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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704818/active-surveillance-cultures-and-targeted-decolonization-are-associated-with-reduced-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-in-vlbw-infants
#1
Lukas Wisgrill, Johanna Zizka, Lukas Unterasinger, Judith Rittenschober-Böhm, Thomas Waldhör, Athanasios Makristathis, Angelika Berger
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) is a major contributor to infectious episodes of very low birth weight infants (VLBWI), resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy and safety of surveillance cultures and the decolonization of MSSA-colonized VLBWI. METHODS: VLBWI admitted to our neonatal wards in 2011-2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Rates of MSSA-attributable infections were compared before and after the implementation of active surveillance cultures and the decolonization of MSSA-colonized patients...
July 14, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702468/antimicrobial-stewardship-lessons-from-mupirocin-use-and-resistance-in-methicillin-resitant-staphylococcus-aureus
#2
Lance R Peterson, Noelle I Samia, Andrew M Skinner, Amit Chopra, Becky Smith
BACKGROUND: The quantitative relationship between antimicrobial agent consumption and rise or fall of antibiotic resistance has rarely been studied. We began all admission surveillance testing for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in August 2005 with subsequent contact isolation and decolonization using nasally applied mupirocin ointment for those colonized. In October 2012, we discontinued decolonization of medical (nonsurgical service) patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study from 2007 through 2014 of 445680 patients; 35235 were assessed because of mupirocin therapy and positive test results for MRSA...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692690/risk-of-surgical-site-infection-acute-kidney-injury-and-clostridium-difficile-infection-following-antibiotic-prophylaxis-with-vancomycin-plus-a-beta-lactam-versus-either-drug-alone-a-national-propensity-score-adjusted-retrospective-cohort-study
#3
MULTICENTER STUDY
Westyn Branch-Elliman, John E Ripollone, William J O'Brien, Kamal M F Itani, Marin L Schweizer, Eli Perencevich, Judith Strymish, Kalpana Gupta
BACKGROUND: The optimal regimen for perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis is controversial. Use of combination prophylaxis with a beta-lactam plus vancomycin is increasing; however, the relative risks and benefits associated with this strategy are unknown. Thus, we sought to compare postoperative outcomes following administration of 2 antimicrobials versus a single agent for the prevention of surgical site infections (SSIs). Potential harms associated with combination regimens, including acute kidney injury (AKI) and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), were also considered...
July 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686044/anti-biofilm-properties-of-a-mupirocin-spray-formulation-against-escherichia-coli-wound-infections
#4
Dhamodharan Bakkiyaraj, Rutthapol Sritharadol, Alwar Ramanujam Padmavathi, Titpawan Nakpheng, Teerapol Srichana
Mupirocin ointment is a widely used topical drug for the treatment of bacterial skin infections. However, ointments have some limitations which motivated the development of a film forming spray of mupirocin. Mupirocin spray (2%) was formulated with Eudragit E100 as a film forming agent and tested for its antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities against Escherichia coli, a skin pathogen causing wound and surgical site infections. Treatment with mupirocin spray resulted in significant antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities (inhibition and disruption) with single spray and sub-actual dose concentrations at par with the commercial ointment concentration...
July 7, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682114/effectiveness-of-topical-application-of-ostrich-oil-on-the-healing-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infected-wounds
#5
Mohammad Reza Farahpour, Mahsa Vahid, Ahmad Oryan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Management of infected wounds is one of the major challenges that surgeons and nurses face. Several antimicrobial agents have been used, but the toxicity, drug resistance and their effect on the healing process remain a matter of concern. The present study was designed to analyze the accelerative impact of topical application of Ostrich oil on infected wounds in a mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 72 BALB/c mice were divided into 4 main groups of control-sham, mupirocin and two treatment groups receiving 2% and 4% (V/W) concentrations of Ostrich oil, topically...
