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Paloma Horejs Bittencourt, Carlos Sidney Silva Pimentel, Bianca Sampaio Bonfim, Paulo José Marostica, Edna Lúcia Souza
In Brazil the knowledge about methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in cystic fibrosis patients is scarce. This study aimed to determine the incidence of respiratory tract colonization and the identification rates after a standardized treatment. A retrospective cohort was performed highlighting the history of respiratory colonizations between January 2008 and June 2015. Patients under the age of 21 years with cystic fibrosis confirmed by sweat test or genetic study receiving care at the outpatient clinics of a Teaching Hospital were included...
October 15, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
C A Burnham, Patrick G Hogan, Meghan A Wallace, Elena Deych, William Shannon, David K Warren, Stephanie A Fritz
Topical antimicrobials are often employed for decolonization and infection prevention and may alter the endogenous microbiota of the skin. The objective of this study was to compare the microbial community, richness, and diversity in community-dwelling subjects and intensive care unit (ICU) patients before and after the use of topical decolonization protocols. We enrolled 15 adults at risk for Staphylococcus aureus infection. Community subjects (n=8) underwent a 5-day decolonization protocol (twice daily intranasal mupirocin and daily dilute bleach water baths) and ICU patients (n=7) received daily chlorhexidine baths...
September 26, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Malini Shanmuganathan, Bak Leong Goh, Christopher Lim, Zakaria NorFadhlina, Ibrahim Fairol
Patients with peritonitis present with abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, and turbid peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluid. Shewanella algae peritonitis has not yet been reported in PD patients in the literature. We present the first 2 cases of Shewanella algae peritonitis in PD patients. Mupirocin cream is applied on the exit site as prophylactic antibiotic therapy.
September 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Samar S Boswihi, Edet E Udo, Noura Al-Sweih
BACKGROUND: As the epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is constantly changing globally, determining the prevailing MRSA clones in a local healthcare facility is important for better management of infections. This study investigated clonal composition and distribution of MRSA isolates in Kuwait's hospitals using a combination of molecular typing methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 400 non-repeat MRSA isolates were obtained between 1992 and 2010 in 13 public hospitals and were characterized using antibiogram, SCCmec typing, spa typing, and multilocus-sequence typing...
2016: PloS One
A Senok, R Ehricht, S Monecke, R Al-Saedan, A Somily
Changes in the molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) continue to be reported. This study was carried out to characterize MRSA isolates in Saudi Arabia. MRSA isolates causing nosocomial infections (n = 117) obtained from 2009-2015 at a tertiary-care facility in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were studied. Molecular characterization of isolates was carried out using the StaphyType DNA microarray (Alere Technologies, Jena, Germany). Fourteen clonal complexes (CC) were identified, with the most common being CC80 (n = 35), CC6 (n = 15), CC5 (n = 13) and CC22 (n = 12)...
November 2016: New Microbes and New Infections
Bryce David Beutler, Philip R Cohen
BACKGROUND: Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia -- also known as Masson tumor -- is a rare, benign vascular condition that manifests on the skin as a firm, blue-black colored nodule or papule. Lesions range in size from 0.25 to 5 centimeters in diameter and may be tender or painless. In some individuals, nodules appear red colored, mimicking hemangioma or pyogenic granuloma. Histologically, intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia is characterized by the presence of an organizing thrombus in the vascular lumen with accompanying hyperplastic endothelial cell proliferation...
2016: Dermatology Online Journal
Daren J Simkin, Anna L Grossberg, Bernard A Cohen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Bullous impetigo (BI) is a common dermatologic condition, particularly in children, yet confusion regarding its diagnosis and treatment persists. This study measured pediatricians' ability to diagnose and appropriately treat BI and explored factors that might influence pediatricians' accuracy in managing BI. METHODS: We administered an expert-validated survey to 64 pediatrics house staff and faculty at three Johns Hopkins Medicine facilities...
