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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823093/candida-albicans-staphylococcus-aureus-dual-species-biofilm-as-a-target-for-the-combination-of-essential-oils-and-fluconazole-or-mupirocin
#1
Aleksandra Budzyńska, Sylwia Różalska, Beata Sadowska, Barbara Różalska
The effectiveness of essential oils (EOs), fluconazole (FLU) and mupirocin (MUP) used alone or in combination against mono-species and mixed Candida albicans/Staphylococcus aureus biofilms was examined. An experimentally established dual-species biofilm model, verified by fluorescence microscopy and viable cell counting, was used. Selected commercial EOs were tested: geranium, citronella and clove oils, which have been chemically characterized and found to differ in the content of the main components (qualitative and quantitative)...
August 19, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815023/antibiotic-resistance-ability-to-form-biofilm-and-susceptibility-to-copper-alloys-of-selected-staphylococcal-strains-isolated-from-touch-surfaces-in-polish-hospital-wards
#2
Anna Różańska, Agnieszka Chmielarczyk, Dorota Romaniszyn, Małgorzata Bulanda, Monika Walkowicz, Piotr Osuch, Tadeusz Knych
BACKGROUND: Despite the employment of sanitary regimes, contact transmission of the aetiological agents of hospital infections is still exceedingly common. The issue of microbe transmission becomes particularly important when facing multidrug-resistant microorganisms such as methicillin-resistant staphylococci. In the case of deficiencies in cleaning and disinfection procedures, hospital equipment made of copper alloys can play an important role, complementing traditional hospital hygiene procedures...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810997/cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-a-saudi-arabian-soldier-stationed-in-the-united-states
#3
Kelly Laurent, Jason Susong, Eric Fillman, Simon Ritchie
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a common parasitic disease seen in many parts of the world, especially in areas where current U.S. and international forces are deployed. Approximately 350 million people are thought to be at risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) with an annual incidence of 1.5 million cases. Over 90% of cutaneous infections with Leishmania occur in the Middle East, Brazil, and Peru. Outbreaks of CL may occur in military personnel deployed to endemic areas. Since the incubation period for symptomatic CL ranges from weeks to months, symptoms may not appear until well after returning to the United States...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802058/postantibiotic-effect-and-postantibiotic-sub-mic-effect-of-ltx-109-and-mupirocin-on-staphylococcus-aureus-blood-isolates
#4
Louis D Saravolatz, Joan Pawlak, Hayley Martin, Stephanie Saravolatz, Leonard Johnson, Hedda Wold, Mette Husbyn, Wenche Marie Olsen
The development of new synthetic antimicrobial peptides like LTX-109 provides a new class of drugs for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections. We evaluated LTX-109 and mupirocin for pharmacodynamic parameters against 10 methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates. The post antibiotic effect (PAE) is defined as the length of time that bacterial growth is suppressed following a brief exposure to an antibiotic. We also determined the sub-MIC effect (SME) which measures the direct effect of sub-inhibitory levels on strains that have not previously been exposed to antibiotics...
August 12, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799881/prevalence-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-qaca-b-positive-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-in-a-surgical-intensive-care-unit
#5
Oh-Hyun Cho, Ki-Ho Park, Ji Young Song, Jeong Min Hong, Taeeun Kim, Sun In Hong, Sunjoo Kim, In-Gyu Bae
The increasing use of chlorhexidine for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) decolonization has raised concerns about the emergence of resistance to or tolerance of this antiseptic. We examined the frequency and characteristics of qacA/B chlorhexidine tolerance genes among MRSA isolates in a surgical intensive care unit (ICU) where MRSA-colonized patients are decolonized by chlorhexidine bathing. The MRSA isolates were evaluated for chlorhexidine susceptibility, mupirocin resistance, molecular typing, agr functionality, and the heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S...
August 11, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704818/active-surveillance-cultures-and-targeted-decolonization-are-associated-with-reduced-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-in-vlbw-infants
#6
Lukas Wisgrill, Johanna Zizka, Lukas Unterasinger, Judith Rittenschober-Böhm, Thomas Waldhör, Athanasios Makristathis, Angelika Berger
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) is a major contributor to infectious episodes of very low birth weight infants (VLBWI), resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy and safety of surveillance cultures and the decolonization of MSSA-colonized VLBWI. METHODS: VLBWI admitted to our neonatal wards in 2011-2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Rates of MSSA-attributable infections were compared before and after the implementation of active surveillance cultures and the decolonization of MSSA-colonized patients...
