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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987394/staphylococcus-aureus-prevention-strategies-in-cardiac-surgery-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#1
Jonathan C Hong, Manoj K Saraswat, Trevor A Ellison, J Trent Magruder, Todd Crawford, Julia M Gardner, William V Padula, Glenn J Whitman
BACKGROUND: Cardiac surgery patients colonized with Staphylococcus aureus have a greater risk of surgical site infection (SSI). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of decolonization strategies to prevent SSIs. METHODS: We compared three decolonization strategies: universal decolonization (UD), all subjects treated; targeted decolonization (TD), only S aureus carriers treated; and no decolonization (ND). Decolonization included mupirocin, chlorhexidine, and vancomycin...
October 4, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977793/antibiotic-resistance-trends-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-in-kuwait-hospitals-2011-2015
#2
Edet Udo, Samar Boswihi
<br>The aim of this study was to determine antibiotic resistance trends and carriage of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) genetic elements in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated in Kuwait hospitals to ascertain whether they were healthcare-associated (HA-MRSA) or community-associated (CA-MRSA). <br> Materials (Subjects) and Methods<br>In total 6,922 MRSA isolates obtained from different clinical samples were tested for resistance to antibiotics, urease production and carriage of SCCmec elements...
October 4, 2017: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969192/effect-of-2-nasal-mupirocin-ointment-on-decreasing-complications-of-nasotracheal-intubation-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Kourosh Taheri Talesh, Reza Movassaghi Gargary, Seyed Ahmad Arta, Javad Yazdani, Monireh Roshandel, Milad Ghanizadeh, Hossein Samadi Kafil, Mir Naser Seyyed Mousavi
INTRODUCTION: In oral and maxillofacial surgeries, nasotracheal intubation is carried out to increase the surgeon's access to the oral cavity. During nasotracheal intubation the risk of trauma is higher than that in orotracheal intubation as there is passage of the tube through the mucosa of the nasal tract due to which bacteria might get transported into the trachea. AIM: To evaluate the effect of 2% nasal mupirocin ointment before and after nasotracheal intubation on decreasing the complications of intubation for oral and maxillofacial surgeries...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967053/multifaceted-aseptic-protocol-decreases-surgical-site-infections-following-hip-arthroplasty
#4
Ryan E Harold, Bennet A Butler, Joseph Lamplot, Hue H Luu, Cort D Lawton, David Manning
INTRODUCTION: We investigate the effectiveness of a comprehensive aseptic protocol in reducing surgical site infection (SSI) after hip arthroplasty in a single medical centre with a high prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). METHODS: A prospectively collected database of all patients undergoing hip arthroplasty in a single centre between 2005 and 2011 was reviewed for SSI using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) criteria and AAOS guidelines...
September 21, 2017: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966483/screening-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-healthcare-workers-and-students-and-its-susceptibility-to-mupirocin-in-a-tertiary-care-teaching-hospital-in-south-india
#5
Jutang Babat Ain Tiewsoh, Meena Dias
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus is the most common pathogen causing infection in hospitals. They also colonize the healthcare workers who serve as reservoir of infection. Emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a burning issue throughout the world contributing to significant morbidity and mortality. Use of mupirocin to eradicate the carrier state is the need of the hour. OBJECTIVES: To screen healthcare workers (HCWs) and medical students for MRSA and to know the susceptibility of mupirocin in this group...
October 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939607/multidrug-and-mupirocin-resistance-in-environmental-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-collected-from-the-homes-of-people-diagnosed-with-a-community-onset-co-mrsa-infection
#6
J H Shahbazian, P D Hahn, S Ludwig, J Ferguson, P Baron, A Christ, K Spicer, P Tolomeo, A M Torrie, W B Bilker, V C Cluzet, B Hu, K Julian, I Nachamkin, S C Rankin, D O Morris, E Lautenbach, M F Davis
Patients with community-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CO-MRSA) infections contribute to MRSA contamination of the home environment, and may be re-exposed to MRSA strains from this reservoir. This study evaluates One Health risk factors that focus on the relationship between humans, animals and the environment for increased prevalence of multiple antimicrobial resistant MRSA in the home environment. During a trial of patients with CO-MRSA infection, MRSA was isolated from the household environment at baseline and three months later, following randomization of patients and household members to mupirocin-based decolonization therapy or education control...
