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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240296/bacteriophage-effectively-kills-multidrug-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-clinical-isolates-from-chronic-rhinosinusitis-patients
#1
Guimin Zhang, Yin Zhao, Sathish Paramasivan, Katharina Richter, Sandra Morales, Peter-John Wormald, Sarah Vreugde
BACKGROUND: Bacteriophage (phage) therapy has been proposed as an alternative to antibiotics. Phages have been shown to kill antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains; however, it is unknown whether stress-induced antibiotic tolerance affects S. aureus susceptibility to phages. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of 2 phages currently in clinical development, against antibiotic-resistant and induced antibiotic-tolerant clinical S. aureus isolates. METHODS: Antibiotic tolerant S...
December 14, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229636/topical-antibiotic-use-co-selects-for-the-carriage-of-mobile-genetic-elements-conferring-resistance-to-unrelated-antimicrobials-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#2
Glen P Carter, Mark B Schultz, Sarah L Baines, Anders Goncalves da Silva, Helen Heffernan, Audrey Tiong, Peter H Pham, Ian R Monk, Timothy P Stinear, Benjamin P Howden, Deborah A Williamson
Topical antibiotics such as mupirocin and fusidic acid are commonly used in the prevention and treatment of skin infections, particularly those caused by staphylococci. However, widespread use of these agents is associated with increased resistance to these agents, potentially limiting their efficacy. Of particular concern is the observation that resistance to topical antibiotics is often associated with multidrug resistance, suggesting that topical antibiotics may play a role in the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains...
December 11, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214045/the-rumen-microbiome-an-underexplored-resource-for-novel-antimicrobial-discovery
#3
Linda B Oyama, Susan E Girdwood, Alan R Cookson, Narcis Fernandez-Fuentes, Florence Privé, Hannah E Vallin, Toby J Wilkinson, Peter N Golyshin, Olga V Golyshina, Ralf Mikut, Kai Hilpert, Jennifer Richards, Mandy Wootton, Joan E Edwards, Marc Maresca, Josette Perrier, Fionnuala T Lundy, Yu Luo, Mei Zhou, Matthias Hess, Hilario C Mantovani, Christopher J Creevey, Sharon A Huws
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising drug candidates to target multi-drug resistant bacteria. The rumen microbiome presents an underexplored resource for the discovery of novel microbial enzymes and metabolites, including AMPs. Using functional screening and computational approaches, we identified 181 potentially novel AMPs from a rumen bacterial metagenome. Here, we show that three of the selected AMPs (Lynronne-1, Lynronne-2 and Lynronne-3) were effective against numerous bacterial pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203102/antimicrobial-resistance-and-underlying-mechanisms-in-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates
#4
Ebru Şebnem Yılmaz, Özkan Aslantaş
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of 97 clinical Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains against 14 antimicrobials and corresponding resistance mechanisms. METHODS: The antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was determined using a disk diffusion method and antimicrobial resistance genes were screened by polymerase chain reaction. Mutations responsible for ciprofloxacin and rifampicin resistance were investigated by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing...
November 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184755/dissemination-of-high-level-mupirocin-resistant-cc22-mrsa-iv-in-saxony
#5
Stefan Monecke, Antje Ruppelt-Lorz, Elke Müller, Annett Reissig, Alexander Thürmer, Anna C Shore, David C Coleman, Ralf Ehricht, Lutz Jatzwauk
Mupirocin is used for eradicating methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in nasal colonization. A plasmid-borne gene, mupA, is associated with high-level mupirocin resistance. Despite the fact that, among all MRSA from a tertiary care center in the German state of Saxony, the prevalence of mupA, encoding high-level mupirocin resistance, was approximately 1% over a 15-year period from 2000-2015, a sharp increase to nearly 20% was observed in 2016/2017. DNA microarray profiling revealed that this was due to the dissemination of a variant of CC22-MRSA-IV ("Barnim Epidemic Strain" or "UK-EMRSA-15"), which, in addition to mecA, harbors mupA, aacA-aphD, qacA, and - in most isolates - erm(C)...
2017: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178841/multiresistant-st59-sccmec-iv-t437-clone-with-strong-biofilm-forming-capacity-was-identified-predominantly-in-mrsa-isolated-from-chinese-children
#6
Xin Yang, Suyun Qian, Kaihu Yao, Lijuan Wang, Yingchao Liu, Fang Dong, Wenqi Song, Jinghui Zhen, Wei Zhou, Hong Xu, Hongyan Zheng, Wenting Li
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the clinical and molecular epidemiology and biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) isolated from pediatricians in China. METHODS: SA strains were isolated from Beijing Children's hospital from February 2016 to January 2017. Isolates were typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa and SCCmec typing (for Methicillin-resistant SA [MRSA] only). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by agar dilution method except sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (E-test method)...