July 14, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702468/antimicrobial-stewardship-lessons-from-mupirocin-use-and-resistance-in-methicillin-resitant-staphylococcus-aureus
#7
Lance R Peterson, Noelle I Samia, Andrew M Skinner, Amit Chopra, Becky Smith
BACKGROUND: The quantitative relationship between antimicrobial agent consumption and rise or fall of antibiotic resistance has rarely been studied. We began all admission surveillance testing for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in August 2005 with subsequent contact isolation and decolonization using nasally applied mupirocin ointment for those colonized. In October 2012, we discontinued decolonization of medical (nonsurgical service) patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study from 2007 through 2014 of 445680 patients; 35235 were assessed because of mupirocin therapy and positive test results for MRSA...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692690/risk-of-surgical-site-infection-acute-kidney-injury-and-clostridium-difficile-infection-following-antibiotic-prophylaxis-with-vancomycin-plus-a-beta-lactam-versus-either-drug-alone-a-national-propensity-score-adjusted-retrospective-cohort-study
#8
MULTICENTER STUDY
Westyn Branch-Elliman, John E Ripollone, William J O'Brien, Kamal M F Itani, Marin L Schweizer, Eli Perencevich, Judith Strymish, Kalpana Gupta
BACKGROUND: The optimal regimen for perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis is controversial. Use of combination prophylaxis with a beta-lactam plus vancomycin is increasing; however, the relative risks and benefits associated with this strategy are unknown. Thus, we sought to compare postoperative outcomes following administration of 2 antimicrobials versus a single agent for the prevention of surgical site infections (SSIs). Potential harms associated with combination regimens, including acute kidney injury (AKI) and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), were also considered...
July 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686044/anti-biofilm-properties-of-a-mupirocin-spray-formulation-against-escherichia-coli-wound-infections
#9
Dhamodharan Bakkiyaraj, Rutthapol Sritharadol, Alwar Ramanujam Padmavathi, Titpawan Nakpheng, Teerapol Srichana
Mupirocin ointment is a widely used topical drug for the treatment of bacterial skin infections. However, ointments have some limitations which motivated the development of a film forming spray of mupirocin. Mupirocin spray (2%) was formulated with Eudragit E100 as a film forming agent and tested for its antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities against Escherichia coli, a skin pathogen causing wound and surgical site infections. Treatment with mupirocin spray resulted in significant antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities (inhibition and disruption) with single spray and sub-actual dose concentrations at par with the commercial ointment concentration...
July 7, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682114/effectiveness-of-topical-application-of-ostrich-oil-on-the-healing-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infected-wounds
#10
Mohammad Reza Farahpour, Mahsa Vahid, Ahmad Oryan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Management of infected wounds is one of the major challenges that surgeons and nurses face. Several antimicrobial agents have been used, but the toxicity, drug resistance, and their effect on the healing process remain a matter of concern. The present study was designed to analyze the accelerative impact of topical application of ostrich oil on infected wounds in a mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 72 BALB/c mice were divided into four main groups of control-sham, mupirocin, and two treatment groups receiving 2% and 4% (w/w) concentrations of ostrich oil, topically...
July 6, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640870/dominance-of-community-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-clones-in-a-maternity-hospital
#11
Edet E Udo, Noura Al-Sweih
BACKGROUND: Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major pathogen causing healthcare- and community- acquired infections. The purpose of this study was to characterize MRSA isolated at the Maternity Hospital between 2006 and 2011 for their genetic relatedness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MRSA isolates were investigated using a combination of antibiogram, Staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) and spa typing to determine their relatedness to MRSA isolated in other Kuwait hospitals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638613/cuff-extrusion-in-peritoneal-dialysis-single-centre-experience-with-the-cuff-shaving-procedure-in-five-patients-over-a-4-year-period
#12
Jedrzej A Debowski, Cora Wærp, Stig A Kjellevold, Sadollah Abedini
Catheter-related infections in peritoneal dialysis (PD) remain a significant complication, and some patients with recurrent exit-site (ESI) and/or tunnel infections may experience external cuff extrusion. In these cases, cuff-shaving has been described as a possible course of treatment. During a 4-year period, there were 44 patients with PD at our department; all received double-cuffed Tenckhoff catheters. Six (13%) never started on PD. Five (13%) of the 38 active PD patients experienced cuff extrusion. Causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were diabetic nephropathy (n = 1), toxic nephropathy (n = 1), hypertensive nephrosclerosis (n = 1), systemic disease (n = 1) and one with unknown cause...
February 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630179/antibiotic-resistance-as-a-stress-response-recovery-of-high-level-oxacillin-resistance-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-auxiliary-fem-mutants-by-induction-of-the-stringent-stress-response
#13
Choon Keun Kim, Catarina Milheiriço, Hermínia de Lencastre, Alexander Tomasz
Studies with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain COL have shown that the optimal resistance phenotype requires not only mecA but also a large number of "auxiliary genes" identified by Tn551 mutagenesis. The majority of auxiliary mutants showed greatly increased levels of oxacillin resistance when grown in the presence of sub-MICs of mupirocin, suggesting that the mechanism of reduced resistance in the auxiliary mutants involved the interruption of a stringent stress response, causing reduced production of penicillin-binding protein 2A (PBP 2A)...