July 6, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640870/dominance-of-community-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-clones-in-a-maternity-hospital
#6
Edet E Udo, Noura Al-Sweih
BACKGROUND: Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major pathogen causing healthcare- and community- acquired infections. The purpose of this study was to characterize MRSA isolated at the Maternity Hospital between 2006 and 2011 for their genetic relatedness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MRSA isolates were investigated using a combination of antibiogram, Staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) and spa typing to determine their relatedness to MRSA isolated in other Kuwait hospitals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638613/cuff-extrusion-in-peritoneal-dialysis-single-centre-experience-with-the-cuff-shaving-procedure-in-five-patients-over-a-4-year-period
#7
Jedrzej A Debowski, Cora Wærp, Stig A Kjellevold, Sadollah Abedini
Catheter-related infections in peritoneal dialysis (PD) remain a significant complication, and some patients with recurrent exit-site (ESI) and/or tunnel infections may experience external cuff extrusion. In these cases, cuff-shaving has been described as a possible course of treatment. During a 4-year period, there were 44 patients with PD at our department; all received double-cuffed Tenckhoff catheters. Six (13%) never started on PD. Five (13%) of the 38 active PD patients experienced cuff extrusion. Causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were diabetic nephropathy (n = 1), toxic nephropathy (n = 1), hypertensive nephrosclerosis (n = 1), systemic disease (n = 1) and one with unknown cause...
February 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630179/antibiotic-resistance-as-a-stress-response-recovery-of-high-level-oxacillin-resistance-in-methicillin-resistant-s-aureus-mrsa-auxiliary-fem-mutants-by-induction-of-the-stringent-stress-response
#8
Choon Keun Kim, Catarina Milheiriço, Hermínia de Lencastre, Alexander Tomasz
Studies with MRSA strain COL have shown that the optimal resistant phenotype requires not only mecA but also a large number of "auxiliary genes" identified by Tn551 mutagenesis. The majority of auxiliary mutants showed greatly increased levels of oxacillin resistance when grown in the presence of sub-MIC concentrations of mupirocin - suggesting that the mechanism of reduced resistance in the auxiliary mutants involved interruption of a stringent stress response causing reduced production of PBP2A.
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626456/bactericidal-effect-of-photodynamic-therapy-alone-or-in-combination-with-mupirocin-or-linezolid-on-staphylococcus-aureus
#9
Vanesa Pérez-Laguna, Luna Pérez-Artiaga, Verónica Lampaya-Pérez, Isabel García-Luque, Sofía Ballesta, Santi Nonell, Manuel P Paz-Cristobal, Yolanda Gilaberte, Antonio Rezusta
Antibiotic treatments frequently fail due to the development of antibiotic resistance, underscoring the need for new treatment strategies. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) could constitute an alternative therapy. In bacterial suspensions of Staphylococcus aureus, which is commonly implicated in cutaneous and mucosal infections, we evaluated the in vitro efficacy of aPDT, using the photosensitizing agents rose bengal (RB) or methylene blue (MB), alone or combined with the antibiotics mupirocin (MU) or linezolid (LN)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607014/np108-an-antimicrobial-polymer-with-activity-against-methicillin-and-mupirocin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#10
Derry K Mercer, Laura K Katvars, Fiona Hewitt, Daniel W Smith, Jennifer Robertson, Deborah A O'Neil
Staphylococcus aureus is a clinically significant human pathogen that causes infectious diseases ranging from skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI), healthcare associated infections (HAI) to potentially fatal bacteraemia and endocarditis. Nasal carriage of S. aureus, especially persistent carriage, is associated with an increased risk of subsequent infection, particularly nosocomial and surgical site infections (SSI), usually via autoinfection. NP108 is a cationic antimicrobial polymer composed of Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) amino acid building blocks...