November 25, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109165/validation-of-putative-apicoplast-targeting-drugs-using-a-chemical-supplementation-assay-in-cultured-human-malaria-parasites
#7
Taher Uddin, Geoffrey Ian McFadden, Christopher Dean Goodman
Malaria parasites contain a relict plastid, the apicoplast, which is considered an excellent drug target due to its bacterial-like ancestry. Numerous parasiticidals have been proposed to target the apicoplast, but few have had their actual targets substantiated. Isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) production is the sole required function of the apicoplast in the blood stage of the parasite life cycle, and IPP supplementation rescues parasites from apicoplast perturbing drugs. Hence, any drug that kills parasites when IPP is supplied in culture must have a non-apicoplast target...
November 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107078/randomised-controlled-trial-of-honey-versus-mupirocin-to-decolonise-patients-with-nasal-colonisation-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-the-lessons-learned
#8
Toney Thomas Poovelikunnel, Georgina Gethin, Damodar Solanki, Elaine McFadden, Mary Codd, Hilary Humphreys
AIM: To describe the learning experience from a randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing the efficacy of medical-grade honey (MGH) with mupirocin 2% for the eradication of nasal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). METHODS: Patients colonised in the nose with MRSA and age ≥18 years were recruited. Participants received either one or two courses of MGH or mupirocin 2%, three times per day for five consecutive days. RESULTS: The proportion of patients who were decolonised after one or two courses of treatment was not significantly different between MGH (18/42; 42...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105824/wound-culture-isolated-antibiograms-and-caregiver-reported-skin-care-practices-in-children-with-epidermolysis-bullosa
#9
Hannah M Singer, Laura E Levin, Maria C Garzon, Christine T Lauren, Paul J Planet, Nicole W Kittler, Susan Whittier, Kimberly D Morel
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Many patients with epidermolysis bullosa (EB) require intensive daily wound care and individualized treatment plans. Understanding patient's home skin care routines and emerging antibiotic resistance patterns in EB wounds is necessary to optimize treatment recommendations. The objective was to identify patterns of antimicrobial resistance in EB wounds and characterize patient's home practices of skin care and bathing. METHODS: This was an observational study of 23 children with EB at an outpatient pediatric dermatology practice in New York City from 2012 to 2014...
November 6, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083894/antibacterial-3-6-disubstituted-4-hydroxy-5-6-dihydro-2h-pyran-2-ones-from-serratia-plymuthica-mf371-2
#10
Joakim Bjerketorp, Jolanta J Levenfors, Christer Sahlberg, Christina L Nord, Pierre F Andersson, Bengt Guss, Bo Öberg, Anders Broberg
Bioassay-guided fractionation of culture extracts of Serratia plymuthica strain MF371-2 resulted in the isolation of two new antibacterial compounds with potent activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus LMG 15975 (MRSA). A spectroscopic investigation, in combination with synthesis, enabled the characterization of the compounds as 3-butyryl-4-hydroxy-6-heptyl-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-one (plymuthipyranone A, 1) and 3-butyryl-4-hydroxy-6-nonyl-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-one (plymuthipyranone B, 2)...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078249/-prevention-of-surgical-site-infections-with-special-focus-on-vascular-surgery
#11
Peter Bischoff, Petra Gastmeier
Background Surgical site infections range between the most commonly and second most commonly reported health-care-associated infections worldwide, depending on the analysis. They are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Not only for the individual patient, the negative consequences of acquiring a surgical site infection affect the patient's relatives, the hospital and health systems in general. In vascular surgery, gram-positive pathogens of the normal flora of the patient's skin and mucosa (nose/throat) represent the almost half of the number of pathogens detected at the infected surgical site...
October 2017: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057725/prevalence-of-nasal-colonization-with-staphylococcus-aureus-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#12
Gloria Albert, Milagros Ricse, Javier Narvaez, Jesus Rodriguez, Joan Miquel Nolla, Mari Angeles Dominguez-Luzon, Carmen Gomez Vaquero
OBJECTIVE: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and nasal carriers of Staphylococcus aureus have an increased risk of developing infections caused by S. aureus. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of S. aureus nasal colonization in patients with RA and its relationship to RA treatments. METHODS: Two hundred seven patients with RA and 37 healthy controls were prospectively included in a cross-sectional study. A nasal secretion sample was collected by swab from both anterior nostrils and was referred to the hospital's microbiology department for culturing...
October 20, 2017: Current Rheumatology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987394/staphylococcus-aureus-prevention-strategies-in-cardiac-surgery-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#13
Jonathan C Hong, Manoj K Saraswat, Trevor A Ellison, J Trent Magruder, Todd Crawford, Julia M Gardner, William V Padula, Glenn J Whitman
BACKGROUND: Cardiac surgery patients colonized with Staphylococcus aureus have a greater risk of surgical site infection (SSI). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of decolonization strategies to prevent SSIs. METHODS: We compared three decolonization strategies: universal decolonization (UD), all subjects treated; targeted decolonization (TD), only S aureus carriers treated; and no decolonization (ND). Decolonization included mupirocin, chlorhexidine, and vancomycin...
