kathleen Chervin, Karen J Nolan, Rakesh Pilkar, Nibal Arzouni, Arvind Ramanujam, Kathleen Chervin, Karen J Nolan, Arvind Ramanujam, Kathleen Chervin, Nibal Arzouni, Karen J Nolan, Rakesh Pilkar
Balance dysfunction is one of the most disabling aspects of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Without rapid transmission and accurate perception of somatosensory inputs, the automatic postural responses required during standing may be delayed or absent after TBI which can lead to instability. Further, the sensitivity level to which environmental perturbations can be detected is also vital, as the central nervous system will only employ balance control strategies when it perceives a change in equilibrium. Such undetectable perturbations, however small they may be, can result in fatal falls, especially after TBI...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225527/neuro-trauma-or-med-surg-intensive-care-unit-does-it-matter-where-multiple-injuries-patients-with-traumatic-brain-injury-are-admitted-secondary-analysis-of-the-american-association-for-the-surgery-of-trauma-multi-institutional-trials-committee-decompressive
#19
Sarah Lombardo, Thomas Scalea, Jason Sperry, Raul Coimbra, Gary Vercruysse, Toby Enniss, Gregory J Jurkovich, Raminder Nirula
INTRODUCTION: Patients with nontraumatic acute intracranial pathology benefit from neurointensivist care. Similarly, trauma patients with and without traumatic brain injury (TBI) fare better when treated by a dedicated trauma team. No study has yet evaluated the role of specialized neurocritical (NICU) and trauma intensive care units (TICU) in the management of TBI patients, and it remains unclear which TBI patients are best served in NICU, TICU, or general (Med/Surg) ICU. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis of The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Multi-Institutional Trials Committee (AAST-MITC) decompressive craniectomy study...
March 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225471/neuroanesthesiology-update
#20
Jeffrey J Pasternak, William L Lanier
We reviewed manuscripts published in 2016 that are related to the care of neurosurgical patients or the perioperative care of patients with neurological diseases. We address the broad categories of general neurosurgery and neuroanesthesiology, anesthetic neurotoxicity and neuroprotection, stroke, traumatic brain injury, and nervous system monitoring.
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
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