June 12, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600216/molecular-epidemiology-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-circulating-in-the-russian-federation
#11
Vladimir Gostev, Alexander Kruglov, Olga Kalinogorskaya, Olga Dmitrenko, Olga Khokhlova, Tatsuo Yamamoto, Yuri Lobzin, Irina Ryabchenko, Sergey Sidorenko
The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of antimicrobial resistance and molecular features of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates in Russia. Isolates recovered from hospital patients (n=480), healthy medical personnel (n=25), and healthy carriers (n=13) were included in the study. Hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) demonstrated high resistance to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol (76%-92%), moderate - to tetracycline, erythromycin, clindamycin, and rifampicin (38%-54%), and low - to fusidic acid, co-trimoxazole, mupirocin, and daptomycin (2%-7%)...
June 7, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592549/emergence-of-a-staphylococcus-aureus-clone-resistant-to-mupirocin-and-fusidic-acid-carrying-exotoxin-genes-and-causing-mainly-skin-infections
#12
Anastassios Doudoulakakis, Iris Spiliopoulou, Nikolaos Spyridis, Nikolaos Giormezis, John Kopsidas, Maria Militsopoulou, Evangelia Lebessi, Maria Tsolia
Objectives: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) caused by mupirocin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains have recently increased in our settings. We sought to evaluate the characteristics of these cases over a 43-month period.Methods: All community-acquired staphylococcal infections caused by mupirocin-resistant strains were retrospectively reviewed. Genes encoding high level (HLR) mupirocin resistance (mupA), fusidic acid resistance (fusB), ermA, ermC, PVL (lukS/lukF-PV), exfoliative toxins (eta, etb), fibronectin binding protein A (fnbA) were investigated in 102 preserved selected strains by PCRs...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592405/current-and-emerging-topical-antibacterials-and-antiseptics-agents-action-and-resistance-patterns
#13
REVIEW
Deborah A Williamson, Glen P Carter, Benjamin P Howden
Bacterial skin infections represent some of the most common infectious diseases globally. Prevention and treatment of skin infections can involve application of a topical antimicrobial, which may be an antibiotic (such as mupirocin or fusidic acid) or an antiseptic (such as chlorhexidine or alcohol). However, there is limited evidence to support the widespread prophylactic or therapeutic use of topical agents. Challenges involved in the use of topical antimicrobials include increasing rates of bacterial resistance, local hypersensitivity reactions (particularly to older agents, such as bacitracin), and concerns about the indiscriminate use of antiseptics potentially coselecting for antibiotic resistance...
July 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585795/-decolonization-for-staphylococcus-aureus-carriers-in-arthroplasty-surgery-after-hip-fracture
#14
J M Barbero, J Romanyk, A Vallés, M A Plasencia, E Montero, J López
OBJECTIVE: Staphylococcus aureus is the main causative agent of joint prosthesis infections. The decolonization of the carriers is effective in the prevention of the infections of the elective arthroplasties. The aim of this study is to evaluate if it is also in arthroplasties after hip fracture. METHODS: Study in patients with hip fracture who underwent joint prosthesis from January 2011 to December 2015 with a protocol of S. aureus detection-decolonization with intranasal mupirocin and chlorhexidine baths...
June 5, 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581830/development-of-a-topical-mupirocin-spray-for-antibacterial-and-wound-healing-applications
#15
Rutthapol Sritharadol, Titpawan Nakpheng, Paul Wan Sia Heng, Teerapol Srichana
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop mupirocin topical spray using Eudragit E100 as a film-forming agent for the treatment of bacterial skin infections as well as to promote wound healing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-seven of mupirocin formulations were formulated containing Eudragit E100 and other excipients. Mupirocin spray was prepared by aerosol crimping and filling machine using HFA-134a as a propellant. The formulations were evaluated for their stability and physicochemical properties...