September 7, 2016: Pediatric Dermatology
Aketza Varona-Barquín, Juan José Iglesias-Losada, Guillermo Ezpeleta, Elena Eraso, Guillermo Quindós
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: During a community methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal colonization study, an MRSA strain with vancomycin hetero-resistance (h-VISA) was isolated from a five year-old girl with tetralogy of Fallot without previous exposure to vancomycin. An extended nasal colonization study was performed on all her close relatives. RESULTS: Only the patient and her sister were colonized by an h-VISA MRSA strain (clone USA 700, ST72, t148, agr 1 and SCCmec IVa)...
August 30, 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Mary K Hayden, Karen Lolans, Katherine Haffenreffer, Taliser R Avery, Ken Kleinman, Haiying Li, Rebecca E Kaganov, Julie Lankiewicz, Julia Moody, Edward Septimus, Robert A Weinstein, Jason Hickok, John Jernigan, Jonathan B Perlin, Richard Platt, Susan S Huang
Whether targeted or universal decolonization strategies for control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) select for resistance to decolonizing agents is unresolved. The REDUCE MRSA trial provided an opportunity to investigate this question. REDUCE-MRSA was a 3-arm, cluster-randomized trial of screening and isolation without decolonization, targeted decolonization with chlorhexidine and mupirocin, or universal decolonization without screening to prevent MRSA infection in intensive care unit patients...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
M McCullough, M Burg, E Lin, D Peng, W Garner
INTRODUCTION: The diffuse epidermal exfoliation seen in Steven Johnson Syndrome (SJS) and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) is similar to skin loss in second degree burns, and many of these patients are referred for treatment at burn centers. Treatment can differ markedly from center to center, and mortality can range from 25% to 70%, including a considerable morbidity. However, our experience over a 15-year period from 2000 to 2015 with 40 patients found a mortality rate of only 10% (4/40)...
August 20, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Dirk G Struijk
BACKGROUND: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) for the treatment of end-stage renal failure was introduced in the 1960s. Nowadays it has evolved to an established therapy that is complementary to hemodialysis (HD), representing 11% of all patients treated worldwide with dialysis. Despite good clinical outcomes and similar results in patient survival between PD and HD, the penetration of PD is decreasing in the Western world. SUMMARY: First the major events in the history of the development of PD are described...
December 2015: Kidney Diseases
Tennison L Malcolm, Le Don Robinson, Alison K Klika, Deepak Ramanathan, Carlos A Higuera, Trevor G Murray
Protocols for the screening and decolonization of Staphylococcus aureus prior to total joint arthroplasty (TJA) have become widely adopted. The goals of this study were to determine: (1) whether implementation of a screening protocol followed by decolonization with mupirocin/vancomycin and chlorhexidine reduces the risk of revision compared with no screening protocol (i.e., chlorhexidine alone) and (2) whether clinical criteria could reliably predict colonization with MSSA and/or MRSA. Electronic medical records of primary patients undergoing TJA that were screened (n = 3,927) and were not screened (n = 1,751) for Staphylococcus aureus at least 4 days prior to surgery, respectively, were retrospectively reviewed...
2016: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Cibele Grothe, Mônica Taminato, Angélica Belasco, Ricardo Sesso, Dulce Barbosa
BACKGROUND: This study was performed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of alternative strategies for the prevention and treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing peritoneal dialysis and colonized by Staphylococcus aureus. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. The literature search involved the following databases: the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Embase, LILACS, CINAHL, SciELO, and PubMed/Medline. The descriptors were "Staphylococcus aureus," "MRSA," "MSSA," "treatment," "decolonization," "nasal carrier," "colonization," "chronic kidney disease," "dialysis," and "peritoneal dialysis...
2016: BMC Nephrology
J R Wipf, V Perreten
Twenty-two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from various infected locations in domestic cats and dogs between June 2008 and September 2014 were analyzed for their genotype, genetic fingerprint, virulence and antibiotic resistance profile. Eighteen strains belonged to the clonal complex (CC) 22 [ST22(MLST)-A(PFGE)-t032(spa)-IV(SCCmec) and ST22-A-t1214-IV], 2 strains to the livestock associated MRSA ST398-t011-IV and two were individual strains of ST5-t002-II and ST1-t001-IV...
