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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944949/the-research-progress-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-the-treatment-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Gang Li, Yue Yang, Hua-Jiang Dong, Ling Lin
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children and adults throughout the world. It is urgent to ameliorate TBI damage and reduce the disability and case-fatality rate. Stem cell therapy is another medical revolution after drug and surgical medication. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a class of cells with significant self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation properties and be favorable for the treatment of various diseases and injuries, it could be envisioned that MSCs transplantation may be a promising treatment for TBI...
July 16, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944947/posttraumatic-cerebral-infarction-after-decompressive-craniectomy-for-traumatic-brain-injury-incidence-risk-factors-and-outcome
#2
Tsung-Ming Su, Chu-Mei Lan, Tsung-Han Lee, Fu-Yuan Shih, Shih-Wei Hsu, Cheng-Hsien Lu
AIM: To investigate the incidence, timing, risk factors of posttraumatic cerebral infarction (PTCI) and its influence on mortality in patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: After reviewing the medical records and radiographs over a 6-year period, 173 patients with moderate to severe TBI were enrolled to determine the risk factors for the development of PTCI following unilateral decompressive craniectomy (DC). RESULTS: The incidence of PTCI following DC was 31...
July 23, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944448/early-adolescent-stress-induced-changes-in-prefrontal-cortex-mirna-135a-and-hippocampal-mirna-16-in-male-rats
#3
Yuan Liu, Dexiang Liu, Jingjing Xu, Hong Jiang, Fang Pan
Early-life stress increases susceptibility to post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD), in which the dysfunction of 5-hydroxytryptamine plays an important role. miRNA-135a in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and miRNA-16 in the hippocampus (HIP) are closely related to the 5-HT neurotransmitter system. Here, we investigated behavior, miRNA-135a in the PFC, miRNA-16 in the HIP, and 5-HT1AR expression in both brain regions in adolescent and adult rats that were exposed to inescapable stress during their adolescence. Paroxetine hydrochloride and corticotropin-releasing factor antagonist (CP-154,526) were used as intervening measures...
September 25, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944401/molecular-and-cellular-effects-of-traumatic-stress-implications-for-ptsd
#4
REVIEW
Matthew J Girgenti, Brendan D Hare, Sriparna Ghosal, Ronald S Duman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by hyperarousal and recurrent stressful memories after an emotionally traumatic event. Extensive research has been conducted to identify the neurobiological determinants that underlie the pathophysiology of PTSD. In this review, we examine evidence regarding the molecular and cellular pathophysiology of PTSD focusing on two primary brain regions: the vmPFC and the amygdala. RECENT FINDINGS: This discussion includes a review of the molecular alterations related to PTSD, focusing mainly on changes to glucocorticoid receptor signaling...
September 25, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944346/falx-cerebri-segmentation-via-multi-atlas-boundary-fusion
#5
Jeffrey Glaister, Aaron Carass, Dzung L Pham, John A Butman, Jerry L Prince
The falx cerebri is a meningeal projection of dura in the brain, separating the cerebral hemispheres. It has stiffer mechanical properties than surrounding tissue and must be accurately segmented for building computational models of traumatic brain injury. In this work, we propose a method to segment the falx using T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI) and susceptibility-weighted MRI (SWI). Multi-atlas whole brain segmentation is performed using the T1-weighted MRI and the gray matter cerebrum labels are extended into the longitudinal fissure using fast marching to find an initial estimate of the falx...
September 2017: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943422/epidemiology-management-and-functional-outcomes-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-sub-saharan-africa
#6
Jessica Eaton, Asma Bilal Hanif, Joanna Grudziak, Anthony Charles
BACKGROUND: Trauma accounts for 4.7 million deaths each year, with an estimated 90% of these occurring in LMICs. Approximately half of trauma-related deaths are due to central nervous system injury. OBJECTIVE: Because a thorough understanding of TBI in LMICs is essential to mitigate TBI-related mortality, we established a clinical and radiographic database to characterize TBI in our low-income setting. METHODS: This is a review of prospectively collected data from Kamuzu Central Hospital, a tertiary care center in the capital of Malawi...
September 21, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943289/serum-lipocalin-2-concentrations-and-mortality-of-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Liang-Jun Shen, Jing Zhou, Mi Guo, Chun-Song Yang, Qi-Chen Xu, Qing-Wei Lv, Song-Bin Yang, Hang-Bin Huang
BACKGROUND: Lipocalin-2 is related to acute brain injury. We assessed the prognostic value of serum lipocalin-2 in head trauma. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 115 controls and 115 patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Trauma severity was assessed by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores at baseline. Thirty-day mortality and overall survival time were recorded. RESULTS: Compared with the controls, serum lipocalin-2 concentrations were significantly increased in the patients...
