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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468052/prevalence-of-staphylococcus-spp-nasal-colonization-among-doctors-of-podiatric-medicine-and-associated-risk-factors-in-spain
#1
Sheila de Benito, Luis Alou, Ricardo Becerro-de-Bengoa-Vallejo, Marta Elena Losa-Iglesias, María Luisa Gómez-Lus, Luis Collado, David Sevillano
Background: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) nasopharyngeal carriage among Doctors of Podiatric Medicine (Podiatrists) and to determine the potential risk factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2016-2017 among 239 podiatrists in Spain. The presence of MSSA, MRSA, and MRSE was determined by microbiological analysis of nasal exudate and antimicrobial susceptibility was determined...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463447/novel-inhibitors-of-staphylococcus-aureus-rnpa-that-synergize-with-mupirocin
#2
Nicole Lounsbury, Tess Eidem, Jennifer Colquhoun, George Mateo, Magid Abou-Gharbia, Paul M Dunman, Wayne E Childers
We recently discovered RnpA as a promising new drug discovery target for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). RnpA is an essential protein that is thought to perform two required cellular processes. As part of the RNA degrasome Rnpa mediates RNA degradation. In combination with rnpB it forms RNase P haloenzymes which are required for tRNA maturation. A high throughput screen identified RNPA2000 as an inhibitor of both RnpA-associated activities that displayed antibacterial activity against clinically relevant strains of S...
January 31, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422820/decolonization-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-patients-with-atopic-dermatitis-a-reason-for-increasing-resistance-to-antibiotics
#3
Izabela Błażewicz, Maciej Jaśkiewicz, Marta Bauer, Lidia Piechowicz, Roman J Nowicki, Wojciech Kamysz, Wioletta Barańska-Rybak
Introduction: Exacerbation of atopic dermatitis can be associated with bacterial infection. The skin of patients is colonized with Staphylococcus aureus in 90% of cases. An attempt has been made to demonstrate that eradication significantly reduces the severity of the disease. Studies indicate the efficacy of topical antibiotics, topical corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors. Due to increasing resistance to drugs and the defective antimicrobial peptide profile, decolonization is virtually impossible...
December 2017: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370836/successful-eradication-of-newly-acquired-mrsa-in-six-of-seven-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis-applying-a-short-term-local-and-systemic-antibiotic-scheme
#4
Alexander Kiefer, Christian Bogdan, Volker O Melichar
BACKGROUND: In individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was reported to be associated with a deterioration of pulmonary disease as reflected by an accelerated decline in lung function. Thus, an early eradication of MRSA could be beneficial in these patients. Here, we report on an intensified MRSA eradication protocol. METHODS: Since 2012 a protocol for the eradication of newly acquired MRSA has been used in our CF Clinic, combining oral rifampicin and fusidic acid, inhaled vancomycin, nasal mupirocin, local antiseptic treatment and hygienic directives all of which are applied for only 7 days during an inpatient hospital stay...
January 25, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363252/fine-tuning-of-antibiotic-activity-by-a-tailoring-hydroxylase-in-a-trans-at-polyketide-synthase-pathway
#5
Hadi H Mohammad, Jack A Connolly, Zhongshu Song, Joanne Hothersall, Paul R Race, Christine L Willis, Thomas J Simpson, Christopher Morton Thomas
Hydroxylation modulates the activity of many pharmacological biomolecules. It can be integral to the basic biosynthetic factory or result from tailoring steps. For anti-MRSA antibiotic mupirocin, removal of C8-hydroxyl late in biosynthesis gives the active pseudomonic acid A. An extra hydroxylation, at C4, occurs in the related antibiotic thiomarinol A. We report here that putative non-heme-iron(II)/α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase TmuB, from the thiomarinol cluster, 4-hydroxylates various pseudomonic acids while C8-OH, and other substituents around the pyran ring, block enzyme action but not substrate binding...
January 24, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363211/low-prevalence-of-mupirocin-resistance-in-staphylococcus-pseudintermedius-isolates-from-canine-pyoderma-in-korea
#6
Ji-Hyung Park, Jung-Hun Kang, Jae-Eun Hyun, Cheol-Yong Hwang
BACKGROUND: Mupirocin is a topical antibacterial drug used for the treatment of staphylococcal infections, including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP). The recent emergence of resistance to mupirocin is a major concern in many countries. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the prevalence and genotype of mupirocin-resistant S. pseudintermedius isolated from pet dogs with pyoderma. SAMPLES: A total of 110 clinical isolates of S...
January 23, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357913/screening-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-colonization-among-elective-surgery-patients-in-referral-hospital-in-indonesia
#7
Erni J Nelwan, Robert Sinto, Decy Subekti, Randy Adiwinata, Lia Waslia, Tonny Loho, Dodi Safari, Djoko Widodo
OBJECTIVE: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization is associated with serious surgical site infection in high-risk patients. High prevalence of MRSA colonization was reported in many settings, nonetheless local data is required. The purpose of this study is to identify the prevalence and risk factor of MRSA nasal carriage in adult patients in National Referral Hospital in Indonesia before underwent elective surgical procedure. RESULTS: From 384 patients, 16...