June 2016: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
Pak-Leung Ho, Melissa Chun-Jiao Liu, Kin-Hung Chow, Cindy Wing-Sze Tse, Wai-U Lo, Siu-Ka Mak, Wai-Kei Lo
Of 137 Staphylococcus lugdunensis isolates collected from two nephrology centers in Hong Kong, 10 (7.3%) and 3 (2.2%) isolates had high-level and low-level mupirocin resistance, respectively. Isolates with high-level resistance contained the plasmid-mediated ileS2 gene, while isolates with low-level resistance contained the mutation V588F within the chromosomal ileS gene. All but one of the ileS2-positive isolates belong to the predominating clone HKU1. Plasmids carrying the ileS2 gene were mosaic and also cocarry multiple other resistance determinants...
October 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Rujiao Zhang, Laping He, Ling Zhang, Cuiqin Li, Qiujin Zhu
Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases seriously harm human health, and Bifidobacterium is the most beneficial probiotic in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. This work aimed to screen cholesterol-lowering Bifidobacterium from Guizhou Xiang Pig and evaluate its tolerance to oxygen, acid, and bile. Twenty-seven aerotolerant strains with similar colony to Bifidobacterium were isolated through incubation at 37℃ in 20% (v/v) CO2-80% (v/v) atmospheric air by using Mupirocin lithium modified MRS agar medium, modified PTYG with added CaCO3, and modified PTYG supplemented with X-gal...
2016: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
Lance R Peterson, Susan Boehm, Jennifer L Beaumont, Parul A Patel, Donna M Schora, Kari E Peterson, Deborah Burdsall, Carolyn Hines, Maureen Fausone, Ari Robicsek, Becky A Smith
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is a challenge in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). The objective of this study was to demonstrate that a novel, minimally invasive program not interfering with activities of daily living or socialization could lower methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) disease. METHODS: This was a prospective, cluster-randomized, nonblinded trial initiated at 3 LTCFs. During year 1, units were stratified by type of care and randomized to intervention or control...
August 1, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Koen M Verstappen, Pawel Tulinski, Birgitta Duim, Ad C Fluit, Jennifer Carney, Arie van Nes, Jaap A Wagenaar
UNLABELLED: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important colonizer in animals and an opportunistic pathogen in humans. In humans, MRSA can cause infections that might be difficult to treat because of antimicrobial resistance. The use of bacteriophages has been suggested as a potential approach for the control of MRSA colonization to minimize the-often occupational-exposure of humans. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of bacteriophage treatment on porcine nasal colonization with MRSA in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo...
2016: PloS One
Inneke Marie van der Heijden, Larissa Marques de Oliveira, Glauber Costa Brito, Edson Abdala, Maristela Pinheiro Freire, Flavia Rossi, Luiz Augusto Carneiro D'Albuquerque, Anna Sara Shafferman Levin, Silvia Figueiredo Costa
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) screening plays a great role in preventing infections in surgical patients. This study aims to evaluate clonality, virulence and resistance of MRSA in pre and post-liver transplantation (LT) patients. Nasal and groin swabs of 190 patients were collected. PCR for virulence genes and SCCmec types, microarray, Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST), Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) were performed. MRSA carriers were detected in 20...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Valerie C Cluzet, Jeffrey S Gerber, Joshua P Metlay, Irving Nachamkin, Theoklis E Zaoutis, Meghan F Davis, Kathleen G Julian, Darren R Linkin, Susan E Coffin, David J Margolis, Judd E Hollander, Warren B Bilker, Xiaoyan Han, Rakesh D Mistry, Laurence J Gavin, Pam Tolomeo, Jacqueleen A Wise, Mary K Wheeler, Baofeng Hu, Neil O Fishman, David Royer, Ebbing Lautenbach
OBJECTIVE To determine the impact of total household decolonization with intranasal mupirocin and chlorhexidine gluconate body wash on recurrent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection among subjects with MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection. DESIGN Three-arm nonmasked randomized controlled trial. SETTING Five academic medical centers in Southeastern Pennsylvania. PARTICIPANTS Adults and children presenting to ambulatory care settings with community-onset MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection (ie, index cases) and their household members...
October 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
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