September 21, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943199/effects-of-the-dimeric-psd-95-inhibitor-uccb01-144-on-functional-recovery-after-fimbria-fornix-transection-in-rats
#8
Jens Bak Sommer, Anders Bach, Hana Malá, Kristian Strømgaard, Jesper Mogensen, Darryl S Pickering
Pharmacological inhibition of PSD-95 is a promising therapeutic strategy in the treatment of stroke, and positive effects of monomeric and dimeric PSD-95 inhibitors have been reported in numerous studies. However, whether therapeutic effects will generalize to other types of acute brain injury such as traumatic brain injury (TBI), which has pathophysiological mechanisms in common with stroke, is currently uncertain. We have previously found a lack of neuroprotective effects of dimeric PSD-95 inhibitors in the controlled cortical impact model of TBI in rats...
September 21, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942681/the-factor-structure-of-the-disability-rating-scale-in-individuals-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Denise Krch, Anthony H Lequerica
PURPOSE: To examine the factor structure of the Disability Rating Scale and the predictive validity of the scale's factors among individuals with traumatic brain injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five hundred and eight individuals with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury were administered the Disability Rating Scale. The sample was randomly divided into two groups. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted on Group 1, and a confirmatory factor analysis on Group 2...
September 23, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942474/svct2-expression-and-function-in-reactive-astrocytes-is-a-common-event-in-different-brain-pathologies
#10
Katterine Salazar, Fernando Martínez, Margarita Pérez-Martín, Manuel Cifuentes, Laura Trigueros, Luciano Ferrada, Francisca Espinoza, Natalia Saldivia, Romina Bertinat, Katherine Forman, María José Oviedo, Antonio J López-Gambero, Christian Bonansco, Ernesto R Bongarzone, Francisco Nualart
Ascorbic acid (AA), the reduced form of vitamin C, acts as a neuroprotector by eliminating free radicals in the brain. Sodium/vitamin C co-transporter isoform 2 (SVCT2) mediates uptake of AA by neurons. It has been reported that SVCT2 mRNA is induced in astrocytes under ischemic damage, suggesting that its expression is enhanced in pathological conditions. However, it remains to be established if SVCT expression is altered in the presence of reactive astrogliosis generated by different brain pathologies. In the present work, we demonstrate that SVCT2 expression is increased in astrocytes present at sites of neuroinflammation induced by intracerebroventricular injection of a GFP-adenovirus or the microbial enzyme, neuraminidase...
September 23, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942245/regulatory-role-of-nadph-oxidase-2-in-the-polarization-dynamics-and-neurotoxicity-of-microglia-macrophages-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Jing Wang, Merry W Ma, Krishnan M Dhandapani, Darrell W Brann
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability. Secondary injuries that develop after the initial trauma contribute to long-lasting neurophysiological deficits. Polarization of microglia/macrophages toward a pro-inflammatory (M1) phenotype may increase the progression of secondary injury following TBI; however, the regulatory and functional mechanisms underlying these changes remain poorly defined. In the present study, we showed elevated expression of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) and activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) predominantly in microglia/macrophages at 4- and 7-days after controlled cortical impact in mice...
September 20, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942078/tau-protein-mapt-as-a-possible-biochemical-marker-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-postmortem-examination
#12
Mieszko Olczak, Justyna Niderla-Bielińska, Magdalena Kwiatkowska, Dorota Samojłowicz, Sylwia Tarka, Teresa Wierzba-Bobrowicz
MAPT is a neuronal protein that plays an important role in axonal stabilization, neuronal development, and neuronal polarity. MAPT release into the CSF and blood has been interpreted as indicative of axonal injury as its elevated levels were observed in olympic boxers even after a mild head trauma suggesting minor CNS injuries. In our study we wanted to check the potential relevance of MAPT examination for forensic purposes. The study was carried out using cases of head injury group and cases of sudden death (cardiopulmonary failure, no injuries of the head - control group) provided by forensic pathologists at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw...
September 15, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941811/reversible-induction-of-tdp-43-granules-in-cortical-neurons-after-traumatic-injury
#13
Diana Wiesner, Lilla Tar, Birgit Linkus, Akila Chandrasekar, Florian Olde Heuvel, Luc Dupuis, William Tsao, Philip C Wong, Albert Ludolph, Francesco Roselli
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been proposed as a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To determine whether TBI might trigger or exacerbate ALS-relevant pathology, we delivered a mild stab-wound injury to the motor cortex of three different ALS mouse models expressing mutations in SOD1, TDP-43 or FUS and scrutinized the effects on the formation of phospho-TDP-43 (pTDP-43) cytoplasmic granules. Stab-injury induced the formation of cytoplasmic TDP-43 granules in wt animals, peaking at 3dpi; a much larger response was seen in mutant TDP-43 mice, whose response peaked at 7dpi...