August 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626456/bactericidal-effect-of-photodynamic-therapy-alone-or-in-combination-with-mupirocin-or-linezolid-on-staphylococcus-aureus
#14
Vanesa Pérez-Laguna, Luna Pérez-Artiaga, Verónica Lampaya-Pérez, Isabel García-Luque, Sofía Ballesta, Santi Nonell, Manuel P Paz-Cristobal, Yolanda Gilaberte, Antonio Rezusta
Antibiotic treatments frequently fail due to the development of antibiotic resistance, underscoring the need for new treatment strategies. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) could constitute an alternative therapy. In bacterial suspensions of Staphylococcus aureus, which is commonly implicated in cutaneous and mucosal infections, we evaluated the in vitro efficacy of aPDT, using the photosensitizing agents rose bengal (RB) or methylene blue (MB), alone or combined with the antibiotics mupirocin (MU) or linezolid (LN)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607014/np108-an-antimicrobial-polymer-with-activity-against-methicillin-and-mupirocin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#15
Derry K Mercer, Laura K Katvars, Fiona Hewitt, Daniel W Smith, Jennifer Robertson, Deborah A O'Neil
Staphylococcus aureus is a clinically significant human pathogen that causes infectious diseases ranging from skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI), healthcare associated infections (HAI) to potentially fatal bacteraemia and endocarditis. Nasal carriage of S. aureus, especially persistent carriage, is associated with an increased risk of subsequent infection, particularly nosocomial and surgical site infections (SSI), usually via autoinfection. NP108 is a cationic antimicrobial polymer composed of Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) amino acid building blocks...
June 12, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600216/molecular-epidemiology-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-circulating-in-the-russian-federation
#16
Vladimir Gostev, Alexander Kruglov, Olga Kalinogorskaya, Olga Dmitrenko, Olga Khokhlova, Tatsuo Yamamoto, Yuri Lobzin, Irina Ryabchenko, Sergey Sidorenko
The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of antimicrobial resistance and molecular features of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates in Russia. Isolates recovered from hospital patients (n=480), healthy medical personnel (n=25), and healthy carriers (n=13) were included in the study. Hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) demonstrated high resistance to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol (76%-92%), moderate - to tetracycline, erythromycin, clindamycin, and rifampicin (38%-54%), and low - to fusidic acid, co-trimoxazole, mupirocin, and daptomycin (2%-7%)...
June 7, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592549/emergence-of-a-staphylococcus-aureus-clone-resistant-to-mupirocin-and-fusidic-acid-carrying-exotoxin-genes-and-causing-mainly-skin-infections
#17
Anastassios Doudoulakakis, Iris Spiliopoulou, Nikolaos Spyridis, Nikolaos Giormezis, John Kopsidas, Maria Militsopoulou, Evangelia Lebessi, Maria Tsolia
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) caused by mupirocin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains have recently increased in number in our settings. We sought to evaluate the characteristics of these cases over a 43-month period. Data for all community-acquired staphylococcal infections caused by mupirocin-resistant strains were retrospectively reviewed. Genes encoding products producing high-level resistance (HLR) to mupirocin (mupA), fusidic acid resistance (fusB), resistance to macrolides and lincosamides (ermC and ermA), Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) (lukS/lukF-PV), exfoliative toxins (eta and etb), and fibronectin binding protein A (fnbA) were investigated by PCRs in 102 selected preserved strains...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592405/current-and-emerging-topical-antibacterials-and-antiseptics-agents-action-and-resistance-patterns
#18
REVIEW
Deborah A Williamson, Glen P Carter, Benjamin P Howden
Bacterial skin infections represent some of the most common infectious diseases globally. Prevention and treatment of skin infections can involve application of a topical antimicrobial, which may be an antibiotic (such as mupirocin or fusidic acid) or an antiseptic (such as chlorhexidine or alcohol). However, there is limited evidence to support the widespread prophylactic or therapeutic use of topical agents. Challenges involved in the use of topical antimicrobials include increasing rates of bacterial resistance, local hypersensitivity reactions (particularly to older agents, such as bacitracin), and concerns about the indiscriminate use of antiseptics potentially coselecting for antibiotic resistance...
July 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585795/-decolonization-for-staphylococcus-aureus-carriers-in-arthroplasty-surgery-after-hip-fracture
#19
J M Barbero, J Romanyk, A Vallés, M A Plasencia, E Montero, J López
OBJECTIVE: Staphylococcus aureus is the main causative agent of joint prosthesis infections. The decolonization of the carriers is effective in the prevention of the infections of the elective arthroplasties. The aim of this study is to evaluate if it is also in arthroplasties after hip fracture. METHODS: Study in patients with hip fracture who underwent joint prosthesis from January 2011 to December 2015 with a protocol of S. aureus detection-decolonization with intranasal mupirocin and chlorhexidine baths...
June 5, 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581830/development-of-a-topical-mupirocin-spray-for-antibacterial-and-wound-healing-applications
#20
Rutthapol Sritharadol, Titpawan Nakpheng, Paul Wan Sia Heng, Teerapol Srichana
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop mupirocin topical spray using Eudragit E100 as a film-forming agent for the treatment of bacterial skin infections as well as to promote wound healing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-seven of mupirocin formulations were formulated containing Eudragit E100 and other excipients. Mupirocin spray was prepared by aerosol crimping and filling machine using HFA-134a as a propellant. The formulations were evaluated for their stability and physicochemical properties...
June 18, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
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