June 18, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581672/preliminary-investigations-into-developing-all-d-omiganan-for-treating-mupirocin-resistant-mrsa-skin-infections
#16
Siew Mei Samantha Ng, Shu Wei Teo, Yaqing Elena Yong, Fui Mee Ng, Qiu Ying Lau, Roland Jureen, Jeffrey Hill, C S Brian Chia
Staphylococcus aureus is the primary pathogen responsible for the majority of human skin infections and meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) currently presents a major clinical concern. The overuse of Mupirocin, the first-line topical antibacterial drug over 30 years has led to the emergence of Mupirocin-resistant MRSA, creating a clinical concern. The antimicrobial peptide Omiganan was touted to be a promising antibacterial drug candidate due to its rapid membrane-disrupting bactericidal mode of action, entering clinical trials in 2005 as a topical gel to prevent catheter site infections...
June 5, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578731/bacterial-infections-in-neonates-following-mupirocin-based-mrsa-decolonization-a-multicenter-cohort-study
#17
Rebecca Pierce, Kristina Bryant, Alexis Elward, Justin Lessler, Aaron M Milstone
OBJECTIVE To characterize the risk of infection after MRSA decolonization with intranasal mupirocin. DESIGN Multicenter, retrospective cohort study. SETTING Tertiary care neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) from 3 urban hospitals in the United States ranging in size from 45 to 100 beds. METHODS MRSA-colonized neonates were identified from NICU admissions occurring from January 2007 to December 2014, during which a targeted decolonization strategy was used for MRSA control. In 2 time-to-event analyses, MRSA-colonized neonates were observed from the date of the first MRSA-positive surveillance screen until (1) the first occurrence of novel gram-positive cocci in sterile culture or discharge or (2) the first occurrence of novel gram-negative bacilli in sterile culture or discharge...
June 5, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577844/preoperative-staphylococcus-aureus-screening-and-targeted-decolonization-in-cardiac-surgery
#18
Manoj K Saraswat, Jonathan T Magruder, Todd C Crawford, Julia M Gardner, Damon Duquaine, Marc S Sussman, Lisa L Maragakis, Glenn J Whitman
BACKGROUND: We assessed the impact of preoperative Staphylococcus aureus screening and targeted decolonization on the incidence of postoperative methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) colonization, intensive care unit MRSA transmission, and surgical site infections in cardiac surgery patients. METHODS: We reviewed medical records for all adult patients during two periods: preintervention (January 2007 to April 2010) and intervention (January 2011 to December 2014)...
June 1, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537862/erythrasma-a-report-of-nine-men-successfully-managed-with-mupirocin-2-ointment-monotherapy
#19
Tanya Greywal, Philip R Cohen
BACKGROUND: Erythrasma is a benign dermatosis that typically occurs on intertriginous skin. PURPOSE: We describe a series of nine men with erythrasma that were successfully treated with mupirocin 2% ointment monotherapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We reviewed PubMed for the following terms: erythrasma, mupirocin, ointment, treatment. We also reviewed papers containing these terms and their references. RESULTS: Complete resolution of erythrasma occurred following monotherapy with twice daily application of mupirocin 2% ointment...
May 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533232/potentiation-of-antibiotic-activity-by-a-novel-cationic-peptide-potency-and-spectrum-of-activity-of-spr741
#20
David Corbett, Andrew Wise, Tara Langley, Kirsty Skinner, Emily Trimby, Stephen Birchall, Alain Dorali, Stephanie Sandiford, Jennifer Williams, Peter Warn, Martti Vaara, Troy Lister
Novel approaches to the treatment of multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections are urgently required. One approach is to potentiate the efficacy of existing antibiotics whose spectrum of activity is limited by the permeability barrier presented by the Gram-negative outer membrane. Cationic peptides derived from polymyxin B have been used to permeabilize the outer membrane, granting antibiotics that would otherwise be excluded access to their targets. We assessed the in vitro efficacy of combinations of SPR741 with conventional antibiotics against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Acinetobacter baumannii Of 35 antibiotics tested, the MICs of eight were reduced 32- to 8,000-fold against E...
May 22, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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