October 4, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977793/antibiotic-resistance-trends-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-in-kuwait-hospitals-2011-2015
#14
Edet Udo, Samar Boswihi
<br>The aim of this study was to determine antibiotic resistance trends and carriage of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) genetic elements in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated in Kuwait hospitals to ascertain whether they were healthcare-associated (HA-MRSA) or community-associated (CA-MRSA). <br> Materials (Subjects) and Methods<br>In total 6,922 MRSA isolates obtained from different clinical samples were tested for resistance to antibiotics, urease production and carriage of SCCmec elements...
October 4, 2017: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969192/effect-of-2-nasal-mupirocin-ointment-on-decreasing-complications-of-nasotracheal-intubation-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Kourosh Taheri Talesh, Reza Movassaghi Gargary, Seyed Ahmad Arta, Javad Yazdani, Monireh Roshandel, Milad Ghanizadeh, Hossein Samadi Kafil, Mir Naser Seyyed Mousavi
INTRODUCTION: In oral and maxillofacial surgeries, nasotracheal intubation is carried out to increase the surgeon's access to the oral cavity. During nasotracheal intubation the risk of trauma is higher than that in orotracheal intubation as there is passage of the tube through the mucosa of the nasal tract due to which bacteria might get transported into the trachea. AIM: To evaluate the effect of 2% nasal mupirocin ointment before and after nasotracheal intubation on decreasing the complications of intubation for oral and maxillofacial surgeries...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967053/multifaceted-aseptic-protocol-decreases-surgical-site-infections-following-hip-arthroplasty
#16
Ryan E Harold, Bennet A Butler, Joseph Lamplot, Hue H Luu, Cort D Lawton, David Manning
INTRODUCTION: We investigate the effectiveness of a comprehensive aseptic protocol in reducing surgical site infection (SSI) after hip arthroplasty in a single medical centre with a high prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). METHODS: A prospectively collected database of all patients undergoing hip arthroplasty in a single centre between 2005 and 2011 was reviewed for SSI using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) criteria and AAOS guidelines...
September 21, 2017: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966483/screening-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-healthcare-workers-and-students-and-its-susceptibility-to-mupirocin-in-a-tertiary-care-teaching-hospital-in-south-india
#17
Jutang Babat Ain Tiewsoh, Meena Dias
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus is the most common pathogen causing infection in hospitals. They also colonize the healthcare workers who serve as reservoir of infection. Emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a burning issue throughout the world contributing to significant morbidity and mortality. Use of mupirocin to eradicate the carrier state is the need of the hour. OBJECTIVES: To screen healthcare workers (HCWs) and medical students for MRSA and to know the susceptibility of mupirocin in this group...
October 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939607/multidrug-and-mupirocin-resistance-in-environmental-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-collected-from-the-homes-of-people-diagnosed-with-a-community-onset-co-mrsa-infection
#18
J H Shahbazian, P D Hahn, S Ludwig, J Ferguson, P Baron, A Christ, K Spicer, P Tolomeo, A M Torrie, W B Bilker, V C Cluzet, B Hu, K Julian, I Nachamkin, S C Rankin, D O Morris, E Lautenbach, M F Davis
Patients with community-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CO-MRSA) infections contribute to MRSA contamination of the home environment, and may be re-exposed to MRSA strains from this reservoir. This study evaluates One Health risk factors that focus on the relationship between humans, animals and the environment for increased prevalence of multiple antimicrobial resistant MRSA in the home environment. During a trial of patients with CO-MRSA infection, MRSA was isolated from the household environment at baseline and three months later, following randomization of patients and household members to mupirocin-based decolonization therapy or education control...
September 22, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938539/dissemination-of-macrolides-fusidic-acid-and-mupirocin-resistance-among-staphylococcus-aureus-clinical-isolates
#19
Xingmei Liu, Shanshan Deng, Jinwei Huang, Yaling Huang, Yu Zhang, Qin Yan, Yanhong Wang, Yanyue Li, Chengfu Sun, Xu Jia
As an increasingly common cause of skin infections worldwide, the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) across China has not been well documented. This literature aims to study the resistance profile to commonly used antibiotics, including macrolides, fusidic acid (FA) and mupirocin, and its relationship to the genetic typing in 34 S. aureus strains, including 6 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), isolated from a Chinese hospital. The MIC results showed 27 (79.4%), 1 (2.9%) and 6 (17...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917968/the-effect-of-fennel-essential-oil-in-combination-with-antibiotics-on-staphylococcus-aureus-strains-isolated-from-carriers
#20
Paweł Kwiatkowski, Magdalena Mnichowska-Polanowska, Agata Pruss, Helena Masiuk, Małgorzata Dzięcioł, Stefania Giedrys-Kalemba, Monika Sienkiewicz
An increase in the number of staphylococcal infections and carriers among medical staff has forced us to seek more and more effective antibacterial agents. Bacteria from the Staphylococcus genus possessing different mechanisms of resistance are the cause of nosocomial infections. The objective of our investigations was susceptibility of S. aureus strains isolated from nasal vestibule of medical students to fennel essential oil. The GC-MS analysis of fennel essential oil revealed eleven constituents among which a majority of trans-anethole (80%) was found...
November 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
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