January 22, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349539/effect-of-the-application-of-a-bundle-of-three-measures-intraperitoneal-lavage-with-antibiotic-solution-fascial-closure-with-triclosan-coated-sutures-and-mupirocin-ointment-application-on-the-skin-staples-on-the-surgical-site-infection-after-elective-laparoscopic
#8
Jaime Ruiz-Tovar, Carolina Llavero, Vicente Morales, Carlos Gamallo
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection (SSI) prevention bundles include the simultaneous use of different measures, which individually have demonstrated an effect on prevention of SSI. The implementation of bundles can yield superior results to the implementation of individual measures. The aim of this study was to address the effect of the application of a bundle including intraperitoneal lavage with antibiotic solution, fascial closure with Triclosan-coated sutures and Mupirocin ointment application on the skin staples, on the surgical site infection after elective laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery...
January 18, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345185/drugging-trna-aminoacylation
#9
Joanne M Ho, Erol Bakkalbasi, Dieter Söll, Corwin A Miller
Inhibition of tRNA aminoacylation has proven to be an effective antimicrobial strategy, impeding an essential step of protein synthesis. Mupirocin, the well-known selective inhibitor of bacterial isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase, is one of three aminoacylation inhibitors now approved for human or animal use. However, design of novel aminoacylation inhibitors is complicated by the steadfast requirement to avoid off-target inhibition of protein synthesis in human cells. Here we review available data regarding known aminoacylation inhibitors as well as key amino-acid residues in aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) and nucleotides in tRNA that determine the specificity and strength of the aaRS-tRNA interaction...
January 18, 2018: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342216/in-vitro-activity-of-novel-glycopolymer-against-clinical-isolates-of-multidrug-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#10
Vidya P Narayanaswamy, Scott A Giatpaiboon, John Uhrig, Paul Orwin, William Wiesmann, Shenda M Baker, Stacy M Townsend
The incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is a serious threat to public health. Progress in developing new therapeutics is being outpaced by antibiotic resistance development, and alternative agents that rapidly permeabilize bacteria hold tremendous potential for treating MDR infections. A new class of glycopolymers includes polycationic poly-N (acetyl, arginyl) glucosamine (PAAG) is under development as an alternative to traditional antibiotic strategies to treat MRSA infections...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339382/in-vitro-susceptibility-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-strains-to-mupirocin-an-antibiotic-reformulated-to-parenteral-nano-liposomal-antibiotic
#11
Ahuva Cern, Kristie L Connolly, Ann E Jerse, Yechezkel Barenholz
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an urgent antibiotic-resistant threat. This study determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of mupirocin to be 0.0039-0.0625 μg/ml for 94 N. gonorrhoeae strains Cross-resistance with other antibiotics was not detected.Mupirocin, currently limited to topical administration, demonstrated activity by injection when delivered in nano-liposomes. The nano-liposomal formulation of mupirocin is a potential treatment for drug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae.
January 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336763/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-a-trauma-population-does-decolonization-prevent-infection
#12
Robert A Maxwell, Chasen A Croft, C Buddy Creech, Isaac Thomsen, Nicole Soper, Laura E Brown, Vicente A Mejia, Benjamin W Dart, Donald E Barker
The purpose of this study was to determine if a decolonization regimen reduces the frequency of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections and if colonization isolates are genetically related to subsequent infectious strains. Trauma patients admitted to the intensive care unit with positive MRSA nasal swabs were randomized to either daily chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) baths and mupirocin (MUP) ointment to the nares or soap and water baths and placebo ointment for five days. Nasal swabs performed at the end of treatment and invasive MRSA infections during the remaining hospitalization were compared with the original nasal isolate via polymerase chain reaction for genetic relatedness as well as CHG and MUP resistance genes...
December 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327680/mechanisms-of-bacterial-resistance-to-antimicrobial-agents
#13
Engeline van Duijkeren, Anne-Kathrin Schink, Marilyn C Roberts, Yang Wang, Stefan Schwarz
During the past decades resistance to virtually all antimicrobial agents has been observed in bacteria of animal origin. This chapter describes in detail the mechanisms so far encountered for the various classes of antimicrobial agents. The main mechanisms include enzymatic inactivation by either disintegration or chemical modification of antimicrobial agents, reduced intracellular accumulation by either decreased influx or increased efflux of antimicrobial agents, and modifications at the cellular target sites (i...