September 20, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941502/neurosurgical-considerations-in-craniofacial-trauma
#14
REVIEW
Robert Glenn Oxford, Randall Matther Chesnut
Spinal and traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) often accompany craniofacial trauma. Neurosurgical considerations can range from initial emergent surgery to conservative management of closed head injuries in patients with craniofacial injuries. This article discusses the most common disorders managed by neurosurgeons in the setting of craniofacial trauma, and reviews the usual timing and setting for various treatments that patients with TBI encounter throughout the course of treatment. It also highlights the consequences of TBI on the timing and planning of craniofacial repairs and the importance of multidisciplinary cooperation to provide comprehensive care to survivors of trauma...
November 2017: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939348/transcranial-ultrasound-stimulation-promotes-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-reduces-apoptosis-in-a-mouse-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Wei-Shen Su, Chun-Hu Wu, Szu-Fu Chen, Feng-Yi Yang
BACKGROUND: The protein expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) can be elevated by transcranial ultrasound stimulation in the rat brain. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of BDNF enhancement by low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: Mice subjected to controlled cortical impact injury were treated with LIPUS in the injured region daily for a period of 4 days...
September 7, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939250/not-every-trauma-patient-with-a-radiographic-head-injury-requires-transfer-for-neurosurgical-evaluation-application-of-the-brain-injury-guidelines-to-patients-transferred-to-a-level-1-trauma-center
#16
Gweniviere Kayla Capron, Mary Beth Voights, Henry R Moore, Derek B Wall
BACKGROUND: Patients with radiographically-identified traumatic brain injury are often transferred to our regional trauma center for neurosurgical evaluation, yet few injuries require neurosurgical intervention. Transfer is costly, inconvenient, and potentially risky in inclement weather. We propose that previously-published brain injury guidelines (BIG)(1) can help to determine which patients could avoid mandatory transfer. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of patients transferred between January 2012 and December 2013 was performed...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938628/mir-144-promotes-%C3%AE-amyloid-accumulation-induced-cognitive-impairments-by-targeting-adam10-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Liqian Sun, Manman Zhao, Jingbo Zhang, Aihua Liu, Wenjun Ji, Youxiang Li, Xinjian Yang, Zhongxue Wu
The dysregulation expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) including miR-144, has been widely documented in TBI. However, little is known about the potential roles of miR-144 in the pathogenesis of TBI. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of miR-144 on cognitive function in vivo and in vitro. The results indicated that inhibition of miR-144 conferred a better neurological outcome after TBI in vivo, as evidenced by reduced lesion volume, alleviated brain edema and increased mNSS, of particular importance, improved cognitive deficits...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938340/paediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-prognostic-insights-and-outlooks
#18
Alicia K Au, Robert S B Clark
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in children. Prognostication of outcome following TBI is challenging in this population and likely requires complex, multimodal models to achieve clinically relevant accuracy. This review highlights injury characteristics, physiological indicators, biomarkers and neuromonitoring modalities predictive of outcome that may be integrated for future development of sensitive and specific prognostic models...
September 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938277/multimodality-neuromonitoring-in-adult-traumatic-brain-injury-a-narrative-review
#19
Martin Smith
Neuromonitoring plays an important role in the management of traumatic brain injury. Simultaneous assessment of cerebral hemodynamics, oxygenation, and metabolism allows an individualized approach to patient management in which therapeutic interventions intended to prevent or minimize secondary brain injury are guided by monitored changes in physiologic variables rather than generic thresholds. This narrative review describes various neuromonitoring techniques that can be used to guide the management of patients with traumatic brain injury and examines the latest evidence and expert consensus guidelines for neuromonitoring...
September 22, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937955/military-blast-injury-and-chronic-neurodegeneration-research-presentations-from-the-2015-international-state-of-the-science-meeting
#20
Denes Agoston, Peethambaran Arun, Patrick Bellgowan, Steven Broglio, Robert Cantu, David Cook, Uade Olaghere da Silva, Dara Dickstein, Gregory Elder, Elizabeth Fudge, Sam Gandy, Jessica Gill, John F Glenn, Raj K Gupta, Sidney Hinds, Stuart Hoffman, Theresa Lattimore, Alexander Lin, Kun Ping Lu, Joseph Maroon, David Okonkwo, Daniel Perl, Meghan Robinson, Charles Rosen, Douglas Smith
Blast-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a signature injury of recent military conflicts, leading to increased Department of Defense (DoD) interest in its potential long-term effects, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). The DoD Blast Injury Research Program Coordinating Office convened the 2015 International State-of-the-Science Meeting to discuss the existing evidence regarding a causal relationship between TBI and CTE. Over the course of the meeting, experts across government, academia, and the sports community presented cutting edge research on the unique pathological characteristics of blast-related TBI, blast-related neurodegenerative mechanisms, risk factors for CTE, potential biomarkers for CTE, and treatment strategies for chronic neurodegeneration...
September 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
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