September 22, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938539/dissemination-of-macrolides-fusidic-acid-and-mupirocin-resistance-among-staphylococcus-aureus-clinical-isolates
#7
Xingmei Liu, Shanshan Deng, Jinwei Huang, Yaling Huang, Yu Zhang, Qin Yan, Yanhong Wang, Yanyue Li, Chengfu Sun, Xu Jia
As an increasingly common cause of skin infections worldwide, the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) across China has not been well documented. This literature aims to study the resistance profile to commonly used antibiotics, including macrolides, fusidic acid (FA) and mupirocin, and its relationship to the genetic typing in 34 S. aureus strains, including 6 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), isolated from a Chinese hospital. The MIC results showed 27 (79.4%), 1 (2.9%) and 6 (17...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917968/the-effect-of-fennel-essential-oil-in-combination-with-antibiotics-on-staphylococcus-aureus-strains-isolated-from-carriers
#8
Paweł Kwiatkowski, Magdalena Mnichowska-Polanowska, Agata Pruss, Helena Masiuk, Małgorzata Dzięcioł, Stefania Giedrys-Kalemba, Monika Sienkiewicz
An increase in the number of staphylococcal infections and carriers among medical staff has forced us to seek more and more effective antibacterial agents. Bacteria from the Staphylococcus genus possessing different mechanisms of resistance are the cause of nosocomial infections. The objective of our investigations was susceptibility of S. aureus strains isolated from nasal vestibule of medical students to fennel essential oil. The GC-MS analysis of fennel essential oil revealed eleven constituents among which a majority of trans-anethole (80%) was found...
November 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887466/hplc-based-quantification-of-bacterial-housekeeping-nucleotides-and-alarmone-messengers-ppgpp-and-pppgpp
#9
Vallo Varik, Sofia Raquel Alves Oliveira, Vasili Hauryliuk, Tanel Tenson
Here we describe an HPLC-based method to quantify bacterial housekeeping nucleotides and the signaling messengers ppGpp and pppGpp. We have replicated and tested several previously reported HPLC-based approaches and assembled a method that can process 50 samples in three days, thus making kinetically resolved experiments feasible. The method combines cell harvesting by rapid filtration, followed by acid extraction, freeze-drying with chromatographic separation. We use a combination of C18 IPRP-HPLC (GMP unresolved and co-migrating with IMP; GDP and GTP; AMP, ADP and ATP; CTP; UTP) and SAX-HPLC in isocratic mode (ppGpp and pppGpp) with UV detection...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865636/clinical-issues-september-2017
#10
Amber Wood
Performing Staphylococcus aureus decolonization for urgent procedures Key words: decolonization, Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, MSSA, mupirocin. Hand hygiene before donning gloves Key words: hand hygiene, glove, personal protective equipment. Hand hygiene before skin prep Key words: hand hygiene, skin prep, sterile task, aseptic task. Scrubbing by stroke versus timed method Key words: surgical hand rub, surgical scrub, stroke method, timed method.
September 2017: AORN Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852293/simplified-non-cultured-non-trypsinised-epidermal-cell-graft-technique-followed-by-psoralen-and-ultraviolet-a-light-therapy-for-stable-vitiligo
#11
Dilip Kachhawa, Pankaj Rao, Gyaneshwar Kalla
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Stable vitiligo can be treated by various surgical procedures. Non-cultured melanocyte grafting techniques were developed to overcome the time-consuming process of culture while at the same time providing acceptable results. All the techniques using non-cultured melanocyte transfer involve trypsinisation as an integral step. Jodhpur technique used by the author is autologous, non-cultured, non-trypsinised, epidermal cell grafting. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The study was conducted on patients visiting the dermatology outpatient department of a tertiary health centre in Western Rajasthan...
April 2017: Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843819/eradication-of-mrsa-throat-carriage-a-randomized-trial-comparing-topical-treatment-with-rifampicin-based-systemic-therapy
#12
Anna-Karin Lindgren, Anna C Nilsson, Per Åkesson, Eva Gustafsson, Eva Melander
OBJECTIVES: Eradication of MRSA colonization may prevent transmission of strains between patients and reduces the risk of clinical infection. Colonization of the throat is associated with prolonged carriage and is more difficult to eradicate. METHODS: An open randomized study was conducted to evaluate two eradication protocols. Patients with pharyngeal carriage of MRSA were enrolled at six Swedish centers during four years. One treatment group received oral rifampicin and clindamycin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for seven days, in combination with nasal mupirocin...
August 23, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830583/a-simple-way-to-eradicate-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-cynomolgus-macaques-macaca-fascicularis
#13
Tae M Kim, Hyojun Park, Kyo W Lee, Eun W Choi, Sang H Moon, Yong S Lee, Kahee Cho, Wan J Park, Jae B Park, Sung J Kim
Our investigation of indoor-housed cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) by using automated identification followed by antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed 1 of 7 immunocompetent animals and 2 of 9 immunosuppressed monkeys as carriers of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Follow-up management involving mupirocin treatment resulted in the conversion of the 3 MRSA carriers into MRSA-negative cases. Prospective assessment of newly imported monkeys involving 24-h culture of nasal swabs on chromogenic agar revealed that 22% (18 of 82 animals) were MRSA-positive...
August 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830510/prevalence-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-carriage-on-admission-among-patients-attending-regional-hospitals-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#14
Agricola Joachim, Sabrina J Moyo, Lillian Nkinda, Mtebe Majigo, Elia Mmbaga, Naboth Mbembati, Said Aboud, Eligius F Lyamuya
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major pathogen responsible for hospital and community acquired infection. Colonization with MRSA is associated with a high risk of developing infection. This study aimed to determine the rate of MRSA carriage on admission and the associated risk factors among patients attending regional hospitals, in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. RESULTS: A total of 258 patients were included in this study. Nasal swabs were collected on admission to the hospital and after 48 h of hospital stay for detection of MRSA...