January 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305985/mechanistic-studies-of-the-antibiofilm-activity-and-synergy-with-antibiotics-of-isosorbide-mononitrate
#14
Sayeed Hasan, Yassamin N S Albayaty, Benjamin Thierry, Clive A Prestidge, Nicky Thomas
The use of nitric oxide (NO), a naturally occurring antimicrobial agent, as an alternative strategy to combat bacterial biofilms has recently gained considerable momentum in light of the global threat of emerging antibiotic resistance. While previous NO-based anti-biofilm approaches were aimed at killing bacteria cells within biofilms, NO has also been recently identified as a key mediator of biofilm dispersal, causing the release of cells from the biofilm community. This is of great interest towards the design of more effective anti-biofilm strategies but further studies are warranted to validate this concept...
January 3, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291157/staphylococcus-epidermidis-isolates-from-nares-and-prosthetic-joint-infections-are-mupirocin-susceptible
#15
Lavin Salih, Staffan Tevell, Emeli Månsson, Åsa Nilsdotter-Augustinsson, Bengt Hellmark, Bo Söderquist
The objective of the present study was to investigate the antibiotic susceptibility including mupirocin among Staphylococcus. epidermidis isolated from prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) (n=183) and nasal isolates (n=75) from patients intended to undergo prosthetic joint replacements. Susceptibility to mupirocin (used for eradication of nasal carriership of Staphylococcus aureus) was investigated by gradient test, and susceptibility to various other antimicrobial agents was investigated by disc diffusion test...
2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281844/-decolonization-of-health-care-workers-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-carrying-a-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-isolate
#16
Annika Richter, Ines Eder, Brigitte König, Bettina Lutze, Arne C Rodloff, Ulrich H Thome, Melanie Weiss, Iris F Chaberny
BACKGROUND: In 2016, an increased rate of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus colonization was detected on a neonatal intensive care unit at the Leipzig University Hospital. Typing results showed a predominant spa-type t091. Considering nosocomial clustering, several infection prevention measures (e. g. intensified standard precautions, single-occupancy room, cohorted patients, continuing education of staff) were introduced, including staff screening followed by decolonization of colonized health care workers...
December 27, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279803/wound-healing-potential-of-oil-of-hypercium-perforatum-in-excision-wounds-of-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#17
Shivananada B Nayak, Kubra Isik, Julien R Marshall
Objective: To evaluate the wound-healing activity of oil of Hypercium perforatum (St. John's wort), in excision wounds of male white rats. Approach: The current methods of wound management involve the use of antibiotic creams. The search for more natural materials for the purpose of healing of wounds has led to the discoveries of potential agents prepared from plant extracts. Hyperforin and Hypericin are important phytochemical constituents found in H. perforatum, which have been highlighted for their antimicrobial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory properties in recent times...
December 1, 2017: Advances in Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261121/six-year-retrospective-review-of-hospital-data-on-antimicrobial-resistance-profile-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-skin-infections-from-a-single-institution-in-greece
#18
Christina Stefanaki, Alexandra Ieronymaki, Theoni Matoula, Chrysseis Caroni, Evaggelia Polythodoraki, Stella-Eugenia Chryssou, George Kontochristopoulos, Christina Antoniou
Objective: To determine the prevalence of resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolated from Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) to various antibiotics. Material and Methods: All culture-positive results for S. aureus from swabs taken from patients presenting at one Greek hospital with a skin infection between the years 2010-2015 were examined retrospectively. Bacterial cultures, identification of S. aureus and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed using the disk diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines and European Committee on Antimicrobial testing (EUCAST) breakpoints...
December 20, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250963/high-prevalence-of-staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-carriage-among-children-in-szolnok-hungary
#19
Krisztina Laub, Adrienn Tóthpál, Eszter Kovács, Judit Sahin-Tóth, Andrea Horváth, Szilvia Kardos, Orsolya Dobay
We collected nasal samples from 1,390 healthy 3-7 years old children in Szolnok city, Hungary, in 2012. We detected 476 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from 474 children. In two occasions, two different S. aureus were isolated, based on hemolysis type and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern. S. aureus carriage rate was calculated to be 34.1% similar to others studies. Male gender was found to be a risk factor for carriage by statistical analysis. Altogether, four methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were detected by mecA polymerase chain reaction, which means 0...
December 18, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246634/genetics-of-bi-component-leukocidin-and-drug-resistance-in-nasal-and-clinical-staphylococcus-aureus-in-lagos-nigeria
#20
Nkechi V Enwuru, Solayide A Adesida, Christian A Enwuru, Beniam Ghebremedhin, Udoma E Mendie, Akitoye O Coker
BACKGROUND: Resistant and virulent Staphylococcus aureus is a global public health challenge. Staphylococcal Bi-component leukotoxins are cytolytic to immune cells and evolve to disarm the innate immunity during infections, hence the severity of the disease. OBJECTIVE: We studied drug resistance profile and the occurrence of bi-component leukocidin in clinical and nasal S. aureus in Lagos, Nigeria. METHOD: Ninety-two S. aureus (70 clinical and 22 nasal) strains were characterized by conventional and molecular methods...
December 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
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