August 22, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827421/prevalence-of-slow-growth-vancomycin-non-susceptibility-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#15
Yuki Katayama, Takuya Azechi, Motoyasu Miyazaki, Tohru Takata, Miwa Sekine, Hidehito Matsui, Hideaki Hanaki, Koji Yahara, Hiroshi Sasano, Kota Asakura, Tomoiku Takaku, Tomonori Ochiai, Norio Komatsu, Henry F Chambers
We have previsously reported a novel phenotype of vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) strains, "slow-VISA," in which colonies appear only after 72 h of incubation. Slow-VISA strains can be difficult to detect because prolonged incubation is required and the phenotype is unstable. To develop a method for detection of slow-VISA isolates, we studied 23 slow-VISA isolates derived from heteroVISA clinical strain Mu3. We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in genes involved in various pathways such as purine/pyrimidine synthesis, cell metabolism, and cell-wall peptidoglycan synthesis, which have been implicated in the stringent response...
August 21, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823093/candida-albicans-staphylococcus-aureus-dual-species-biofilm-as-a-target-for-the-combination-of-essential-oils-and-fluconazole-or-mupirocin
#16
Aleksandra Budzyńska, Sylwia Różalska, Beata Sadowska, Barbara Różalska
The effectiveness of essential oils (EOs), fluconazole (FLU) and mupirocin (MUP) used alone or in combination against mono-species and mixed Candida albicans/Staphylococcus aureus biofilms was examined. An experimentally established dual-species biofilm model, verified by fluorescence microscopy and viable cell counting, was used. Selected commercial EOs were tested: geranium, citronella and clove oils, which have been chemically characterized and found to differ in the content of the main components (qualitative and quantitative)...
August 19, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815023/antibiotic-resistance-ability-to-form-biofilm-and-susceptibility-to-copper-alloys-of-selected-staphylococcal-strains-isolated-from-touch-surfaces-in-polish-hospital-wards
#17
Anna Różańska, Agnieszka Chmielarczyk, Dorota Romaniszyn, Małgorzata Bulanda, Monika Walkowicz, Piotr Osuch, Tadeusz Knych
BACKGROUND: Despite the employment of sanitary regimes, contact transmission of the aetiological agents of hospital infections is still exceedingly common. The issue of microbe transmission becomes particularly important when facing multidrug-resistant microorganisms such as methicillin-resistant staphylococci. In the case of deficiencies in cleaning and disinfection procedures, hospital equipment made of copper alloys can play an important role, complementing traditional hospital hygiene procedures...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810997/cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-a-saudi-arabian-soldier-stationed-in-the-united-states
#18
Kelly Laurent, Jason Susong, Eric Fillman, Simon Ritchie
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a common parasitic disease seen in many parts of the world, especially in areas where current U.S. and international forces are deployed. Approximately 350 million people are thought to be at risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) with an annual incidence of 1.5 million cases. Over 90% of cutaneous infections with Leishmania occur in the Middle East, Brazil, and Peru. Outbreaks of CL may occur in military personnel deployed to endemic areas. Since the incubation period for symptomatic CL ranges from weeks to months, symptoms may not appear until well after returning to the United States...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802058/postantibiotic-effect-and-postantibiotic-sub-mic-effect-of-ltx-109-and-mupirocin-on-staphylococcus-aureus-blood-isolates
#19
L D Saravolatz, J Pawlak, H Martin, S Saravolatz, L Johnson, H Wold, M Husbyn, W M Olsen
The development of new synthetic antimicrobial peptides like LTX-109 provides a new class of drugs for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections. We evaluated LTX-109 and mupirocin for pharmacodynamic parameters against 10 methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates. The postantibiotic effect (PAE) is defined as the length of time that bacterial growth is suppressed following a brief exposure to an antibiotic. We also determined the sub-MIC effect (SME) which measures the direct effect of subinhibitory levels on strains that have not previously been exposed to antibiotics...
August 12, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799881/prevalence-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-qaca-b-positive-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-in-a-surgical-intensive-care-unit
#20
Oh-Hyun Cho, Ki-Ho Park, Ji Young Song, Jeong Min Hong, Taeeun Kim, Sun In Hong, Sunjoo Kim, In-Gyu Bae
The increasing use of chlorhexidine for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) decolonization has raised concerns about the emergence of resistance to or tolerance of this antiseptic. We examined the frequency and characteristics of qacA/B chlorhexidine tolerance genes among MRSA isolates in a surgical intensive care unit (ICU) where MRSA-colonized patients are decolonized by chlorhexidine bathing. The MRSA isolates were evaluated for chlorhexidine susceptibility, mupirocin resistance, molecular typing, agr functionality, and the heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S...
August 11, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
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